Managing Human Resources
It is to acknowledge that with the help of human resource theories the organization can manage their international business operations and most importantly the changes in international labor market could be handled easily. The major aim of this study is to assess the human resource theories with the international perspective (Kovach, 2000). The applicability and measuring the effectiveness of these theories have gained huge consideration into the current scenario. Further the ways to promote equal employment opportunities have also prioritized in current scenario. Avoiding the discrimination, proper performance management, implementing the legal aspects etc. these aspects related to human resource management have also discussed in current report.
diagrammatic representation. The dimensions must be followed by companies at very large scale. These dimensions might have relationship to each another and most importantly the integration between the outcomes must be maintained. The human resource strategies should be aligning with the organizational goals and objectives. According to the model the performance outcomes and human resource practices are dependent on each another. If these aspects integrate properly then positive results in HR outcomes could be experienced. Human resource practices determine the level of behavioral outcomes as the motivation and satisfaction are the results of positive HR practices. Further the HR strategies have huge role in international market and indicate towards the financial outcomes. Profitability could be increased if HR strategy is focusing on cost control through hr practices (Gennard and Judge, 2005). Further managing the quality related hr strategy can definitely help on the ground of providing the positive results related to performance outcomes and it also put its favorable impact at the financial outcomes. According to guest model the HR outcomes must be the core or basis of entire human resource management in expanding the business at international market.
Storey’s has provided huge range of difference among the human resource management and personnel management. According to author the human resource management is very wide perspective and it just helps on the ground of bringing the strategic change within the organization. On the contrary personnel management is modified terms and conditions where the personal needs of employees could be identified and could be provided accordingly. It is clear that these two terms have huge differences (Sheldrake, 2003). Another difference defined by storeys is that the set of rules in personnel management is clear whereas in HRM the changes and modification could be done. Further the IR is also a very crucial terms as per the author. It should gain huge priority for the purpose of monitoring the relationships. The most significant difference is that human resource management handles both industrial relations and personnel management and these two later terms are part of human resource management. Personnel management is recruiting the employee and human resource management is taking care of motivation of employees within the organization. Personnel management is providing the training and human resource management is to build positive working environment within the organization (Mariappanadar, 2003). Thus as per the view point of Storey’s these are certain differences between HRM, PM and IR practices.
The strategic approach to HRM could be helpful in various ways for the line managers and employees. The major thing is that line managers and employees could complete their task in well integrated manner and most importantly the company can achieve their goals and objectives. Ahead the line managers can definitely get hold on human resource practices as they can plan their activities in proper way. The employee may get clear instructions from the line managers. Planning is a part of strategic human resource management and most importantly the managers could be able to identify resources as well. The employees could be in position to get edge on the competitiveness and productivity capacity. In strategic approach HRM the special consideration has been given to the training and development sessions. Further the line managers can arrange the resources as per the activities (Dowling, Festing and Engle, 2008). Thus these aspects can deliver high level of positive results with the perspectives of managing the operations.
The very popular flexibility model that has been proposed by the Atkinson in 1984 is core and periphery workforce model. According to the author the flexibility is not to promote indiscipline environment within the organization but to provide comfort to the employees so that the balance between personal as well professional lives could be maintained. The author has given identified three kind of flexibility to the employee’s functional flexibility, numerical flexibility and financial flexibility. The functional flexibility is related to change in working time and most importantly fostering the versatile employment skill of employees. It is highly required that the employees should get wide range of opportunities and job security should be based on this feature. Other than this the numerical flexibility suggests that the number of employees should be based on available work. For the same purpose some kind of techniques could be applied within the organization like short term contracts, part time job, employment or job sharing, franchising etc (Gardiner and Tomlinson, 2009). these techniques could be helpful in managing the workforce. Further the financial flexibility is something that has high level of relations to the management of cost of labor as per the hourly basis or promoting the contract rates. Therefore the core and periphery workforce model provides the flexibility in terms of timing, labor rates and tenure of employment. An IT organization has large variety of flexibility arrangements within the organization. The flexibility could be introduced with the help of flexible timing approach as per the change in daily basis. It explains that in this type of organizational flexibility the companies never keep the working time same. For instance Monday to Thursday the timing could 9 hours for working and on weekends it is just 7 hours. Other option is that the time of lunch or break hours could be increased in weekends (Leonard and Cardy, 2011). Thus these kinds of combinations could be arranged. Compressed work week is another option of flexibility where the employees may work as per their convenience. Job sharing is one of the most effective tools for the purpose of inheriting the flexibility within the organization. It is clear that in this technique two employees can divide one full time job and they work as part time employees. It is a kind of job sharing that people may work as per the skill and talent. At the same juncture the part time is also very significant flexibility providing style where the employees work as per their timing convenience and can focus on other work as well. Telecommuting is kind of home sitting job where company allocate work to employee and they can complete their task just sitting at home. Therefore these are some of the very significant types of flexibility which can change working scenario of environment (Neff, 2006).
