Driving Performance and Retention through Employee Engagement: A Case on Muntajat
In the present competitive business environment companies understand the importance of its human capital, as this resource is very crucial for their success. However, most of the organizations across the globe are facing the problem of labour crunch, thus it is crucial for them to develop an effective employee orientation experience. The term employee orientation is used to describe a view of employees as partner to the company who put their efforts to achieve the aim and goals to the company to make it successful at the marketplace. The main reason behind treating the employees as most important assets to the organization is that if the company wants that its employees provide maximum satisfaction to its customers and to perform great job for them, then it is essential for the firm to perform great job the employees also.
Effectiveness of orientation programs does not rely on its duration; even a one day long orientation program is helpful in retaining and enhancing the productivity of the employees. Organizations which have better on-boarding activities can better align their human capital to achieve its aim and goals and to reduce turnover rates. The first step of human resource management is recruitment and selection, but without proper maintenance and development in the company, this exercise also becomes fruitless. Thus, for achieving this, the first step is to devise an induction or orientation program. This function is mutually beneficial for both employees and the employers. It is an interactive process in which company highlights its processes, functions, requirements, vision and mission. Through this section new employee can become familiar with the organization and can feel that it is his or her organization. Orientation programs make them aware about their roles, company’s goals and how employees can contribute to achieve them.
The present work focuses on importance of orientation or on-boarding program for the new employees. To make the work more specific, the study has pin pointed on Muntajat and its orientation program. The main aim of this work was to evaluate how orientation programs contribute to performance, productivity, turnover and branding of a company with a specific focus on Muntajat. It was based on positivism philosophy with explorative research design. The work was inductive in nature and researcher has made use of both qualitative and quantitative analysis. From the work it has been found that 92.68% of the employees feel that they have a clearer understanding of Muntajat’s Vision and Mission. 5% of the employees feel that they need more clarity on the organizational strategy and organizational culture. 82.93% of the employees feel that they have a clearer understanding of the overall process flow and functionality of the organization. 71.95% of the employees feel that the program has clear objectives and is relevant and useful for their job. 21.95% feel that some information is unnecessary or some information is missing. 97.56% of the employees feel positive about the organization’s branding, and feel the program increases their motivation to work for Muntajat. 90.24 % feel that they are in a safe and secure environment. 90.24% feel the program increases their job satisfaction and that the program is excellent.
Chapter 1 – Introduction
In the present business scenario, the most buzzword in the field of human capital is “On-boarding”. On-boarding can be defined as support process developed by the companies for its new employees which is offered to them at the time of their recruitment as during initial period they need to manage variety of tasks and requirements. At the pre hiring stage, new employees get lot of attention, but once they are onboard, the attention is abandoned. This results in a negative impression in the mind of new employees regarding their new work environment (Kammeyer-Mueller and Wanberg, 2003). It is essential for the corporate houses to focus on developing a comprehensive process of on-boarding as it helps them in improving retention rate and time to productivity.
Majority of the companies follow standardized processes for recruitment and hiring and around 90 per cent of the companies develop some type of employee orientation program (Wright, 2012). The main purpose of the initial orientation program is to help new employees get started, but it is the only a part of an on-boarding program. It has been found in many past researches that by formulating an appropriate induction program, firms can effectively guide their new employees through their initial period of employment (Jones and Gates, 2007). It significantly helps them in quicker acculturation and simultaneously increases time to productivity.
Most of the times initial year of a new employees is difficult time for everyone involved. The first year of a new joinee is quite challenging as the employee needs to struggle and sometime it may lead to variety of problems for the employee such as work withdrawal, poor performance and lack of job satisfaction. These employee challenges are in turn challenges for the companies and employers as it generally leads to employee turnover. Rollag, Parise and Cross 2005 in their study found that in the volatile economy of the United States more than 25 per cent of the workers leave their company in the first year of their joining (Rollag, Parise and Cross 2005). Their study also found that more than 33 per cent of the employees remain loyal to their organization for less than two years. This shows that such numbers can have detrimental effects on a firm. The most unwanted expense for any corporation or a employee is employee turnover as it results in decline in employee production, poor company performance and the company may end up in breakdown of its effectiveness and efficiency (Rollag, Parise and Cross 2005).
The present work attempts to draw a relationship between business problems such as performance and retention and new employee in Muntajat, Qatar. Muntajat has got exclusive rights to distribute, sell and market Qatar’s chemical and petrochemical products to the global market. Presently the company is producing 10 million tonnes per annum of chemicals, polymers and fertilisers and is planning to enhance its capacity by 23 million tonnes by 2020. This means it is essential for the firm to retain its new and existing employees so that it can improve its performance (Muntajat, 2014). Company deals in complex operations thus it is essential for the firm to deliver effective on-boarding program to its new employees so they become familiar to its operations and work culture. It will result in enhance in performance and lower employee turnover.
The existing business environment is very dynamic and in such volatile situation most of the companies understand the importance of its human capital as this resource is very crucial for their success. Thus, investing in such activities greatly reduces employee turnover which is very essential for all the businesses. Employee development is very essential for the companies to achieve as it guarantees competitive advantage. If the employees are supported well by the management, there are higher chances that they will remain loyal to the company and will stick to it for longer time period. Till date most of the organizations neglects orientation of the employees to their job and workplace (Bauer and et. al. 2007). A new employee cannot gain sufficient information just through an employee’s handbook and piles of papers. Most of the employees complain that their orientation program was quite boring and most of the times it results in employment of that candidate which is confused about his or her role in the organization and is generally not productive for the firm.
Most of the organizations across the globe are facing the problem of labour crunch, thus it is crucial for them to develop an effective employee orientation experience. Companies must take utmost care in developing and planning new hire programs so that it can deliver value, history and who is who in the firm to them. Effectiveness of orientation programs does not rely on its duration; even a one day long orientation program is helpful in retaining and enhancing the productivity of the employees (Yessin, 2004). Organizations which have better on-boarding activities can better align their human capital to achieve its aim and goals and to reduce turnover rates. The first step of human resource management is recruitment and selection, but without proper maintenance and development in the company, this exercise also becomes fruitless. Thus, for achieving this, the first step is to devise an induction or orientation program. This function is mutually beneficial for both employees and the employers. It is an interactive process in which company highlights its processes, functions, requirements, vision and mission. Through this section new employee can become familiar with the organization and can feel that it is his or her organization. Orientation programs make them aware about their roles, company’s goals and how employees can contribute to achieve them. It is a continuing process thus management have ample of time to make employee acquaint with the organization’s culture, practices and policies (Tung Ling Hsiung, 2003). Every organization wants to find and retain its talented pool of employees, thus in this regards orientation program can be a good options within the hands of the management.
1.3: Structure of the report
The present study is conducted in an orderly manner and a systematic process was adopted in order to attain the aim and objectives and to find out the answers of the research questions. All the sections of the work are interrelated with each other, that is, it is not possible for the researcher to skip any of the chapter and to move to the next chapter. The researcher has adopted the following mentioned structure for the present work:
Chapter 1 – Introduction: The report starts with an introduction chapter which throws light on the subject under study. In addition to this, this chapter provides a terse abridgment of the aims and objectives of the work. This chapter also discusses focus and purposes of the study and details why this researcher is significant for the real world.
Chapter 2 – Literature Review: The next chapter of the work is review of literature. In this section, the researcher looks at various articles and studies performed by previous researchers on the topics similar to the present work. It is not necessary that the present work exactly aligns with the past studies, but literature review significantly helps the researcher in gather appropriate inform about the subject. Further, this chapter provides deep insight about the topic and researcher gains ample of knowledge through this portion. The literature review section of the present work focuses on importance of on-boarding in companies. The chapter provides detail study about the impact of poor induction program on performance and retention of employees. It throws light on its repercussions on performance of the company and higher turnover rate.
Chapter 3 – Research Methodology: This chapter is considered to be the heart of any researcher work as it details various tools and techniques which a researcher can adopt in order to effectively collect, evaluate and interpret the information and data in order to reach to some authentic and valid findings and conclusion. It outlines aim and objectives of the work and in addition to this provide overview about the data collection methods used by the researcher for accumulating appropriate data. Further, it also throws light on researcher philosophy, research design, researcher type and limitations experienced by the researcher in conducting the entire research. It also highlights all the ethical issues which the researcher followed during the study.
Chapter 4 – Data Analysis and Findings: The fourth chapter of the research work is data analysis and findings and is of paramount importance. In this chapter, the researcher analyses all the data collected from different sources in order to extract some knowledge information from it. Later on, after analyzing the data, findings are made and from it valid inferences are generated.
