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research study  human mind Rapid Eye Movement


The corresponding research study has been deliberative about the nature of Rapid Eye Movement sleep phenomena in human beings and the associated impact of the same on the human mind and health in general. The study has followed a methodical format of progression under which the entire research procedure has been formulated. The significance of the research topic and the entire process undertaking has been outlined in the Introduction section of the study. The research questions, rationale, objectives and background of the research have been included in the Introduction section. These have specified the concept of the research topic and the significance of the same for selection. The Literature Review section has deliberated on the secondary data collected on the research topic. This section has been formulated to highlight the information which is already available regarding the REM sleep and the associated impact of this on human beings. The emphasis has been on the analysis of the available information to find reflection of the research objectives in the collected and analysed data structure. The Methodologies section has highlighted research methodological approaches utilised by the Researcher and the aspects of outlining the research methods, the research philosophy, the research approach and the data collection as well as analysis procedures have been discussed. Furthermore, in the results discussion section, the study has deliberated upon the research findings and also has highlighted the developed recommendations. Finally, at the Conclusion section, the Researcher has drawn together the different research threads to highlight the general conclusive observations which have been derived from the entire research process. The future progression recommendations have been attached as well with this section.


In this context, the corresponding research study would be considerate of the implications of the neural underpinnings to the process of REM sleep based dreaming. These implications are to be comprehended on the multiple dimensions of human neuro-pathological mechanisms, including those of the neural systems related to the human brain. Furthermore, according to the research of Valencia Garcia et al., (2018), the theory of consciousness, related to the study of the process of dreaming, could be highlighted to be suggestive of the research perception of REM sleep constituting a state of proto-consciousness. This could be better described that REM sleep induced proto-consciousness leads to the generation of a virtual reality-based model of the surrounding environment within the human mind. This virtual reality-based model is particularly effective in contributing to the functional application of the consciousness while the human mind could be awakened. Apart from this, REM sleep also assists in the development and maintenance of the state of awakened consciousness (Blumberg, and Plumeau, 2016). To this effect, the research project under consideration would delve into the evaluation and analysis these observed implications of the REM sleep in human subjects of varied age groups. The purpose, in this respect, would be to ensure the maximum relevance and academic credibility in the overall project (Valencia Garcia et al., 2018).


Research questions

What is the process and manner through which human beings dream during REM sleep?

What is the influence of REM sleep induced dreaming on the daily lives of human beings?

How does the neuro-pathological influence of REM sleep impacts particular disorders in human beings such as narcolepsy?

How does REM sleep impact the overall frequency of sleep related disorders in human beings?

Background of the topic

In the recent years, due to stressful lives of the human beings, according to (Bernard, 2017) about the REM sleep as there are many people who are dealing with REM sleep and it is important for memory development as well as brain development and study indicates that the infants spend more time in REM sleep as compared to the adults (Boyce et al., 2016). It is hereby important to study the REM sleep and its importance to understand the stages of sleep, reason of REM sleep and its impacts on the people (Valencia Garcia et al., 2018).

Research rationale

The rationale of the corresponding research could thus be underlined as an attempt to outline and identify more clearly the specific characteristics which could differentiate the REM induced sleep dependent effects on human brain from that of the Stage 2 sleep dependent motor tasks (Valencia Garcia et al., 2018). This could be further elaborated as the examination of the nature of the differences of the multiplicity of states of the human brain. The differences are mostly related to the dual stages of the neuro-physiological and neuro-chemical levels (Valencia Garcia et al., 2018). The study would also strive towards the formulation of an effective theoretical model for the purpose of explanation of the perceived dependence of the motor skill influenced tasks which involve the REM sleep and that of the Stage 2 based Sleep, on the two neural systems which could be completely divergent from each other, yet, at critical junctures, could overlap with each other (Chen et al., 2018).

Research objectives

The objectives of the researcher are developed further,

  • To understand the process and the manner in which the human beings dream
  • To comprehend the influence of dreaming on the daily life progression of human beings
  • To evaluate the influence of REM sleep-based neuro-pathological functioning on incidence of specific disorders such as narcolepsy
  • To shed light on the overall frequency of the sleep related disorders.