The benefits and negative aspects of flexible working hours could be immense for both employer and employee. The major factor is that the employee might manage their professional as well personal life in an appropriate manner. Another factor is that job sharing provides the opportunity to learn something from another person and efficiency could also improve. Telecommuting is kind of relaxation which could be gained by employees. Ahead employer may definitely have certain problems associated with flexible working schedules. It is possible that the employee might feel diverted as they get very much flexibility. Their productivity could be decreased as they can their job very lenient. It can break down the concentration and adverse impact could be realized on work. At office employees work in very professional environment whereas home doesn’t provide such working atmosphere (Matiza, 2013). Thus these are some of the major implications of flexible working approach for employer and employees. There is need of maintaining the certain level of flexibility at work. Current IT firm can face lots of changes in labor market practices and it could put its impact at flexible working practices. Due to certain changes like change in technology, qualifications and skill set related aspects the organization could have opportunities to build flexible working environment. The talent acquisitions could be forced by the company at very large scale. They can acquire people from multi dimensional fields and demographical changes could also manage. The IT firm can hire employees as part time employees to operate new kind of technology. Further for job sharing some highly experienced employees could be hired as they can impart training to the old employees. Both these aspects can enhance the working capacity of old category of employees with the new technology and most importantly the experience of new employees could be increase (Ordiz and et,al., 2003). The contractual employment could be enforced as if the employees are not able to manage their work or perform better than the contract couldn’t be essential to renew. In such cases the alternatives for searching other employees could be available in front of organizations.
Within the organization due to the cultural diversity there are lots of discriminatory activities that took place on the regular basis. It is clear that there are various kinds of discrimination within the organization. The major discrimination is based on gender basis. It is clear that women face lots of harassment and uncomfortable working environment. Further discrimination on the basis of racism is also very common and prevalent. It is very serious situation that the employees don’t get equally employment opportunities as the discrimination on racism creates the unfavorable working environment. Both the forms of discrimination are very much negative for the organizational culture. Further the favoritism is another reason behind the discrimination. There are no set parameters for the favoritism or promoting such environment within the organization. There could be variety of factors which could increase the popularity of one person and it prevents other talented and skilled people to get promoted. Religious aspects could never be neglected at this juncture as it also discrimination among the employees (Richard, and Johnson, 2001). The values and cultural beliefs could be different that may create the discriminatory working environment. Thus these are various forms of discrimination that can take place in the workplace.
In ABC IT firm the implications of equal employment opportunities legislations is very clear. The major consequence is that the internal legal policies have be4n revised as per the legislations and the fact related to the equal growth rate has taken special care by the company. There is need of focusing the fact that the avoiding the discrimination is one of the major aspects or result on the ground of equally opportunities legislations. There should not be any evidence of discriminatory activities. The women should have got proper chance to show their skill set and talent. Ahead the racism should not be the basis of promoting the people. If any company found accused of such activities then the hefty penalties could be imposed or legal actions could be taken against them (Tosi and Pilati, 2011). The IT Company needs to educate their employees about avoiding the discriminatory activities. The role plays could be arranged or sign boards could be placed at the wall of company and it just warn the people who indulge in past in such kind of activities. It just creates the sense of fear and pleasant working environment could be created. Thus in this way the equal opportunities legislations could be practiced within the IT company.