Chapter 5 – Conclusion and Recommendations: This is the ultimate chapter of the research work and recapitulates main findings of the study. On the basis of the findings and the literature review conducted by the researcher, if required, certain recommendations are made by the researcher in context with the subject matter.
1.4: Focus and Purpose
The present work focuses on importance of orientation or on-boarding program for the new employees. Performance of the overall company depends on the quality and knowledge of its human capital. If the human resource of the company is not well acquaintance with its working environment and its culture, there are higher chances that it will lead to deterioration of company’s performance and higher turnover. Due to poor on-boarding, many of the employees do not able to understand their role and responsibilities in the organization and ends up with resigning from their services. To make the work more specific, the study will pin point on Muntajat and its orientation program.
The main aim of this work is to evaluate how orientation programs contribute to performance, productivity, turnover and branding of a company with a specific focus on Muntajat.
In order to attain the above stated aim, it is essential for the researcher to focus on prime objectives of the work. Main objectives which the researcher has covered in this work are:
- To evaluate what methods or styles should be adopted so that on-boarding has a positive impact on the new employees
- To determine the extent to which on-boarding at Muntajat can help the company to develop and maintain staff for higher and improved performance
- To assess how an effective orientation at Muntajat can affect its labour turnover
While working on any subject and finding out the solution to any specific problem, the researcher get across several questions which the scholar needs to answer in order to successfully reach to a conclusion. The main researcher questions of this work are:
- To what degree does on-boarding program impact the newly recruited staff of Muntajat?
- What type of orientation program is developed by Muntajat for its staff to affect productivity and labour turnover?
The purpose of the work is to find out whether the orientation program of Muntajat is effective enough or not to enhance the performance of its newly recruited staff and decrease their turnover rate. Most of the company’s operations are complex and thus requires enormous training for the staff. Therefore, it is essential for the organization to develop proper training and development activities for its staff, especially for new employees. Thus, this work is related to the management of the Muntajat as they can understand how they can enhance the performance and lower the turnover by introducing effective and efficient induction programs to its newly recruited employees.
1.5: Framework Analysis
In order to reach to certain conclusion successfully, it is essential for the researcher to adopt a specific framework. This enables the scholar to attain the aim and objectives effortlessly and to answer all the research questions effectively. The following framework has been adopted in the present study:
Research’s Personal View: The present work is based on positivism philosophy as poor on-boarding have similar effects on different companies, and further, there are similar ways in which different companies can counter this.
Research Approach: The work is inductive in nature as the researcher will analyze importance of development of effective induction program on certain companies and then on the basis of that will develop theories.
Research Design: Since till date limited work has been conducted in this area, so there is limited information available on this. Thus, the present work is explorative in nature as the researcher is exploring a completely new field.
Research Type: The proposed research is qualitative in nature.
Data Collection: Both primary and secondary sources are used to collected primary and secondary data. Primary data is collected by interviewing managers of Human Resource department of Muntajat and its employees while secondary data is collected by referring various sources such as books, journals, internet, past studies, etc.
Sampling: The primary data is collected through a sample of 100 employees working in the Muntajat. Thus, probability, simple random sampling is applied.
Data Analysis: Since the research is qualitative in nature, qualitative data analysis is applied on the collected data. More specifically, thematic analysis has been employed.
1.6: Significance of the work
The present work has both theoretical as well as practical significance. In the present era it is essential for the companies to formulate proper induction program for its new employees to make them aware of the company’s culture and working style. Moreover, it is also essential to make them familiar with their roles and responsibilities. This work highlights the importance of developing an appropriate induction program for the new recruiters. It will examine the induction program of Muntajat and help the human resource manager in understanding whether the induction program is up-to date or not. If not, this work will help them in developing a suitable induction program which will result in higher productivity better performance and employee retention. In GCC companies such as Muntajat, employees from all over the world with different background are recruited and work as a team. Thus, it becomes very essential for the management to develop such an orientation program that makes people familiar with the gestures, words, body language and culture of the organization. Most of the previous researches on employee engagement mostly focus on the organizational culture and neglected the gestures, words and body language. This work will be an overall analysis of all the factors which demands an appropriate orientation program so that employees can easily overcome from the problem of cross culture barrier. Apart from this, this work has got lot of significance for those companies also which want to rectify of develop an appropriate on-boarding program for its new employees so that they can gel well with the companies. Moreover, this work is also important for the professors; teachers and students who want to make their career into related subjected. Finally, several other scholars who are conducting or want to conduct researcher on the similar topic can take this work as secondary source of information to gain significant knowledge on the area ‘relationship between employee performance retention and employee engagement. This work will act as take-off ground for them.
Chapter 2 – Literature Review
The most import thing for a newly recruited employee to be successful in the organization in his or her new job role is to develop good relationships at the new workplace and to understand new behaviours, expectations, procedures, facts and values of the firm. Every new employee has to undergo a process to adjust in the company and this process is known as organizational socialization. This is a very intricate process and depending on the characterises of the new employee, the new work may take one week to one month to under this process completely and to understand how the employee is expected to behave in the organization and what exactly the job demands from the employee to perform (DeSimone, Harris and Werner, 2002). There acceptance in the organization by the other members largely depends on these parameters.
2.2: Employee Orientation
In the views of most of the Human Resource managers, the term employee orientation is used to describe a view of employees as partner to the company who put their efforts to achieve the aim and goals to the company to make it successful at the marketplace. The main reason behind treating the employees as most important assets to the organization is that if the company wants that its employees provide maximum satisfaction to its customers and to perform great job for them, then it is essential for the firm to perform great job the employees also (DeSimone, Harris and Werner, 2002). It has been argues that if a company wants to build successful and long lasting relationship with its customers, in that case the internal suppliers of the company, that is, the management has to focus on meeting the needs of its employee who are the internal customers of the company. This in turn will assist them in accommodating its external customers.
According to Hauser et al. (1996), mutual trust, supportive relationships and egalitarian management style are prerequisite of any employee-oriented Organizational Culture. The employee loyalty, commitment and motivation in the organization are enhanced through these prerequisites (Hauser et al,. 1996). In the views of Hofstede et al. (1990), organizations are characterized through employee orientation. Thus, it is essential for the management to treat employees as partners of the company to service productivity and to value the needs and wants of human capital (Hofstede, G. et al. (1990).
Relationship marketing theory through the concept of ‘part-time marketer’ and ‘internal marketing’ supports employee orientation as an organizational value for mounting customer-conscious human resource. As per the germane literature, employee orientation can be visible in all the material and non material elements of the organizational culture. Such elements consist of behaviours, values, assumptions and artifacts. Among all the elements assumptions are the fundamental elements and are taken for granted beliefs in relation to human nature and reality (Sagiv and Schwartz, 2007). It is essential for the management to engage and challenge staff development programs as through this only it can maintain the interest and focus of the participants, that is, employees. Further, not only formal processes in the company, but informal processes can also promote high moral, collaboration and team work in the workers, but it does not mean that companies should ignore traditional formal processes. However, in the fast paced business environment they should not be the only mean to train the employees (Calori and Sarnin, 1991). Non-traditional employee development programs such as a summer search camp, team building activities and contests attached with incentives can significantly enhance employee engagement, interest and their participation in the organization.
Subject specialist in the companies can conduct an integrated continuing education program for the generalist for guiding them so that they can excel in their professional field. In addition to lectures and traditional tutorials employees must also attend academic laboratories or departments and must frequently communicate with the faculty so that they can better understand the needs and offerings (Butler, 2008). The two keys for successful training measures are practical experience and collaboration.
2.3: New Employee Orientation
Initial three months or so are the most crucial time period for the new employees in an organization. Companies spend lot of money on hiring and recruiting a talented pool of employees, and thus it costs lot of money to the company if they lose those people because they leave the company due to rocky start. Ragsdale and Mueller (2005) concluded there are several benefits of an employee orientation program. According to their study, formal orientation programs are very important for the companies as they help the management in motivating and retaining employee, lowers turnover rate, improves employee morale, increase productivity, facilitates learning and reduces anxiety level among the new employees (Ragsdale and Mueller, 2005). As per Hacker (2004) it is essential for the organization to focus on quality and standard of orientation program. According to Hacker (2004) substandard orientation program not only affect company’s present but also have its ill effects on company’s future recruitment efforts. In his study he found that there two main benefits of employee orientation programs are improvement in employee retention and higher employee satisfaction (Hacker, 2004).
