Anthropology

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An overview of major world civilization

A civilization determines the development into the urban areas of complex societies. These societies have their own forms and communication pattern that has been changed significantly. There were so many civilizations in the entire world that has a high level of relevancy to the history of human development and various social as well as cultural differences. Civilization         has its huge level of relevance with the cultural aspects and most importantly the living style ideologies and social affairs. The different civilizations have different kind of impact at the society. The major civilizations could be segregated into Mayan, Egyptian, Chinese, Greek, Mesopotamian and Roman, Indus civilization. While discussing about the major world civilization the Egyptian civilization could never be neglected. In ancient times, it was located near the Nile River and considered as north eastern Africa.  It was actually comes into existence around 3150 BC and stayed into the power until it merged into the Roman dynasty in 30 BC. Libyans, Babylonians, and Nubians were the ones who have affected the Egyptian Dynasty and weaken down its strong historical structure. The main identity of Egyptian civilization is the Giza Pyramids, which were constructed during the old kingdom. It is very interesting to understand that Egyptian civilization was highly based on agriculture, but still they made pyramids that are matter argument or indicates towards their scientific knowledge at that point of time. During the Egyptian civilization, the Pharaon was the one who handles the ministerial affairs and definitely have the power to manage the resources. The legal aspect of Egyptian civilization is based upon the no particular legal system as the justice was measured only on the concept what is right and what is wrong. Thus, the Egyptian civilization has a strong influence on historical aspects and handles bringing the cultural concreteness in the entire world.

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 Ahead the Mesopotamian civilization is also considered as highly significant into the cradle of civilization. It also has huge influence at the modern world civilization and societal aspects. Its areas were considered to be modern age Iraq or Syria. In Mesopotamian civilization the influence of Sumerian written language could be experienced at very large scale. But the empire or colonial period changes the language as well as changes the cultural and social values. The major contribution of this civilization could be noticed into the field of mathematics and astronomy. It has been evidenced that the Mesopotamian society people used the sexagesimal number system. It is based upon 60 as a base number for the calculations. Thus the calculation of time like 60 seconds in one minute and so on is the discovery of this particular civilization. The Babylonians have a huge impact at the cultural aspects of Mesopotamian civilization. The astronomy, medical field, etc. everything was highly influenced by the Babylonians. With respect to religion and philosophy, the Mesopotamians were the first civilized society who focus on the questions like who are we? How are we here? Thus, this civilization is also crucial with the perspective of understanding the history. The Society of Mesoamericans is generally known as Maya civilization. The term Mesoamerica is actually a combination of Mexico and America. It is interesting fact that the Maya people have established this society. It is to acknowledge that this society is one of the most advanced civilizations among another cradle of civilization. The most significant contribution of this civilization is that they provide the most accurate calendar witch exact 365 days. The numerical were used by bar dot system that is the basis of frequency counting in statistics. It was huge contribution of Mayan people. Further, they did a remarkable job in the field of astronomy like the planetary positions were actually discovered by Mayan astronomy. They calculated the planetary position in advance for the 1000 years. The symbolic work, the writing and most importantly the impressive architecture is the contribution of Maya society. Cosmology is another area of concern that improved because of Mayan society. The most interesting element about the Mayan society is they invaded very mysteriously. The exact reason about their invasion is still unclear among the people. There are various myths about the Mayan society, but it is clear that they have huge impact at the current perspective of living.

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The Greek civilization was another very interesting civilization that provided the historical information that is useful with a view of understanding the development of human society. It was majorly popular because of its contribution in philosophy, art, and technology. Aristotle, Plato, and Socrates were the pillars of Greek civilization. The Greece people were actually highly intelligent and intellectual in terms of explaining the scientific concepts. They showed their reverence and respect to goddess Athena. The evidence about the existence of Greek civilization could be experienced 2500 years ago. It is actually a basis of western civilization or laid down the foundation for the modern life style. The political democracy is the contribution of Greece, and they started Olympic Games as well. The ancient Greece was actually highly prosperous with respect to agriculture. The modern day art like drama, poetry, lyric, etc. come into existence after the Greek civilization only. The scientific and mathematical inventions include Pythagoras Euclid and Archimedes principles which are the basis of modern mathematician practices. The Parthenon built over 2500 years ago indicates towards the infrastructural advancement of Greece. It was made after Greek emperors invade the Persians in war. Overall it is clear that without a discussion about the Greek civilization it is impossible to focus on the history of world civilization.

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Historically most powerful, developed and interesting civilization is the Roman civilization currently known as Italy. The study of history is incomplete without gaining the knowledge about the important aspects of Roman civilization. Most of the aspects of Roman civilization are highly affected by the Greek civilization. Their philosophies, cultural values, etc. were completely influenced by Greek people. The 8TH century BC was the existence or birth period for the Roman civilization. The contribution of Roman civilization is highly related to the construction of well-organized colonies, and the city were based on proper map construction basis. The structured roads, adequate sanitation system it depicted the royalty of Roman Empire.  The first Roman emperor was the Augustus who changed the dimensions for the Roman civilization. The language development and changes were completely based on Roma civilization. They actually followed the Latin language which includes the word order, attaching affixes to make meaningful word system. Thus, the Latin language becomes the basis of alphabets and giving the meaning to current words. Further, the Coliseum of Rome indicated towards the historical saga of Roman Empire and strong infrastructural facilities. Therefore likewise other major civilizations the Roman civilization had also contributed to the growth of modern society.

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The most prominent civilization in the Asian region is the Chinese civilization. The civilization of China is one of alive civilizations among all another cradle of civilization. It is evidenced, very little, that Chinese civilization comes into existence around 7000 or 8000 years ago. It is clear that the impact of foreign influences was very less on the Chinese civilizations. They remained independent always and seem apart from the rest of the world. The dynasties of Chinese civilization could be categorized into three categories Xia dynasty, Shang dynasty, and Qin dynasty. It is to acknowledge that these three dynasties differently had their impact at the Chinese culture and social status at very large scale. They were actually surrounded by the oceans and Gobi desert and mountains that made them invisible as well as inaccessible form rest of the world. The language was also remaining Chinese, and they invented tea along with paper and compass that is considered to be the most significant contribution of China to the modern world. The most interesting fact about Chinese civilization is that they have a high level of Nationalism since its inception, and this feeling is continued till the modern age.

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At last the cradle of civilization includes the Indus valley civilization that is another significant civilization or mankind society within the Asian region. It is a Bronze Age civilization and has its existence near to 3300- 1300 BCE. It covers the area of Indian sub continent, currently Pakistan and small regions of North east Afghanistan and Mesopotamian and Ancient Egypt. It took its birth near the Indus River currently known as Saraswati River. It is also known as Harappa society along with Mohenjo-Daro civilization. They have their relationship with the Dravidian family or some other didn’t give importance to this fact. The reason behind the invasion of Indus valley civilization is still unknown and under different facts and rumors. Thus, it is a description about the Indus Valley civilization that is still untapped, and recently lots of evidence and facts have been getting known to researchers and archeologists. Hence, it is a complete description about the world history of major civilizations. It has covered the cradle of civilizations and gave preference to those civilizations that have influenced the development and growth of modern age at very large scale. 

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