Literature review

According to Grote et al., (2017), the available research data indicates that neonatal, who are born through the normal procedures, generally spend approximately one third of their time on a daily basis through the REM state. This could be further elaborated to be the case regarding an approximate measure of almost half of the time of their sleep which is, as has been observed by Ansari et al., (2017), spent through the REM states. However, this particular observation could not be considered to be an absolute fact in terms of the age-related conditions of all of the neonatal. According to Jozwiak et al., (2017), this outlined ratio progressively diminishes with the enhancement of the maturation stages within the studied subjects. In this respect, as has been observed by Rahayel et al., (2018), it had been previously an existing research hypothesis that the mechanisms related to the REM often served as the primary source of the stimulation. This observation also suggested the fact that primary stimulation, induced by the REM sleep functioning leads to the generation of extensive quantities of the excitement which are related directly to the higher functioning centres (Friedlander et al., 2018).

In this context, the research of Gan-Or et al., (2015) has brought forth the varied characteristics of the REM sleep functioning and the influence of the same on that of human memory related dynamics. As per the research observations of such scholarly endeavours, REM sleep could be characterised, from the electro-physiological procedural perspectives, by the Electro-encephalogram (EEG) activity in the range of 7-9 Hz. Furthermore, this has been corroborated by the research of Blumberg, and Plumeau, (2016), as to be accompanied by the Electro-oculogram (EOG) related activities which have been associated with the bursts of Episodic Conjugate Rapid Eye Movement (ECREM) which are punctuated by the periodic EOG silences. The large muscle groups exhibit a consistent absence of any format of muscle tone. However, McCarter, and Howell, (2016) has observed that this could not be entirely accurate since previous observations had highlighted the fact that phase-based twitches, though tiny in number, within the muscles and the extremities could take place in tandem with that of the occurrence of REMs. To this effect, the physiological autonomic (nervous system) activities such as the breathing and heart motion rates, have been observed to become quite irregular in frequency (Boyce et al., 2016). In case of animals, as has been stated by Iranzo (2018), including those of cats, the phase-based bursts of the REM could be also indicative of the cerebral waves which could be observed at the Pons cortex, at the Lateral Geniculate cortex as well as at the Occipital Cortex..In case of the human beings, the presence of such cerebral waves has so far been disputed. However, according to the opinion of Rahayel et al., (2015), it has been a prevalent assumption that some form of similarity could be in existence between the REM systems of both the human beings and the animals.

Research of Howell, and Schenck (2015), suggests the most frequently occurring marker for the REM sleep in the human beings could be considered to be the appearance of REM functioning while the absolute muscle atonia could be present. In this context, the previously undertaken neuro-chemical studies have consecutively outlined the fact that within the REM functioning, extensive measure of differences in the relative activity of the neurons could take place amongst differential neuro-transmitters as well as in the nerve cells. (Valencia Garcia et al., 2018).

The studies performed by Haba-Rubio et al., (2017) have highlighted that a number of regions in the Human Brain could be considered to be active while the REM sleep phase could be under progression. However, these regions of the brain are generally observed to be inactive during the awakened stages. Such areas could be identified, as per the research of Stokholm et al., (2017), to be those as the Mesopontine Tegmentum, the Thalamus, the limbic structures and Posterior Cortex related areas. The frontal and parietal regions are mostly characterised by reduced activation measures. In this context, Haba-Rubio et al., (2017) has stated that there could be two primary methodological processes and approaches through which the study of differ states of sleep and consolidation of human memory could be concluded. The initial approach could be identified as the concentration of studies which could be inclusive of the recording of EEG results (Valencia Garcia et al., 2018). Apart from this, this specific study approach would have to incorporate the various comparative learning and progression methods which involve the comparative study of the stages of sleep and progress of human brain activities while in the awakened stage, after regular intervals. In both of the cases, the element of sleep deprivation is necessary to be excluded completely. As per the opinion of Howell, and Schenck (2015), the majority of the studies which have been performed in this direction have so far been unable to highlight with any measure of verifiable clarity, any specific effect of REM sleep on the research subjects concerning the focus are of the research. However, on the other hand, the majority of the studies which had utilised recordings of different neuro-electrical activities including the previously mentioned waves and also involved various tasks which could be understood to be based on procedural natures, found that, such influences enhance the effects of the REM based sleep (McCarter, and Howell, 2016). These enhancements could be determined in the format of either an increse in the number of minutes spent in the REM sleep or in the enhancement of the intensity of REM blocks, (Valencia Garcia et al., 2018).