Klein and Weaver (2000) in their study focused on appraising the impact of formal organizational-level orientation programs which according to them is a common tactic for socializing new hires. If the company designs components its orientation or induction program properly, it can ensure successful on-boarding program and will help in reducing employee turnover. While formulating their orientation program, companies must give full emphasis on employee retention rate (Klein and Weaver, 2000). Hacker (2004) performed a study on new employee orientation programs and concluded that an organization can increase their retention rate by twenty five per cent just by improving the standard and quality of its orientation program. Further, company must consider three things, that is, creating programs that allow information to be shared, their adult learners and providing opportunities for that information to be implemented in the organization while designing its orientation program.
It is essential to focus on designing an orientation program because it shapes the attitude of the employees about their responsibilities in the company and their actions within the organization (Friedman, 2006). Component of the orientation program and its first impression is very important in the progress of the success of a firm. The essence of any employment induction program not only lies in completing paperwork and providing group introduction rather it is much more than that. Ragsdale and Mueller (2005) state that induction program should be designed in such a way that it introduce the new employee to the culture, structure and standards of the hiring facility. It will help the new employee in understanding their roles and responsibilities in the organization as it gives a big picture break down. Apart from this, information regarding what is expected of them and what they expects in return should also be covered in an induction program (Fritz and Vonderfecht, 2007). However, creating an information overload is also not good for the organization as they may not be able to grab that at once.
2.4: Purpose of Orientation
The first and foremost important purpose of an orientation program is to make aware a new employee about his or her role and duties in the organization which will aid in the employee's commitment to the organization. McKersie (2003) in his work concluded that role clarity was directly related to commitment and withdrawal. Further McKersie (2003) also found that organization provides information such as the organizational structure, key projects in progress, the company's long- term goals and how the new employee's role contributes to the overall strategy for success" in its induction program (McKersie, 2003). It is not necessary for the organization to bombard a new employee with every little detail about the company. At the time of joining, new employees have many questions in their mind, and the earlier the management is able to answer all their questions, the quicker the employee can get on the board. Another important and useful element of orientation program is mentorship. Mentors must be assigned to all the newly joined employees so that they can reach to them for any advice and direction (Wanous and Reichers, 2000).
The content of the induction program is as important as its presentation. For all the aspects of the program, the company cannot rely only on lecture based format. For instance, lecture based format is not appropriate for enhancing critical thinking, encouraging individual participation and primary or predominate mode for inculcating values. Thus, in a nut shell it can be said that an orientation program can be made successful if it is interactive, comprehensive and thought provoking and creates an environment which incorporate organizational standards, culture and values (Wanous and Reichers, 2000).
2.5: Importance of Employee Orientation
Employee orientation is an important part of every organization and same is the case with Muntajat. Following are some of the major advantages to companies in designing an effective orientation program for its new employees.
- To Reduce Start-up Cost: Orientation program are very helpful in reducing the start-up cost for the organization. If Muntajat devise an effective induction program for its new employee, employees will get up to speed much more quickly in understanding the processes and their roles and thus it will reduce the cost associated with learning the job (Bird, 2005).
- To Reduce Anxiety: Whenever a new employee joins an organization, there are several questions in his or her mind as employee is going to enter into a new environment which is totally strange. Thus, it is obvious that he or she will experience anxiety. This anxiety may act as barrier to their learning’s to perform their job effectively. By developing a proper orientation program Muntajat can significantly reduce the anxiety levels of its new employees. Moreover, it will guide them how to behave and conduct their actions in the organization so they do not have to experience the stress of guessing (Barbazette, 2001).
- To Reduce Employee Turnover: If employees feel that they are not valued in the organization, they starts switching from one company to another and this increase employment turnover in the businesses. In addition to this, if they are appointed at inappropriate position, in that case also it becomes difficult for the firms to retain them. With the help of an orientation program Muntajat can reduce the rate of turnover as through this activity it can provide various tools to the employees for succeeding at the job (Ballard and Blessing, 2006).
- To Save Time of Supervisor and Co-Workers: If proper training is provided to the newly joined workers through some induction program, it saves lots of time of the supervisors and co workers as they do not have to spend time in teaching employees in the later months of their joining. Muntajat can also save time of its experienced people and thus can enhance the overall productivity of the company (Cooper and Anderson, 2002).
- To Develop Realistic Job Expectations, Positive Attitudes and Job Satisfaction: Apart from learning about the attitude and values of the organization, it is necessary that employees also learn what is expected from them and what all they can expect from others in an organization. Although experience is the greatest teacher and people learns from their mistakes, but they adds to the cost. Thus, Muntajat can eliminate this by properly conducting induction sessions for the new staff and thus can develop positive attitude and enhance job satisfaction (Davis, 2005).
2.6: The Concept of Employee Orientation Programs
Along with induction programs, companies have to conduct various training sessions time to time for its employees. This helps them in retaining their workers and lowers turnover rate. According to Paul and Anantharaman (2003), employee’s commitment towards the organization is directly proportional to their career development. It is the employee’s commitment only that affects his or her productivity levels and retention and the financial performance of the firm as a whole. Sugrue (2004) also believes in the importance of learning. According to Sugrue (2004), learning is a kind of vehicle which develops and maintains skills and knowledge in an individual. Thus, learning is the primary vehicle for the development and building human capital and reflects the value of learning (Mossman, 2005).
When an employee gets a chance to develop and grow in a firm, a feeling of attachment develops within the employee and he or she wants to remain loyal to the company and works with it for longer period of time, this helps the organization as the employee contributes significantly in towards the success of the organization. Lee and Bruvold (2003) believe that if the company conducts regular development programs for its employees, they feel motivated, committed and satisfied. Thus, it is vital for the organization to develop and maintain employee’s development as it keeps on enhancing the capabilities of both the parities, that is, that of employee and organization as a whole (Arthur, 2006). If any company invests in development of its employees, it is able to create a dynamic relationship between the two as employees have greater sense of commitment and satisfaction which ultimate leads to harder and sincere efforts towards organization. One of the key findings of Kamrneyer-Mueller and Wanberg (2003) was that task mastery was not related to commitment of the employee towards the organization, but was definitely related to the retention. Thus, from this it can be assumed that Kamrneyer-Mueller and Wanberg (2003) also support need of training to the employees so as to enhance their ability to perform their job in better manner (Morgan and Jardin, 2010). Thus, it is evident that retention is directly related to training programs. If the organization is committed towards the development of its employees, employees will have higher degree of commitment and satisfaction. The Society of Human Resource Management also supports this fact as in their survey they have found that if time to time professional development activities are offered to the employees, there are higher chances that they will stick with their company. Adarnson (2006) also noted similar results in his work. In his study he concluded that training and development activities certainly have their impact on the self esteem, loyalty and morale of the employees (O'Connell and Mei-Chuan, 2007). Thus, it can be assumed that making expenditure on the development activities for the workers is not an overhead for the organizations; rather it is a long term investment which will deliver long term benefits to them in terms of better returns. Lee and Bruvold (2003) concluded that employee feels valued when company invest on the development of its workers and thus training and development activities have clear implications. Moreover, if the employees feel valued, it will enhance their satisfaction and commitment towards the company and their desire for leaving the company decreases (Richard and et. al., 2009). Thus, those companies which provide development opportunities to its employees will enjoy success in terms of innovation, growth and productivity.
2.7: Organizational Socialization
In the view of Van Maanen and Schein (1979), organizational socialization is defined as a process in which an individual acquires step by step social knowledge and skills regarding the roles and responsibilities he or she needs to perform in the organization. In other words it can be said that it is a dynamic process which develops over a period of time and permits a new employee as a member of the organization by impart knowledge regarding values, norms and behaviours (Sims, 2002). Socialization tactics are of two types, namely individualized socialization and institutionalized socialization. Griffeth and Iom (200l) believes that both industrialized and individualized socialization has different emphasis. For instance, institutionalized tactics confirms pre-existing definition of job role to the newcomer, contrary to this, individualized tactics motivate new employee to redefine their job role and innovate. Further, loyalty and commitment within a newcomer are enhanced by institutionalized tactics as they help the individual to cope up with uncertainty and anxiety, whereas, individualized tactics encourages creativity as it encourage employee to challenge the status quo (Messmer, 2000). However, individualized tactics may not necessarily increase firm loyalty. Thus, it can be understood that job retention and organizational commitment can be strengthen within organization by practicing both socialization tactics.
2.8: Stages in Socialization Process
Majority of the socialization occurs during the early stages while entering in the organization. There are basically four stages of entry - recruitment, selection, orientation, and socialization; both individual and organization have different perspectives at these stages. In the process of socialization individual focuses on detecting one's success whereas organization tries to influence the new staff by practicing psychology of persuasion and various other tactics (Skarzauskiene, 2010). Till date various models have been developed for describing different stages of socialization process. After studying various models of socialization, Wanous (1992) came up with a four stage socialization model. Here are the four stages of the model:
- Confronting and accepting organizational reality
- Achieving role clarity
- Locating oneself in the organizational context
- Detecting signposts of successful socialization
The first stage of this model itself refers to socialization while the last stage shows transformation of new employee to insider. In the view of Furnham (2005) the rate of entering in a company of an individual is determined by the amount of interaction between a new employee and an existing employee (Snell, 2006).