In order to manage equality or diversity the role of human resource managers is very high. It is to acknowledge that one approach could be legal approach that has been discussed in above scenario. Other than this the managers can focus on creating the team environment where the employees use to work with each another and connections could be built among them. The diversity could be easily managed if the top level management has adopted the respect giving approach to every religion, values, customs and beliefs (Millington, Holland and Burnett, 2015). They can set the benchmark in front of lower level employees and diversity as well as equality could be promoted. Further the appropriate performance management is another approach that could be impacted by the company. Through effective performance assessment the employees who deserve promotion will be promoted at the upper level and clear instructions must be given with respect to minimize the promotions or growth opportunities on the basis of favoritism. Ahead the approach to manage diversity could be related to the improvement in communication process (Training and Development. 2009). Even after the implementation of legal aspects if the managers are following the same discriminatory practices then the smooth communication should allow lower level employees to register their complains to higher authorities. It can make the system very much transparent and diversity could be managed. Therefore these approaches could be result oriented.
The IT Company can adopt various techniques to assess the performance management. The major approach is that with the help of proper performance management the solutions related to employee dissatisfaction and de-motivation could be resolved very easily. Thus target setting could be the effective performance assessment technique. In this technique the IT Company can give any task or target to be completed within stipulated period of time. It might help in assessing the potential of employees and direct reporting could be sent to higher authorities. Another method is related to benchmarking. In this technique the comparison of employee’s current performance with the past performance could be done. It helps in representing the improvement or decrement in the performance and on the basis of comparative analysis outcomes the opportunities could be provided. It is comparatively very much transparent technique (Posthuma, Roehling and Campion, 2011). On the contrary target setting is relevant to identify the potential of an individual. In target setting other than task or project some responsibilities could also given to employees. It might help in identifying the challenging taking attitude of employee and discipline level could also identify easily. Thus these are highly popular performance management methods and techniques.
Managing the employee welfare should be the major priority or concerned area for the companies. It might help in building the reputation and most importantly it helps in talent acquisition. It could be practiced by IT firm in various ways. The pension’s schemes could be started or launched by the company as it ensures the well being of employees at later stage of their life. The child education programs could be launched along with the other educational assistance. The employee welfare always aimed at the benefits and well being of employees and it could be done easily with the help of providing them various extensive benefits like holiday, leave entitlement, leave encashment etc (Sargeant, 2000). It provides extra earning opportunities and disposable income could be increase. The employees can definitely feel confident and motivated through these employee welfare practices. Further the commitment and dedication of staff people towards the business entity could also improve. Another welfare approach could be related to providing the financial planning awareness. It could be beneficial as the financial resources could be managed appropriately. The health policies for individuals or for family could be provided under the employee welfare approaches. The awareness session with respect to healthy lifestyle could be arranged for staff people. Thus the employee welfare could be practiced in both direct and indirect manner by the IT firm (Gennard, 1998).
The impact of health and safety legislations is very immense on any company and being an IT firm following the health and safety legislations is required at very large scale. The safe working environment must be provided to employees. The cleanliness and hygiene must be provided to employees. Further the IT firm provides the regular checkup options for the eyes as computer might harm the sensitive part of body. Thus the implications of health and safety legislations are very huge. All the rules and regulations of health and safety act 1974 could be realized within the organization. The working hours are required to be flexible and employees never work in pressurized working situations. Ahead the leave structure is also highly proper in terms of ensuring the comfortable working for staff people. Fire prevention equipments have been installed; ventilation facility is proper and other security measures have also undertaken appropriately (Barnard, 2006).
Discrimination is the major topical issue in current scenario. The IT firm needs to take strong steps to deal with the discriminatory activities. There is huge requirement of ensuring that the hr practices should not be affected with the discrimination and its negative consequences. But its impact has been reflected hugely at the human resource practices. First of all at recruitment stage the male candidates get major priority to enter within the organization. Ahead female candidates only got selected for small jobs even they possess high level of qualifications. Further the racism and religious differences have also clearly reflected upon human resource practices. The training opportunities have not provided in an appropriate manner to the employees due to discrimination (Posthuma, Roehling and Campion, 2011). Thus in return it might result in low performance, low employee retention and job dissatisfaction. The organizational culture becomes negative due to this topic issue.
On the basis of above study it could be stated very clearly that human resource management is very wide concept and it has its relevancy with the organizational culture or working environment. It is clear that the organization culture includes the policies implementation, diversity handling, providing the equal growth opportunities and most importantly proper performance assessment. The implications of various policies definitely control the unethical issues and illegal activities. It promotes the rights of employees and staff people and enables them to get control on their benefits and welfare. Overall the human resource management strategies must be designed for the benefits of both employees and organization.
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