According to Blumberg, and Plumeau, (2016), the second approach of study is inclusive of the process of REM deprivation or REMD. This could be enhanced to the level of deprivation of the entirety of REM sleep or total and absolute REMD. Apart from these, the deprivation of some selective periods of REM sleep could be as well utilised. However, McCarter, and Howell, (2016) had observed that such methods and approaches of study could be only effective if these are performed at either the first half or at the second half of the night. Apart from these, according to the research observations of Friedlander et al., (2018), there have been three additional and specific studies which could be evaluated in this respect concerning the establishment of the linkages between REM based sleep and that of the procedural learning on part of the studied subjects. The first study could be acknowledged as the undertaking of the brain imaging study. According to Howell, and Schenck (2015), this could be alternatively identified as the Positron Emission Tomographic Scanning (PETscan). Under this study process, the concentration of evaluative observation is performed on the reactivation of the multiplicity of various regions. Such reactivated cerebral regions are the same ones which are engaged in the process of acquisition of serial reaction-based task procedures (Patten, and Newhart, 2017). The outcomes of such a study, as per the research observations of Friedlander et al., (2018), have highlighted the existence of memory impairments while the brain could be in pursuit of the rotor tasks after the reduction in the REM density, induced by the alcohol consumption, could be observed. The second study conducted, as per the research of Howell, and Schenck (2015), has highlighted the experiences of participants and volunteers in such a study, regarding the learning of two consecutive procedural tasks and spending the post training phase night sleep within the laboratory. This study brought forward the marked increment in the numbers of both the frequencies of REM and in the density of REM induced sleep at the stages where the acquisition of motor sensory tasks could be compared to the baseline activities of the human brain during various phases of sleep (Ansari et al., 2017). The involvement of a control group of research samples, who had not been actively learning anything during the study, was a significant determinant of the study results (McCarter, and Howell, 2016).

Furthermore, the outcomes of this study have considered of a range of realisations. The first one has been the observed fact that a significant correlation exists between the levels of procedural tasks and that of the REM frequencies and the associated densities during discourse of post-training sleeping. According to Blumberg, and Plumeau, (2016), this clearly clarifies the substantial evidence in favour of the concept that successful consolidation of procedural memory-based tasks are influenced by REM sleep. However, memory has been excluded from such studies and thus, it is not possible to come up with any definitive observation concerning such a factor. In spite of such evidence-based approaches, caution has to be exercised in this concern (Ansari et al., 2017).. McCarter, and Howell, (2016) outlined the necessities of warranting caution in this regard. The most significant one could be outlined as the perceptual notions, associated with various other studies, the REM based sleep could as well have significant effect on practical task attainment by the human consciousness. As per the research of Blumberg and Plumeau, (2016), such studies have been categorised as those which show the meaningfulness of the material which highlight the perception that REM is relevant concerning the processes of memorisation of different elements such as syllables and paired associates or even digits.

Finally, the third observation could be considered to be the recurrent strategy through which declarative processes could be as well included into the procedural evaluation along with the primarily procedural tasks (McCarter, and Howell, 2016). At this juncture, it could be outlined that REM sleep would be necessary for the purpose of the integration of the knowledge spectrum, involving the long-term memory applications. This is primarily related to the independence of such factors regardless of the implicit or the explicit nature of the identified evidences (Blumberg, and Plumeau, 2016).

Research Methodology

Research Methods Outline

The outline of the research methodology is significant for the reason of effectively providing the structure through which the research study has been brought to the conclusion. This process has involved the research tools such as the research philosophy and research design. The objectives have been to select the proper data collection and analysis techniques so as to effectively analyse the collected secondary data. The research methodology also involves proper identification of the type and sources of data which could be collected by the Researcher regarding the research topic under consideration. In this context, the Researcher has selected the secondary data collection format to be utilised for meeting the developed research objectives. The emphasis has been on the analysis and successful evaluation of such collected data concerning the research topic of the importance of REM sleep.