2.9: Socialization Learning
Before they get accepted as organization insiders, new staff has to learn variety of behaviours and information. Thus, the content of socialization learning can be categorized in five categories:
- Preliminary Learning: In this the staffs understands the need of learning. Further, it tells about what to learn and from which source in the organization.
- Learning about the organization: It deals with learning of organizational values, goals and policies.
- Learning to function in work group: It tells about the learning related to roles, values, norms and relationship which an individual must learn in order to work within a group.
- Learning how to perform job: Every individual has different role in an organization thus, it is necessary for different individual to learn different skills and knowledge to perform their work properly (Ulrich and et. al., 2010).
- Personal learning: It deals with the learning through one’s own experience at the work.
New employees must not rely on the insiders and the management to provide them information about the company; instead they must also try to seek out information on their own, as seeking information impacts the outcomes of the socialization. While seeking various kind of information regarding the organization, different sources and tactics are used by the newly recruited staff (Yamamura, Birk and Cossitt, 2010). For this, organization must also assist them to examine and experience what works for them and does not. This will result in mitigating several kinds of risks and will enhance motivation levels of new employees. New joinee can be encouraged by the peers and the training supervisor in gathering information at the time of orientation program. At different stages of entry, tasks and requirements of both individual and organization are different from each other (Bird, 2005). According to Furnham, employee orientation greatly helps both the parties in the following ways:
- All the necessary information is provided at the early stage so that appropriate expectations are developed.
- In the initial days of joining, it provides reassurance and general support.
- Make new employee aware of what is appropriate by employing different models (Barbazette, 2001).
2.10: Benefits of Orientation Program
The article “New Employee Orientation Programs Make Cents” (2001), conclude that effectively administrated and thought out employee induction program results in improved work quality, increased productivity and lower attrition rate. This can be seen in a healthier bottom line and happier employees. Ohio State University conducted a study named as Builds Employee Commitment (2001) suggests that right employee orientation program is beneficial for both organization and the work (Ballard and Blessing, 2006). It also suggests that those employees who have been undergone an orientation program of three to four hours, show greater commitment level towards the organization in comparison to those who skips it (DeSimone, Harris and Werner, 2002). Through a fully planned orientation production any company can save lot on its cost as the program ultimately results in lower turnover rate. Such programs not only help firms in reducing turnover of temporary and permanent worker, but it also prepares new employs for the work quickly. This will ultimately improve the relation between company and the customers and the firm is able to deliver better customer service with higher productivity. In addition to this, some of the other benefits of orientation programs are reduced penalties, improved safety, improved communication and affirmation of having joined the right organization (Ballard and Blessing, 2006). The video How to Develop and Implement a New Employee Orientation Program (1999) lists seven benefits to a company of having a employee orientation program, these are as follows:
- The first advantage of this program is that it introduces the employee with the organization and explains the employees about their roles and responsibilities (Griffeth and Hom, 2001). It is essential for the new employee to understand the mission, function and strategies of the company; otherwise it will be hard for them to survive.
- Such program helps employees in establishing healthier personal relations and connections at the workplace.
- It reduces anxiety among the employees and helps them in adapting faster to the new environment and makes them conformable with new position and duties.
- It smoothens the way of completing all necessary paperwork. During the entire recruitment process the participants need to fill various forms. Thus, through proper orientation program human resource manager can guide them and can manage the paper flow (Cooper and Anderson, 2002).
- It provides a platform for an interactive exchange of information.
- It enhances employee involvement and improves communication among the workers. Further it also encourages new recruiters to ask lots of questions.
- It’s like a first day class for the students which help in creating informal buddy system. It makes employee comfortable at the workplace so that they can share their ideas and experiences effectively (Davis, 2005).
Understanding the culture of the organization is also important for the new employee and an effective employee orientation program helps the new employee in this regards. It is the best method to explain and encourage organizational values such as quality, customer service, innovation and efficiency to the employees.
2.11: Effect of Organizational Culture on Employee Orientation
Orientations are the deeper layer of Organizational Culture (OC) and form a framework for the ‘right things to do’. The core purpose of formulating an orientation program is to develop a supporting spirit in the members of the organizations and to motivate them to fulfil the needs of each other. Those firms which are employee orientated, they treat their employees as the most valuable assets and promote their participation and ideas into strategic decisions (Mossman, 2005). According to Hatch (1993) organization culture and values reflects the company’s standards, goals, philosophy and principles which every individual of the firm must practice. Organizational culture and values are one of the motivating factors for the employees at their job. They define the way in which all the members of the company must interact with each other. It focuses on ‘people concern’ and provides stepping stone for the development of artifacts and behaviours (Arthur, 2006).
Behaviour refers to responses, routine and actions of the organizational members to the internal and external environment. Behaviour reflects the organizational culture to the internal and external stakeholders, more particularly to the customers of the firm. Study by Chebat and Kollias, 2000; Conduit and Mavondo, 2001; Varey and Lewis, 1999 shows that employee orientated behavior of a firm is concerned with fulfilling the needs of the works through frequent training and development programs (Morgan and Jardin, 2010). In addition to this, it also focuses on developing and implementing a systematic incentive and performance system.
On the other hand, artifacts refer to material and non-material aspects of organizational culture. It includes technology, language, and architecture, office arrangement, dressing code, rituals and stories developed by the company and have their symbolic meaning. In addition to this, organizational chart, codes of practice, corporate brands, rewards and incentive schemes are also part of the artifacts and strengthen employee oriented culture and values (O'Connell and Mei-Chuan, 2007). The corporate brand holds the underlying substance of the organizational culture and is considered to be the key organizational artifacts. It tells what the organization means to its participants.
GCC countries are rich in oil and natural resources and thus many of the oil and natural gas companies in this region. Qatar is one of the important countries having large number of oil and natural gas companies. Such companies give employment opportunity to not only local talent but international talent also. The biggest challenge faced by these companies is cross culture barrier. People from different part of the globe have different backgrounds and cultures. Thus, when they come together as a unit, human resource department finds various difficulties in managing the people (Richard and et. al., 2009). The first and the foremost challenge faced by the human resource department is cultural difference and language barrier. Different countries have different work culture and languages. Thus, when an employee enters in company such as Muntajat, it is the prime responsibility of the human resource department to brief the candidate about the company, its goals, its working environment and their role and responsibilities (Richard and et. al., 2009). Company can achieve this by devising an effective on-boarding program which helps the individual in adapting to the different culture. Although, the company have its induction program for its new employees but, the management is not sure whether the program is effective or not, that is, whether the program is solving its purpose or not. The present work tries to evaluate the effectiveness of the company’s induction program, and determines whether it results in improved productivity and decrease in turnover rate or not (Sims, 2002). Here are some of the most pertinent notions from the prose related to orientation program:
- It is essential to conduct on-boarding programs for all the new employees
- Induction programs reduce the time to productivity and increases retention of the workers
- Majority of the orientation programs fails to serve their purpose. The main reasons behind the failure of induction program are failure to design based on needs of the learner, inappropriate delivery mechanism and poor content (Messmer, 2000).
Here are some of the most common mistakes which companies should avoid in the designing of an orientation program:
- First mistake which majority of the companies makes is overloading of new hires with lots of questions and information. At the time of joining, new employees are already anxious and it is unlikely they will make good decision, ask tough question or grasp volume of information delivered to them on the very first day (Skarzauskiene, 2010).
- Another mistake which most of the companies make is inappropriate definition of induction program. Till now most of the companies apply orientation program on narrow range of corporate activities. According to them, orientation program means providing only basic information to the employees, but it is absolutely wrong (Snell, 2006).
- One more mistake practiced by organizations is not conducting induction program at multiple levels in the organizations. Most of the companies think that orientation activity is only for those entry level employees, but it is not true. It is essential for the companies to conduct induction at each level so that new hire do not have to operate blindly for long time (Ulrich and et. al., 2010).
- Finally, unidirectional information flow is also a mistake practiced by the organization during orientation programs. The main focus of the corporate houses is just to provide ample of information to the new employees through presentations and videos. This approach lacks interaction of the employees with the human resource and other members of the companies and because of this the new employee is not able to clear their doubts (Yamamura, Birk and Cossitt, 2010).
