Interconnected Safety Challenges

Whether people adopt health and safety in jewellery industry

It is difficult to isolate the issues pertainining to safety as they effect and compound one another creating a synergistic impact. For instance synergistic impact is that which can be obtained due to exposure to asbestos. The smoking of cigarettes causes lung cancer from asbestos exposure is 50 to 90 times more. However, Wheeler (2019, p. 25), pointed out the fact how an individual behaves depends on their external enviuronment. In the mentioned case, the sense of safety is synonymous to healthy living. There remains no shortage of evidence that chemicals at work place interact with one another and lead to severe harmful effect. Dust from gold mining can create negative impacts. Silver dust forms black stains over the skin and thus it is important to conduct a chemical audit in a jewellery workshop.


In light of the recent knowledge, it becomes important to understand that accidents are indispensable part of the human work culture. Wiek and Lang (2016, p. 41), advised that it is important to work steadily band remain calm, while being fully aware of the surroundings. The aim of health and safety initiatives is to prevent possibilities of injury or accident to personal well being of an individual arising during the event of work. The action can be done by reasonably practising processes that can work on reducing the potential hazards at the workplace. The safety in domains related to work is highly varied among different countries, social groups and economic sectors. There are reported 2 million deaths of people working within the jewellery industry due to occupational health hazards. As influenced by Batat (2019, p. 211), often the most deprived and the least protected individuals such as women and children are the ones most employed and affected by the unhealthy and unsafe workplace.

On the basis of the above research it can be easily stated the basic idea relating to substitution and safety is aimed at lowering the risks. There remains no particular understanding just a level of consciousness of the chosen problem and effort to reduce the possible issues coming in contact with hazardous substances any reduction in contact with harmful substance is a positive reaction. The main exposure routes for the chemicals are through the series of inhalation and ingestion. Most countries have legal regulations that protect the health and safety of the workers. As influenced by Wofford, MacDonald and Rodehau (2016, p. 68), it is a fundamental responsibility of a business to ensure that workers are not adversely affected due to their work. Health and safety management programs and systems are formed to protect the workers from work related hazards. A preventive health and safety culture can work on providing substantial benefits. These are inclusive of reductions related to illness, injuries, regulatory fines, sick leaves and so on. The events of claims related to injuries can work on enhancing the workplace, motivation and performance among the employees. Thus, the series of issues, highlights the fact that there remains a limited implementation of health and safety programs. As stated by Wofford, MacDonald and Rodehau (2016, p. 68), the limited implementation of health and safety programs making the issue important. Specific types of hazards that can be seen in case of the jewellery making industry are as follows:


The extraction of valuable materials such as gold and diamonds are done through a series of mining related activities. As stated by Thakur, Narula and Zutshi (2017, p. 143), mines can be hazardous places to work for as it can often lead to serious health concerns that can be assessed as follows:

Exposure to substances such as dust that can lead to silicosis or harmful chemicals such as mercury or cyanide

Poor ventilation, coupled with noise pollution, vibration and heat, specially during the underground operations

Prolonged exposure to natural elements of weather such as extreme heat and cold

Death or injuries due to unfortunate events such as mine collapse

Poor maintained and old equipments

Lack of training among the workforce and lack of general education makes people prone to accidents

Transport related accidents such as specialised mining vehicles

Emergency response can be termed as a key issue for local communities where activities related to mining are carried out. However, it often demands collaborative approach and planning. Potential kinds of emergencies are related to:

High volume materials management

Chemical emissions

Natural hazards

Social unrest and so on

Gold processing and refining:

The activities related to gold processing and refining may expose the workers to a series of health risks that are as follows:

Molten materials, specially the metals inclusive of radiation and other potential sources of temperature

Exposure to toxic chemicals such as fumes of chlorine and hydrochloric acid

Cutting and polishing:

The event related to cutting and polishing is inclusive of activities that increase strain on eyes and inhalation of suspended particles. The posture creates shoulder and back pain, specific examples can include the following:

Misuse or absence of personal protective equipments such as goggles and masks that can be needed during different stages of production (Husaini, 2019, p. 185)

Locked emergency exits are common practices in the industry. Some manufacturing units have personalised safety vaults to reduce the potential chances of theft. However, this practice is often termed illegal in certain countries

Unhygienic working conditions can be termed as one of the leading causes of concern among the workers. In polishing factories there is production of abundant amounts of dust. These places are poorly ventilated and may lead to poor respiratory infections (D’Anolfo et al. 2017, p. 427)

Key regulations

International and national standards

The international law has more than 70 recommendations and conventions in regards to health and safety standards. This covers a list of specific risks that affect a variety of sections that provides preventive measures at work. However, it should be noted that regulations are important for enforcing legal standards at work. These guidelines can work on providing a better work environment. However, it should be noted that methods related to law enforcement vary from place to place as influenced by Chatterji and Palakshappa (2016, p. 215), several countries have governments working for implementing better work related policies for ensuring safety practices. An applicable regulation for ensuring consumer’s safety comes under the trading policies. However, it should be taken into consideration that the workplace is related to a series of hazards that can jeopardize the operating license. Serious accidents within the workplace can lead to substantial penalties that can lead to a list of issues within the business.

Isomorphic pressure within the chosen industry

Isomorphic pressure within the chosen industry

The normative configuration is the diffusion and reinforcement of behavioural norms within the chosen industry prescribing the legitimacy of the firms to function within the chosen industry, prescribing the legitimacy of of the business organizations to operate within the chosen domain and comes as a manifestation of the interaction. Normative isomorphism under the theory of in industrial organizational isomorphism has been implemented in regards to latent literature that transpire the existing normative configuration. The concept continuously draw the consideration over the contemporary research works.

CSR doctrine within the chosen industry

There remains no doubt that almost a single piece of jewelry is produced through a series of combined efforts of workers all around the country. Every individual or business organization who is working in the manufacturing sector depends on integrity and work. Thus, if one component within the jewellery is ethically manipulated- for instance if the gems are polished in a factory where the worker’s lungs are damaged due to poor ventilation, then integrity of the entire product is threatened and the customer will probably not buy that jewelry due to the poor safety record of the gem cutting factory (Wong and Dhanesh, 2017, p. 88). The individuals involved in creating the piece would pay the price. The Indian jewelry business deals in luxury items. In other words fine jewelry is often perceived as a non-essential item, unlike pharmaceutical, food and energy products. Thus, there remains a tendency of the customers not to purchase the product

On a worldwide scale the quantity of people legitimately and in a roundabout way utilized by the more prominent adornments industry runs into millions. Without a doubt, there are nations whose financial prosperity is reliant upon the items produced and sold. Adornments may not be a basic thing, yet the gems business most unquestionably is, and it is right now the reason for CSR to gain more prominence (Hou et al. p. 2). The business wide impression of Corporate Social Responsibility that created because of the contention precious stone involvement with the early piece of the 21 century prevalently included the production of cautious frameworks, similar to the Kimberley Process, which were all intended to guarantee that adornments and its parts do no mischief, or as the old Romans stated: "primum non nocere."

Around 2004 we started examining inside CIBJO an extended vision of Corporate Social Responsibility, by which the gems business would look for not exclusively to not affect contrarily on society and the earth, yet additionally to fill in as a positive financial and social power, particularly in the nations wherein the business is dynamic (Riguelle and Van Caillie, 2017, p. 81). It was this new understanding which roused the jewelry companies to start contact with the United Nations, in the end prompting CIBJO's turning into the adornments business solitary part in the UN's Economic and Social Council, or ECOSOC, in 2006. The World Business Council for Sustainable Development, in its distribution "Appearing well and good", Dauvergne (2017, p. 135) defined "Corporate Social Responsibility is the proceeding with duty by business to act morally and add to monetary improvement, while improving the personal satisfaction of the workforce and their families just as of the neighborhood network and society on the loose."