Research philosophy

The Researcher has selected the research philosophy of Positivism for the purpose of effective analysis of the secondary data which has been collected by the Researcher concerning the determination of the impact of REM sleep on that of human beings in general. The selection of Positivism as the research philosophy has been premised on the fact that Positivist approach successfully emphasises on the notion of obtaining research conclusions through observed incidents and through proper evaluation of the different sources of knowledge. According to Crossan (2003), this research philosophy format involves greater emphasis on the examination of the human cognitive psychology regarding discussing or deliberating upon any scientific research topic such as the REM sleep impact on the human mind. Furthermore, the Researcher has selected Positivism as this research philosophy adheres to the notion that factual and verifiable knowledge on any particular research subject, could only be gained through evidence based observation of the available data. This generally relegates the responsibilities of the Researcher to collect data and properly interpret the same in an objective manner. This reduces the burden of research on the Researcher and also provides research findings which could be quantified and could be backed by cross referential studies involving similar research topics.

Research approach

Research approach is another important factor where the research needs to select proper approach to progress in the project successfully. There are two types of research approach, which are inductive and deductive (Coolican, 2017). After gaining proper knowledge and understanding, the researcher tries to analyse and evaluate the research topic on the basis of the existing theories and concepts related to the research topic.

The researcher will choose the deductive approach to gain knowledge and understanding about the research topic REM sleep through acknowledging the existing theories in context to REM sleep.

Data collection

Data collection is another aspect of research methodology, where the researcher needs to select proper technique of collecting relevant and valid data, so that the above-mentioned research topic can be evaluated well (Patten, and Newhart, 2017; Coolican, 2017). There are two types of data collection process, one is primary and second is secondary (Taylor, Bogdan, and DeVault, 2015). The secondary data refers to the collection of the information through secondary sources such as books, journals, online articles, business letters, annual report, newspapers, library, university research and advertising media, which are effective for analysing and gaining ideas of the research topic (Patten, and Newhart, 2017; Bernard, 2017).

Data collection method

Data collection method

In this present research, the researcher will select secondary data collection method so that it is possible to collect a huge range of information and secondary data from the secondary sources of information, which will provide the researcher to conduct in depth analysis related to the research topic. The secondary information related to REM sleep will be helpful for the researcher to gain understanding and knowledge about the topic of REM sleep and analyse the topic diversely.

Data analysis

Data analysis is also necessary under the research methodology through which the researcher can analyse the collected data and evaluate the findings for conducting the study proficiently (Taylor, Bogdan, and DeVault, 2015). There are two types of data analysis, which are quantitative and qualitative (Coolican, 2017). In this research, the researcher will select qualitative data analysis method through which it is possible to observe the findings and evaluate the collected secondary information on the basis of existing literatures. In this regard, qualitative data analysis technique will be beneficial for this research to analyse the above-mentioned research topic which is REM sleep.

Ethical consideration and accessibility issues

In conducting the research, it is necessary to maintain ethical considerations and follow the rules of completing the research without any ethical issues (Taylor, Bogdan, and DeVault, 2015). As per the research ethics, the researchers need to follow the code of conduct in doing the research properly without any issues and in this research, the researcher tries to collect online articles and books, journals from the library for conducting qualitative research. Hereby, it is helpful for the researcher to maintain research ethics, validity and reliability of the data in this research project. In addition to these, Data Protection Act 1998 is important to be maintained in the research, where the researcherensures that the data and information are to be kept safe and secured so that the issue of data hacking can be minimised (Bernard, 2017).

Research findings and discussions

The pathological dimensions of Rapid Eye Movement (REM) have been, collectively, a primary focus of the researchers and scientists since the previous century (Valencia Garcia et al., 2018). The specifics of the mechanisms of sleep regulation, have been consistently under the study gaze of different neuro-pathologists for a considerable time. In this context, according to Boyce et al., (2016), scientific speculations regarding different theoretical constructs have been formulated by different researchers through analysis of the properties and qualities associated with the REM sleep and dreaming process in general.