Six areas on which human resource department of companies should focus on while designing its orientation program:
- Line management must be involved in the entire process of on-boarding
- Expectations for the programs must be set high and the management must try to stick with them
- Delivery platform must be so effective and efficient that it must deal with the uncertainty and jitters of the employees
- There should be alignment between the expectations of the employees and the actual job responsibilities (Butler, 2008).
- Senior management should also actively participate in the orientation program and related development process
- Once the formal introduction is over, it is critical to have real work waiting (Calori and Sarnin, 1991)
Through a well defined orientation program employees feel more connected to their organization and work and this ultimately enhances their productivity. According to Hacker (2004), employee orientation program is not only for the fresher but it is equally beneficial for immediate post-hire and up-to-a-year employees. Earlier organizations uses in personal sessions for delivering the content of the orientation program, but now a day, managers can use series of electronic orienting documents (DeSimone, Harris and Werner, 2002). Electronic orienting documents outweigh several advantages over in-personal sessions such as it overcomes the issues related to maintenance and start-up.
2.12: Organization of Mentoring
Organizational mentoring is very important to prepare staff and employees so that they can meet changes, challenges and emergent staff employment needs such as retirement projection projections and age demographics as these are related to replacement, redeployment of position vacancies, and recruitment of new professionals. Mentoring program helps organizations to adapt to these changes and to apply innovative approaches to job allocations and advancement for new hires (Friedman, 2006). Orientation programs are equally important for the organizations operating in finance sector and can be conducted for all levels of employees. The orientation program should not only include training and development activities, but should also focus on orientation to the specific organizational environment. For example issues related to insurance, compensation procedure, hours of work, organizational structure and facilities, job expectation, policies, procedures, goals, job specific tools and techniques, etc. In orientation programs, if organizations use welcome letter, visiting cards, or name plate for the new hire at the time of their joining, new employees feel motivated and valued and help organizations in meeting the goals in better way (Fritz and Vonderfecht, 2007). With the passage of time and technological advancement, companies must focus on training and retraining its new and experienced staff so that they always remain updated and stay on the top of their field. Companies should not only include educational trainings, but they must also include training related to interpersonal and critical thinking skills to keep its staff updated. Earlier companies focused more on search skills, but in the present business environment, it is evenly important for the companies to focus on issues such as customer relation, marketing and conflict resolution (Hacker, 2004). According to Nofsinger (1999), companies can deliver several benefits to the junior employees by of mixing experienced employees with newly recruited employees. In this case, a senior employee can play many roles such as interpersonal role model, mentor, teacher and advisor. Teaming new and experienced employees develop collegial and respectful relation among the employees and prove economical on budget. Collaboration of senior junior employees strengthens reference-training initiatives and promotes networking within the staff. With the change in technology and resources, it is essential for the employees to keep themselves updated with the outside world. Recruitment and retention activities hugely suffer if management does not focuses on th4 development activities of its staff. It is essential for the management to plan a budget for training and development activities of its employees as it will guarantee satisfactory patron service, motivate staff and improve productivity (Kammeyer-Mueller and Wanberg, 2003).
2.13: Impact of Successful Employee Orientation
A study performed by Texas Instruments on employee orientation shows that those employees who undergone an orientation program achieved full productivity two months earlier in comparison to those employees who did not attend the program. If also found that those employees who attended the orientation program are 69 per cent more likely to remain with the company even after completing three years of their service in comparison to those who did not go through the program. In an another study conducted by Ernst and Young it was found that whose new hire who participated in a well designed on-boarding program were twice likely to remain loyal to the company longer than two years. It also concluded that those companies which invest time and resources for on-boarding program enjoy highest level of employee engagement. Hunter Douglas in his work found that companies can significantly reduce their turnover from 70 per cent at six months to 16 per cent just by keep on updating their orientation programs (Klein and Weaver, 2000). Designer Blinds, an Omaha based manufacture of window blinds was able to reduce its employee turnover from 200 per cent annually to below 8 per cent by upgrading its on-boarding program.
2.14: Best New Employee Orientation (On Boarding) Practices
On-boarding is not merely a standalone or liner activity rather it is a piece of the cyclical continuum. Integrating on-boarding with an organization’s talent management system can greatly improve returns. It is the first impression that creates long lasting impression on the new hire. It takes lots of efforts in recruitment in bringing potential hires to a company. The way the organization manages the entire interview process reflects whether the individual will become the part of the company or not. In addition to this, it also reflects organization’s initial and long term impression to the candidate (McKersie, 2003).
Companies have created intranet portals and web-based tools so that new employees can access the centralized database for searching any kind of information. Networking in the organization with the new and experienced is the best way for the fresher to develop and maintain relationships in the company. Various stages of meeting must be set between the network members and new employee. Thus, effective orientation program provides an opportunity to the individuals to build relationships and assists in structured networking opportunities and support (Ragsdale and Mueller, 2005). Many organizations have launched ‘buddy programs’ to provide an opportunity to pair its new employees with employees of the same interests or demographic characteristics. In addition to this, some organization organize a meet between experienced leaders with young buddies to make them aware of the job role and responsibilities and to build better relationships. In corporate houses it has been believed that it is essential to have early experience. If new employees would not gel well with the organization they will not be able to perform as expected (Rollag, Parise and Cross, 2005). On the other hand, if the new hire is welcomed properly by the company, there are higher chances that they will deliver higher values to the company. Many of the research suggest that early orientation gives a clear line of sight to the new employees so that they can maximize their contribution to the overall success of the company. Thus, in the orientation program, human resource manager must talk about the vision and mission of the company (Sagiv and Schwartz, 2007). Existing managers and employees must make the new employee feel that they are important part of the organization and can do wonders for the company. For making the on-boarding program successful, it is essential for the HR managers to be a central part of the process (Tung Ling Hsiung, 2003). It is so because all the training and tools and feedback are provided by this position and thus is quit unique in nature. A study was performed on the Fortune 50 companies and it was found that over a three-year period the overall impact of the transition program were $ 88 million and the total return on investment rose to 1400 per cent (Butler, 2008).
Thus, after reviewing lot of literate on the orientation program it can be concluded that it is very good tool for retaining employees and developing cordial relation between new hire and experienced employees. The above literature portrays that a well crafted on-boarding program provides stability to the workers and significantly contributes in enhancing the productivity of an individual and of the organization as a whole.
Chapter 3 – Research Methodology
This sector of the work focuses on various tools and techniques with the help of which researcher designs in and carries out the work in order to attain the aim and objectives of the research. It is quite essential for the researcher to develop a research methodology as a prominent plan will help the scholar in acquiring successful research within the limitations of resources and time (Merriam, 2009). This plan assists the researcher in proper scheduling of activities so that the scholar can evaluate in the progress against the set plan. This phase of the study deals with various techniques and theoretical facts that are implemented by the researcher as a basis for the research survey.
Researcher methodology section not only specifies various tools and techniques, but also discusses diverse limitations and ways to undertake the probable study. The prime aim of this part is collection of appropriate data with a defined set of reasons and to dig out appropriate information that can be for practical or theoretical perspectives. The fundamental objective of research methodology section is to evaluate the facts and figures which remained untouched till date and helps in reaching to suitable outcomes in the area of study by applying systematic set of applications (Suri and Clarke, 2009). Whatever be the nature of the research may, research methodology is a valuable part of the work that has grounds in the results and in addition to this it helps in evaluating the collected data so as to have a deep understanding about particular issues.
In this part of the report, various methods have been discussed which are adopted by the researcher at various stages of the work to successfully carry out the study. It deals with methods for practices and practical framework. The present work focuses on importance of orientation or on-boarding program for the new employees. Performance of the overall company depends on the quality and knowledge of its human capital. Due to poor on-boarding, many of the employees do not able to understand their role and responsibilities in the organization and ends up with resigning from their services. To make the work more specific, the study will pin point on Muntajat and its orientation program. The researcher will rationalize in the diverse approaches of the work that helped tremendously in reaching to desired results (Mulder and et. al., 2000). The area of study of the present research is Muntajat which operates in oil and gas industry and the work tries to highlight the importance of on-boarding program on the productivity of the employees and on the turnover rate. Both primary and secondary analysis method are employed by the researcher in the present work that helped in representing the data and information in an organized manner.
3.2: Research Aim and Objectives
The main aim of this work is to evaluate how orientation programs contribute to performance, productivity, turnover and branding of a company with a specific focus on Muntajat.
In order to attain the above stated aim, it is essential for the researcher to focus on prime objectives of the work. Main objectives which the researcher has covered in this work are:
- To evaluate what methods or styles should be adopted so that on-boarding has a positive impact on the new employees
- To determine the extent to which on-boarding at Muntajat can help the company to develop and maintain staff for higher and improved performance
- To assess how an effective orientation at Muntajat can affect its labour turnover
- On-boarding does not result in higher productivity
- On-boarding results in negative branding
- On-boarding will increase turnover
3.3: Research’s Personal View and Approach
The research philosophy tells about the different methods and knowledge levels through which the work can be evaluated, used and arranged. Research philosophy provides an idea about various methods, tools and techniques related to particular topic. For different study, different set of information is needed to be accumulated, assessed and identification (Chilisa, 2011). Basically, research philosophy can be of two types, Interpretivism philosophy and Positivism philosophy.
The philosophy of positivism is used for the study in which the sample size of the study is large enough. Moreover, such philosophy gives attention on frames facts and different designs in hypothesis and finally evaluates them. Contrary to this, the philosophy of Interpretivism is adopted when the sample size of the study is small and is for defined set of time (Mulder and et. al., 2000). Through research philosophy one can get idea and overview of all the methods and data associated with the work. On the other hand, it is essential for the researcher to define the research approach for the study as it helps in enhancing the effectiveness of a report and tells about its usefulness (Mulder and et. al., 2000). Researcher approach is also of two kinds, inductive research approach and deductive research approach.
Inductive research approach is bottom up approach, that is, it starts with collection of information and related data and using in a sharp view to assess the existing research pattern. Inductive research is also known as empirical approach and helps in drawing relation between theory and research that tells factual image of the work. All the collected data is used by this approach and is thus aligned with the philosophy of interpretivism. Furthermore, this approach is applied in the qualitative studies. Contrary to this, deductive approach is top bottom approach which deals with designing and developing concepts and theories before testing of any empirical observation (Peffers and et. al., 2008). In the present work, the philosophy of Positivism is applied in order to evaluate the results in detailed manner. Since the impact of an effective on-boarding program will be same for all the organizations, thus this philosophy is apt. Further, large sample size of the work makes this philosophy appropriate for the research. As far as approach is concerned, the present work is based on inductive approach. The researcher first studies the impact of on-boarding program on Muntajat and then generalises the findings.
3.4: Research design
One of the most important decisions a researcher has to make while designing phase of a study is selection of research design. This section is of utmost impotence as this research methodology helps the researcher in accumulating adequate data and provides proper support system to the study. The type of research method selected for any depends on the nature of the data available in the hand for analysis and on diverse variables and factors (Amaratunga and et. al., 2002). One can massively divide the research design in three types; such as analytical or experimental, descriptive and exploratory.
Descriptive design is apt for the reports in which there is lot of statistical data and the information tells about characteristics of the population under consideration (Amaratunga and et. al., 2002). From such research on can determine systematic definition of the study, but it is not possible to state the real situation of a study. On the other hand, explorative research is used for those studies on which there is not much background information is present, that is, there is no study conducted on area related to the work under consideration. Since, there is little information available, explorative research helps in determining the most suitable method for gathering data to complete the study (Amaratunga and et. al., 2002). This design is informal in nature and is mostly applicable to those studies which are qualitative in nature and deals with management, employees, customers, etc.
In the current situation, since the study is unique in nature and there are no studies conducted in the past related to this topic, thus, the researcher has applied explorative research design for collecting the most appropriate data. The researcher has studied various studies which are somewhat similar to the present work and on the basis of those studies has tried to collected adequate data.
3.5: Research Type
Research can be categorized into three major types, that is qualitative research, quantitative research and case study. In case of qualitative research as per the behavioural feature of research, the scholar of the work tries to strengthen and refine the present level of the study (Miles and Huberman, 1994). One can further categorized qualitative research method into different categories such as survey, focused group interview, discussion to come up with a qualitative analysis. Contrary to the quantitative research, in qualitative research the researcher has to deal with volume of data. There is huge number of mathematical data available to the researcher and the researcher need to apply various statistical tools and techniques to analyze those data so that he or she can reach to some concrete findings. Those research types which are descriptive in nature employ qualitative technique. In such researches the researcher develops a structured questionnaire for collection of relevant information. There are various methods available for collecting quantitative data, however, among all the methods, survey technique is considered to be the best as a well planned survey is easily understood by the respondents and thus can be properly provide their response as required (Haimes, 2002). It is not so that survey can be implemented in quantitative research only; one can apply survey method for quantitative research also. Researches which are contingent in nature or in which details related to actual time is required are generally employ case study approach of research type (O’Connor and et. al., 2003). Since present work is explorative in nature thus this work is qualitative in nature and most of the data collected by the researcher through literature or questionnaire is based on experience of the individuals and is not in numeric form.
Research means collection of data or search of information. For conducting research study on any topic, researcher first needs to explore various sources for collection of relevant data and information. Thus, in the entire research process sampling holds lot of significance. There are several sources available to the researcher for collection of data; however, sampling technique provides an opportunity to the scholar to opt for the most suitable sample from the entire population. The main purpose behind applying sampling technique is to simplify the entire data collection process. With the help of sampling technique researcher can collect relevant and authentic data in short duration and with little efforts. Further, it also helps in reducing the overall cost incur on data collection (Golafshani, 2003). There are two categories in which sampling technique is divided, first is probability sampling technique and second is non probability sampling technique. The researcher can select any as per his or her convenience. In probabilistic sampling, every sample has equal chances of getting surveyed and thus it eliminates the problem of biasness. Contrary to this, in non probabilistic sampling, samples are selected as per the convenience of the researcher and thus there can be degree of biasness. Further, there are various types of probability sampling such as cluster, stratified, simple random sampling and multi-stage sampling. Similarly, there are various kinds of non probability sampling such as judgment, convenience, snowball and quota sampling (Golafshani, 2003). In the present work researcher has applied simple random probability sampling technique for collecting data from the 100 employees of Muntajat.
3.7: Data Collection Method
The most important activity in the entire research process is the data collection because in the absence of adequate data and information researcher cannot reach to some authentic conclusion. To make the research valid and reliable, it is essential for the researcher to collect volumes of data and information from various sources. These sources of data collection can be either primary or secondary depending on the nature of data and information (Gill and Johnson, 2002). For example, if the researcher is collecting data himself and that data is used for the first time, in that case such kind of data is known as primary data and the source is known as primary source. Various primary sources for collecting primary data are survey, questionnaire, interview, etc. On the other hand, if the researcher is using some old data which is collected by some other researcher or agency and has been already used in prior work, such data is known as secondary data and the source is known as secondary sources. Various secondary sources for collecting secondary data are books, articles, journals, internet sources, research reports, etc. (Gill and Johnson, 2002). In the present work researcher has collected secondary data through various secondary while the primary data is collected by designing a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire consists of both open and close ended questions.
3.8: Data Analysis
Once the data is collected, the next activity for the researcher in the research process is to analyse the collected data. Since the data collected from the primary and secondary sources is raw in nature, that is nothing can be interfered from that data, therefore, it is essential for the researcher to refine that data into some meaningful information. This is achieved through analysis of the accumulated data (Babbie, 2010). For this purpose researcher can select an appropriate technique from various available technique. Basically there are two options available to the researcher, firstly, researcher can apply qualitative technique of data analysis or secondly researcher may employ quantitative technique of data analysis. Qualitative technique is apt for those researches in which data is not in numbers. On the other hand, if the data is in the form of numbers, in that case quantitative technique has to be applied. Under quantitative technique, researcher make use of various tools such as statistical tools for social science (SPSS), E-Views, MS Office, etc. and apply various techniques such as regression, correlation, etc. (Babbie, 2010). In the present case, since the accumulated data is in qualitative in nature, researcher has applied qualitative technique for data analysis. More specifically, thematic analysis has been applied through which various themes will be formed from the gathered data and which has helped the researcher to reach to some authentic conclusion.
3.9: Research Validity and Reliability
It is essential to have a valid research as then only the researcher will be able to successfully reach to the aims and objectives of the work. If the researcher is not valid, the final outcome of the work has no credibility. Therefore, there are various methods available to a researcher to make the work valid. Through these methods researcher can measure the exactness of the information and survey and thus can properly reach to certain valid conclusion. Validity means to acquire exact data or information and if the researcher is able to collect valid information it will leads towards exact results (Gibaldi, 2010). The main aim of research reliability is to attain safety and uniformity in the final result of the study.
In every study, attention is given on every characteristic of the work that the entire study is completed in reliable and valid manner. Thus, it is essential to focus on various methods through which data has been collected as it will help in maintaining different elements of study that will assist in attaining research objective (Gibaldi, 2010). Finally, achieving reliability in work means eradication of dissimilarity and inconsistence in outcomes.