The secondary research data has highlighted the fulfilment of the criteria of adhering to the thematic constructs which had been established through the research objectives and research questions. The secondary research data also indicated the direction towards which the research investigation had progressed in the form of evaluation of the frequency and nature of the human sleep disorders and the associated effects of the same on the motor skill-based tasks which are integral to the neuro-pathological experiences associated with the human brain and physic. As per the research objectives, the secondary literature has highlighted that the thematic approach of the literature, involving the determination of the influence of REM sleep on the human brain, could be understood and evaluated from assessing the influence of stressful conditions on the mind. The literature review, provides the logical linkage with the research objective of comprehending the influence of dreaming on the progression of the activities of the human brain. This has been reflected through the revelation that REM sleep has extensive influence on the development of human brain and especially in context to the formulation of explicit and strongly apparent memories. Another aspect which provides adequate linkage to the above mentioned research objective is the fact that the literature review has delved into the differences of time duration by infants and adults while having REM sleep. The analysis of the available secondary data has brought to light the fact that infants spend upto half of their sleeping hours in REM sleep. Consequently, the result has also fulfilled the criteria set by the research objective of assessing the reasons which could perpetuate dreaming. This perception has concurred with the study revelation that extensive sections of the Human Brain could remain active during the REM sleep condition progression. This is particularly significant in light of the fact that such active regions remain mostly inactive when the human brain remains in an awakened stage. Such an observation is also considered a logical linkage between the evaluated literature and the research objective of the understanding of the process through which human beings could dream.

The secondary dataset reviewed in the literature review section has been viable in terms of addressing the initial requirements of the research project. These requirements had been detailed through both the research questions and the research objectives. This could be understood from the appropriateness of correlative profile of the data findings and the research objectives. The data has provided the Researcher with the necessity to utilise a reflective approach so that a step based process could be utilised to evaluate the gathered Secondary Quantitative data. The focus has been on the academic investigation and the Quantitative Secondary data. Thus, the resulting data sets have been analysed by the Researcher through a phase based manner. This has involved the explanation of the actual purpose of the study in the form of the influence of REM sleep in the process of dreaming of human beings. Furthermore, the responsibility and the process of collection of the secondary data has been another component of this phased manner. This has been completed by the Researcher. Next, the secondary data evaluation outlined the actualities of the data which had been collected and this has been amply demonstrated through the establishment of the correlation in between the research objectives and the data analysis findings. These sources have been the books, published journals, university research papers, reports available from the laboratories and from previously performed researches as well as from the existing sources of information such as laboratories. Finally, the research literature analysis has also established the logical linkages in between the data analysis findings and the research objectives.

According to the research of Li et al., (2017), it could be determined with and extensive measure of research clarity that certain states of sleep and dreaming are directly related to, influence, from various perspectives, the progression of reprocessing the off-line memory and process of consolidation, on a psychological level, the variety of tasks which the human brain undertakes consistently. Such tasks, as per the opinion of Weber et al., (2015), are identifiable as sleep sensitive tasks. Dauvilliers et al., (2018) have outlined the fact that it is still not clarified, from an academic as well as psycho-pathological research perspective, that which amongst many of the sleep processes demonstrated in the human beings, could be responsible for influencing the human subconscious and pathological dynamics. In this context, the research of Van Dort et al., (2015), has highlighted the fact that the performance of the tasks which are controlled by the human motor skills,could be mostly ascribed to the Stage 2 Sleep. However, Chen et al., (2018) has outlined the fact that more often, the Rapid Eye Movement (REM) based sleep could be considered to be the responsible sleep stage for such tasks. Thus, such observations have been critical in formulation of the background of the corresponding research process.The researches which have been undertaken towards such directions are to be evaluated from an academic perspective. This process could be performed through comparison and contrast of the diverging modes of data derived from the literature review. The objective of such an endeavour is to analyse the significance of REM sleep in determination of differential human physical and psychological states (Valencia Garcia et al., 2018).