To attain validity and reliability in this work, the researcher has given emphasis on collection of data from the most authentic sources. The main challenge during the primary data collection was elimination the problem of biasness so that final data is authentic and free from any biasness (Merriam, 2009). To achieve this, the researcher eliminated any kind of biasness or any personal perception. The researcher took prior permission from each of the participants and conducted the entire survey in the within a suitable time period. The survey was designed in such a manner so that the scholar can collected information related to each issue as it will result in valid and reliable study (Merriam, 2009).
3.10: Limitations of the Research
Researcher has to face various challenges and limitations while conducting the entire research process. Though, researcher tries to give full attention to all the stages of the process, but it is not possible for the scholar to keep the work 100 per cent limitation free. In this work also researcher has faced various limitations. Some of the major limitations are:
- Collection of data: As the topic itself is new and not much work has been done on the orientation process of Muntajat, the researcher find lots of difficulties in collecting suitable data. Even though researcher has referred various sources, still accumulation of data is one of the limitations of the work (Ethridge, 2004).
- Limited Time: Since the researcher has to complete the entire research process in the given timeframe, shortage of time was another limitation. It takes lots of time in reviewing literature and collecting data from primary and secondary sources. Although the researcher has tried best for collecting ample of information, still if time would have been not a constrain, researcher could have come up with more data and information.
- Generalization of the research is another limitation. Although the work is based on Positivism philosophy, still generalizing the work is a difficult task because the present work focuses on only Muntajat.
- Limited Finance: As limited finance was available to the researcher for completing the entire research process, so it may be possible the work may have some reliability and validity issues (Ethridge, 2004).
3.11: Ethical Consideration
It is essential for the researcher to practice ethical actions while conducting the researcher. For this work also the researcher practiced certain ethical practices. Before interviewing the participants, the researcher took prior permission from all the participants; a debriefing was conducted to make aware all the participants regarding the main purpose of conducting this work (Haimes, 2002). None of the participants was forced to participate in the survey process, and complete freedom was provided to the respondents that they can leave the process at any time they wished. Finally, identity of none of the participants has been leaked to any outsider. Name and addresses and designation of all the participants are not disclosed without their permission (Haimes, 2002).
Chapter 4 - Data Analysis
In any dissertation, the use of data analysis chapter is to present the final findings and outcomes of the research. Therefore, it can be said that this chapter holds lots of significance in the entire research process. Whenever any research work is been conducted, researcher has to collect lot of data and information which is either in qualitative or quantitative nature. Thus, through data analysis section various tools and techniques are applied by the researcher so that the collected raw data can be converted into some meaningful information. This meaning ful information can be easily understood by the readers.
Data analysis section renders supportive hands to a research study so that one can reach to the conclusion effectively without wasting much time. In addition to this, data analysis section represents internal facts and findings of the study. Thus, the main aim of this section is to analyse the raw data and to represent outputs of various techniques and tests applied on the accumulated data.
The present research is both qualitative and quantitative in nature, thus the accumulated data is also both qualitative and quantitative. Thus, for analysis of the accumulated data both qualitative and quantitative tools and techniques are adopted by the researcher. The qualitative data is analysed through thematic analysis in which various themes are plotted as per the collected data and then on the basic of those themes conclusion has been made. On the other hand, for the quantitative data the researcher has employed MS Excel software. With the use of this software various statistical operations have been performed on the gathered data which helped the researcher to reach to some concrete findings.
4.2: Thematic analysis
Theme 1: Induction programs are great source of gaining knowledge about the company
The main purpose of any organization behind conducting an induction program is to make the new jionees aware of the culture of the company. Since a new employee has many questions in his or her mind regarding the company, thus the management design an induction program in such a manner that it answers all the questions of the new employees and they feel familiar with the work culture and the job role. From the survey conducted on the Muntajat it was found that induction program of the company served its purpose of imparting knowledge about the company among the new recruiters.
The above graph shows that out of forty participants, twenty completely agreed that the induction program of the company was so well designed that it imparted complete knowledge to them regarding the company and its culture. From the remaining respondents, eighteen employees said they agree that induction programs are great source for them to learn about the company. Remaining of the participants slightly disagree as they think only an induction program can't impact knowledge to the new employees about the company.
Theme 2: Induction Program of Muntajat highlights its vision and mission statement
An induction program must be drafted by the management in such a manner that it must represent the vision and mission statement of the company otherwise new employees will not be able to understand the ultimate goals of the company they are working with. If the vision and mission statements are properly designed, it will help the new employees in understanding that what exactly is expected from them and thus will be able to deliver as per their capacities. The survey finding shows that induction program designed by the Muntajat was devise in such a manner that it was highlighting the vision and mission of the company.
The above chart shows that most of the new recruiters of the Muntazat complete agree that its induction program was so well designed that it reflects the vision and mission of the company and they did not require any other source to understand the vision and mission of the company.
Theme 3: Induction program provided limited information regarding company's strategic plan
Strategy is something which is developed at higher management level and is then communicated to the lower level for implementation. Same is the case with the Muntajat. New joinees feel that there was limited information provided in the induction program regarding the strategic plan of the company.
From the analysis of the accumulated data it has been found that 16 respondents agree that induction program provide information regarding strategic plans of the company and eight participants partially disagree from this fact. According to them, the company has not designed their induction program in such a manner that all individual can understand the strategic plan of the company.
Theme 4: New recruiters understand the organization culture from induction program
One of the main motives of conducting an induction programs by the companies for the new recruiters is to make them aware of the company's culture. Culture is the main parameter which decides the scope and future of the company. From the survey conducted on Muntujat it has been found that majority of the participants feel that company's induction program are well designed to make them aware about the working culture and style of the company.
Findings: Every individual who joins a new company have many questions in his or her mind regarding the job role, expectations of the management, working environment, work culture and many other related questions. New recruiters want that firms must develop some kind of induction program at the time of their joining so that they can become familiar with the culture of the company in the initial stages only. In this regards, 18 of the total respondents feel that Muntajat has well designed induction program which make them aware of the company's culture in the initial days of joining. Remaining of the participants also has more or less similar kind of views.
Theme 5: Induction program clears performance objectives of an individual
For a new joinee it is very essential to understand his or her performance objective in the company. The individual must have complete knowledge regarding the expectations of the management from his post. Thus, it is essential for them to have some kind of program which makes them aware regarding their duties and performance. In the survey it was found that induction program of Muntajat helps individuals in understanding their performance objectives.
Findings: From the data collected from the survey it has been found that majority of the people agree that the induction program of the company was designed in such a manner that helped them in understanding their performance objectives. Only 6 respondents disagreed from this fact that induction program didn't help them in understanding their performance objectives.
Theme 6: Individual gains knowledge about overall functionality of firm through induction program
A company consists of various departments and new recruiters are assigned to a specific department. However it is essential for the joinee to have some functionality knowledge of other departments also. In this regards induction programs are good source for them to gain knowledge regarding functionality of different department. From the survey it has been found that most of the respondents agreed to the fact the induction program of Muntajat helped them in gaining knowledge regarding departments of the company.
Findings: The above chart reflects that out of 40 respondents, 29 respondents said that induction program of the company was very helpful for them. They feel that the program provided them functionality knowledge of not only their respective departments, but also about various other departments of the company. This significantly helped them in understanding the company in better way.
Theme 7: Muntajat's Induction program clearly specify the objectives of the company
Every company works as per the objectives it needs to achieve in the given year. For this purpose, it is essential for them to communicate their objectives effectively to all the levels of the organization. This becomes more essential when the company has new joinee in their various departments. Induction programs are the only way through which companies can communicate their objectives to the new joinee in effective and swift way. From the survey it was found that Muntajat's induction program clearly defines the specific objectives of the organization.
Findings: The above graph clearly shows that management of Muntajat has a well designed induction program as most of the participants feel that yes the orientation program of the company clearly specify the objectives of the organizations. In fact more than 90 per cent of the respondents said that through induction program they become aware of the aim and objectives of the company.
Theme 8: Most of the information provided through induction was very useful
Designing an orientation program is a very tough challenge for the management and the HR personals as they have to consider various parameters. It is essential for them to provide crisp information through these activities to the new recruiters so they become aware of the various rules and regulations and culture of the company. In this regards, most of the new recruiters of Muntajat responded that company has effectively designed its orientation program as most of the information provided during the program was useful and there was very less information which could be eliminated from the program as they are not of much use to the new joinees.
Findings: 95 per cent of the respondents said that most of the information provided during the induction program was very useful in understanding the job role and functionality in with the working culture of the company. Only 5 per cent of the participants feel that there were some unnecessary information also in the program which much be eliminated.
Theme 9: Orientation program enhances productivity and effectiveness of new recruiter
Companies design orientation program with a motive of improving the productivity and effectiveness of the employees. This is achieved by making them aware of the working style, culture, their job role and aim and objectives of the company. By this, the new recruiter feels familiar to the organization, moreover, orientation programs helps in clearing all the doubts and questions of the new joinees, thus provide them with very clear state of mind and eliminates all kind of confusions.
Findings: In response to the question regarding productivity and effectiveness, 37 of the 40 participants said that induction program has enhanced their effectiveness and productivity in the company. According to these respondents, as most of the information regarding the company's aim, objectives and culture are provided in the induction program, they feel relaxed when they enter in the role.
Theme 10: Muntajat's induction program motivates its new recruiters
Company designs an induction program with an aim to motivate its new joinnes and to provide them greater job satisfaction so that they can come up with better results at the work place and enhance the productivity of the overall company. Further, better induction program helps the company in creating better and healthy work environment.
Findings: From the data collected it has been found that all the 40 participants have fell motivated by undergoing induction program of Muntaja as it delivered lot of information regarding the company. Further, all the participants have also agreed that orientation program has provided them a better job satisfaction.
4.3: Correlation analysis
Correlation is an effective to determine relation between an independent variable and one or more dependent variables. It tells whether there is positive, negative or no relation between the independent and dependent variables. The value of correlation coefficient, that is, R2 varies between -1 to 1. Positive correlation shows that with the increase or decrease in dependent variable, independent variable will also increase or decrease, while, negative correlation shows that with the increase or decrease in dependent variable, independent variable will decrease or increase respectively. From the analysis it has been found that there has been positive but weak correlation between vision and mission of Muntajat with the overall quality of the program. Further there is strong positive relationship between individual understanding level and effectiveness and productivity of an employee. Finally a weak negative correlation has been found between addition knowledge provided by the orientation program to its quality.
Chapter 5 - Conclusion and Recommendations
On-boarding can be defined as support process developed by the companies for its new employees which is offered to them at the time of their recruitment as during initial period they need to manage variety of tasks and requirements. The first year of a new joinee is quite challenging as the employee needs to struggle and sometime it may lead to variety of problems for the employee such as work withdrawal, poor performance and lack of job satisfaction. These employee challenges are in turn challenges for the companies and employers as it generally leads to employee turnover. Thus, companies are turning towards developing effective orientation program. Companies must take utmost care in developing and planning new hire programs so that it can deliver value, history and who is who in the firm to them. Effectiveness of orientation programs does not rely on its duration; even a one day long orientation program is helpful in retaining and enhancing the productivity of the employees. Organizations which have better on-boarding activities can better align their human capital to achieve its aim and goals and to reduce turnover rates.
Ragsdale and Mueller (2005) found that formal orientation programs are very important for the companies as they help the management in motivating and retaining employee, lowers turnover rate, improves employee morale, increase productivity, facilitates learning and reduces anxiety level among the new employees. On the other hand, Hacker (2004) concluded that orientation programs have to be of standard quality as substandard orientation program not only affect company’s present but also have its ill effects on company’s future recruitment efforts. Hacker (2004) found that an organization can increase their retention rate by twenty five per cent just by improving the standard and quality of its orientation program. Ragsdale and Mueller (2005) state that induction program should be designed in such a way that it introduce the new employee to the culture, structure and standards of the hiring facility. It will help the new employee in understanding their roles and responsibilities in the organization as it gives a big picture break down.
An orientation program is conducted with an aim to make aware a new employee about his or her role and duties in the organization which will aid in the employee's commitment to the organization. Thus, content of the induction program is as important as its presentation. Therefore, an orientation program can be made successful if it is interactive, comprehensive and thought provoking and creates an environment which incorporates organizational standards, culture and values. The study of pervious literature highlights various advantages of induction programs such as, it helps in:
- Reducing Start-up Cost
- Reducing Anxiety
- Reducing Employee Turnover
- Saving Time of Supervisor and Co-Workers
- Developing Realistic Job Expectations, Positive Attitudes and Job Satisfaction
- Introducing the employee with the organization and explains the employees about their roles and responsibilities
- Smoothening the way of completing all necessary paperwork
- Providing a platform for an interactive exchange of information
- Enhancing employee involvement and improves communication among the workers
In addition to the secondary research, primary research was also conducted, and below listed conclusions was drawn on the basis of collected data:
ü 92.68% of the employees feel that they have a clearer understanding of Muntajat’s Vision and Mission
ü 5% of the employees feel that they need more clarity on the organizational strategy and organizational culture.
ü The strategy is covered in the form of Muntajat’s video. More emphasis will be laid on the future global office openings planned.
ü The organization culture though not explicitly covered, the branding and policies are designed to carry the message. Further emphasis will be laid on Muntajat’s professional, multicultural and friendly organizational culture through Vision, Mission and values.
ü 82.93% of the employees feel that they have a clearer understanding of the overall process flow and functionality of the organization
ü This section carries the most number of Disagrees with a total of 12% responses.
ü The employees feel that their performance objectives and information about other department and their functionalities could be clearer.
ü Both these areas are currently being covered and planned for under the departmental tour and introduction to department representatives.
ü This process is to be mentioned to them from the beginning of the induction presentation or at the end when we communicate the next steps. We don’t want them to feel that the induction is ended after the presentation and to know that it is over a period of a month where they can have all the required training and clarifications.
Induction Program Content:
ü 71.95% of the employees feel that the program has clear objectives and is relevant and useful for their job.
ü 21.95% feel that some information is unnecessary or some information is missing.
ü Questions 3 and 4 are designed to get disagree responses and hence the increased number of disagreements.
ü A lot of employees have not read Questions 3 and 5 carefully and hence there seems to be a rote marking of completely agree or agree.
ü Participants to be given notification of these questions more clearly so they mark their responses appropriately.
ü 97.56% of the employees feel positive about the organization’s branding, feel they can build effective networks within the organization, and feel the program increases their motivation to work for Muntajat.
ü 90.24 % feel that they are in a safe and secure environment
ü 90.24% feel the program increases their job satisfaction and that the program is excellent.
ü These responses clearly indicate that the program has an extremely positive effect on the new employee and increases employee’s perception of the organization during their first scheduled training session.
ü There are no disagree responses for this section except for question 4 which is designed to either get a Don’t Know or Disagree response.
ü To maintain the standards of the program effectively
From the above findings through primary research one can conclude that induction program of Muntajat is quiet effective and well designed as it clearly states the objectives and aim of the company to the new joinee. Since new recruiters are well aware of their job role, it enhances their productivity as they do not have any confusion regarding their job role. Further, since all kind of information is shared with them at the time of their joining, they feel that management consider them as an important resource for the company and thus feel highly motivated. When an employee feels highly motivated within an organization, there are higher chances that he or she will remain stick to the company for longer period of time and as a result of this it can be said that induction program of Muntajat helps the company in lowering the turnover rate. Finally, a company with motivated workforce and lower turnover rate always enjoys top position among some of the good brands. Because of well planned induction program, Muntajat has highly motivated workforce with lower turnover rate, it shows that its orientation program is quite effective and helps the company in building its image as one of the most likely brands of the country.
Though, in the present scenario, most of the companies have started giving importance to the induction program, it is important for Muntajat consistently investing more time and attention towards improvement of its orientation program. Here are some of the ideas which must be encouraged in the company:
- To adopt a more comprehensive approach to orientation: Effective orientation program is a gradual process as can't be achieved in a day or two. Initial days of new recruiters are very important as they take time to socialize with the culture of the organization, but organizations must think of long term and ensure employee fit in and feel motivated and satisfied. Thus, orientation program of Muntajat can range anywhere between six weeks to six months.
- Deliver information in effective manner so that it can be absorbed and retained: Initial there will be very basic question asked by the new recruiters such as what the job role is and what all tools I will be working on? Is there any dress code? How people get paid, eat and meet? Providing answers to such questions will not be a tough task for the management and quick response from the organization will make the employees familiar with the unfamiliar surroundings. However, with the passage of time, the question from the recruiters will become more matured like what is the appraisal procedure? Why we follow any particular procedure? Will training and development activities are conducted? etc. Answering such question will require more time for the management of Muntajat as all these can't be answered in initial days and may be covered in a month time. This will deliver information in gradual manner and will add to understanding, retention and commitment.
- To develop a team environment using orientation program: Muntajat must focus on launch meetings, buddy meetings, site visits, panel discussions to involve diverse groups and individuals in the process.
- Orientation program must help new recruits in developing rapport with the co-workers so that they become familiar with the surroundings.
- Create opportunities for the new recruiters so that they can interact more frequently with the bosses, peers, subordinates, suppliers, public and senior manager. In addition to this, meetings should be both formal and informal.
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