The influence of the REM frequencies on the sleep structures of the human beings concerning the baseline activities of the brain has been explored through the secondary literature analysis. Furthermore, the correlation between the acquisition of cerebral procedural learning levels and the REM frequencies concerning the laboratory based tests performed regarding the REM densities, has been delved into as well. This has corresponded to the research objective of evaluation of the influence of REM sleep on the neuro pathological functioning. In terms of the research objective of shedding light on the sleep related ailment frequencies, the secondary data has been reflective of the multiplicity of electro-physiological procedural aspects including the EEG, EOG and ECREM analysis. Furthermore, the differences in the relative activities of human neurons, involving differential functioning of the neuro-transmitters, have been emphasised upon by the secondary research data. This evaluation of the secondary data could be related to the objective of learning the frequency of sleep related and other neurological disorders through studying of REM sleep. Finally, the research objective of recommending specific strands of information and knowledge for the future research processes has been fulfilled by the analysed secondary data. This could be elaborated as the necessity to study memory factor which has been excluded from the mainstream of studies. The requirement to develop observations regarding this factor has been predominant in this context.

Finally, the objective of development of credible recommendations has also been served by the literature based evaluation of the necessity to involve a reoccurring strategy. This strategy could assist any future research process to include the memorisation processes. This process would be of much significance to outline the procedural aspects of REM based sleep evaluation in comparison to the procedural tasks which could lead towards integration of information and learn knowledge in the human psyche with the relevant contextual extents. Furthermore, the study of long term-based memory application development has been another secondary data analysis aspect which has shed light, though primarily, on the influence of REM sleep-based conditions on the overall human brain functioning.


The purpose of the preceding research proposal has been establish the significance of REM sleep concerning a variety of implications on the human health and psycho-physiology. The research project has been oriented towards addressing the research problems associated with the fundamentals of sleep occurrence and the subsequent influence of the same on the human physiological conditions as well as pathological conditions such as Narcolepsy and other sleep disorders. The future research would consider the frequencies of sleep disorders and the commonness of the same within the human brain (Blumberg, and Plumeau, 2016). From an academic perspective, the entire research undertaking has been considerate about the exploration of the overall causality of the physio-pathological phenomenon of Dreaming in human beings. Special focus has been concentrated on the effects of Rapid Eye Movement based sleep and associated processes of dreaming on the development of human sub-consciousness (Blumberg, and Plumeau, 2016; Valencia Garcia et al., 2018). The Researcher would be attempting to utilise the collected Secondary research data from factually valid and verifiable sources so that such data and information could be compared and contrasted with other similar research projects. This would enhance the clarity of the research process and would enable the Researcher to put in evidence-based observations as the core of the entire research perspective.


Validations of future research data

It would be necessitated by the Researcher to delve into specific efforts to consistently validate the gathered data from differential secondary sources regarding the REM sleep induced changes and development within the human cerebral processes. Greater emphasis would thus have to be provided on the evidence based empirical research process so that contribution to the formulation, development and maintenance of the overall research structure could be maintained.

Greater effort to maintain functionalist approach through data authenticity

The measures of credibility and authenticity would have to be consistently emphasised upon by the Researcher in future researches. This could be premised upon the perspectives of the necessity to diversify the existing base of knowledge which could better highlight the internal dynamics of the human brain from a functionalist perspective.

Proto-consciousness based research approach for the purpose of sleep disorder identification

The future research would have to be considerate of the frequencies of sleep disorders and the prevalence of the same within the human brain. This could be achieved through concentrating on the secondary research data depending on the theory of consciousness which could be related to the study of the process of dreaming. This could be better outlined that a REM sleep induced proto-consciousness study could lead to the generation of a virtual reality-based models of the surrounding environment within the human mind. This virtual reality-based model is particularly effective in contributing to the functional application of the consciousness while the human mind could be awakened.

SMART nature of recommendations

The recommendations are specific since the recommendations have been formulated with the specified goals of improvement of the future research projects concerning the current topic. The findings of the data analysis process have been scrutinised to arrive at the significance associated with such particular recommendations.

The recommendations are measurable since these have been formulated on the criteria of development and progressions such as validations, approaches and efforts. The outcomes from the implementation of such recommendations could be measured in specific terms and this could provide the measurable factor in terms of the operational perspectives related to the research topic.

The recommendations are attainable since these recommendations have been constituted on the basis of the perspective of transforming the capability of research progression to overt capability application. The direction is towards infusing greater accuracy in determination of the influence of REM sleep on the development of human psyche including the process of dreaming in human beings.

The recommendations are realistic since these are of high optical influence and require the same research footing which the Researcher has so far utilised in the current research project.

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