As agents the business carries on morally through the nature of administration of individuals and procedures, just as the manner by which the business sways upon society. Also, on the grounds that that can have any kind of effect on people around – both adversely and emphatically . At the point when Lho,Park and Yu (2019, p. 63), talks about Corporate Social Responsibility it is fundamental to qualify precisely to whom are dependable. The following things need to be taken into consideration (Dekhili and Achabou, 2016, p. 3):

(1) The business network, which incorporates all the officials and workers along the whole length of the chain of dispersion, or as is commonly said, from the mine through to the jewelry retailer.

(2) The customers, who purchase gems for its excellence, legacy and its capacity to communicate human feeling,

(3) The partners, who incorporate a large number of people living in the nations and areas around the globe wherein are dynamic, and for whom the business speak to an asset for practical monetary and social improvement (Karaosman et al. 2018).

To be dependable corporate residents in the cutting edge adornments business, the jewelry business needs to three fundamental guidelines of training:

(1) To guard the business from the different difficulties that could compromise notoriety and respectability;

(2) To work as a positive impact, filling in as a methods for practical financial and social improvement in the networks and nations in the areas of operation

(3) To be completely straightforward in the manner and work for the betterment of the company In addition to that, Wheeler (2019, p. 12), stated divulgence lies at the core of our straightforwardness necessity, and from the shopper's point of view our duty is clear. The customer needs to be advised precisely on what is being sold. Treated and manufactured gemstones, for instance, are not innately corrupt nor are they illicit, as long as the shopper sees precisely what they seem to be.

Yet, so as to be straightforward – at the end of the day to have the option to reveal unmistakably – one should have the option to portray the item in a language that is comprehended all through the exchange. It was to propel this necessity that CIBJO built up its Blue Books, which are today the most generally perceived and acknowledged arrangement of adornments and gemstone benchmarks on the planet (Cantele, 2018, p. 112). In 2007 the yearly CIBJO congress occurred in Cape Town, and it was the first occasion when such an industry occasion was held in Africa. Within the sight of the South African representative president and pastors from governments all through the area, our General Assembly sanctioned an explanation that has since gotten known as the Cape Town Declaration (Abbasi, 2020). It noticed the job of the world adornments industry in advancing Corporate Social Responsibility, and perceived "that the gems business, as an individual from the universal business network, shares an obligation toward the more noteworthy society in looking for down to earth arrangements towards the annihilation of outrageous neediness and craving, just as to building up a worldwide organization for improvement."

The point of wellbeing and security activities is to forestall potential outcomes of injury or mishap to individual prosperity of an individual emerging during the occasion of work. The activity should be possible by sensibly rehearsing forms that can take a shot at diminishing the potential dangers at the work environment (Lauwo, Kyriacou and Otusanya, 2019). The security in areas identified with work is profoundly changed among various nations, social gatherings and financial divisions. There are accounted for 2 million passings of individuals working inside the gems business because of word related wellbeing risks. As impacted by Hewamanne (2019), regularly the most denied and the least ensured people, for example, ladies and kids are the ones generally utilized and influenced by the unfortunate and perilous work environment.

Most nations have legitimate guidelines that secure the wellbeing and wellbeing of the laborers. As impacted by Quairel-Lanoizelee (2016), it is an essential duty of a business to guarantee that laborers are not unfavorably influenced because of their work. Wellbeing and security the board projects and frameworks are shaped to shield the laborers from business related risks. A preventive wellbeing and security culture can chip away at giving considerable advantages. These are comprehensive of decreases identified with disease, wounds, administrative fines, wiped out leaves, etc. The occasions of cases identified with wounds can take a shot at upgrading the work environment inspiration and execution among the representatives (Tomić-Koludrović, Puzek and Petrić, 2018). Then again, poor administration identified with wellbeing and security guidelines can chip away at demolishing the conceivable notoriety of the business at business levels. Organization wellbeing and security programs deal with forestalling the work environment related mishaps and issues identified with wellbeing. In any case, a few organizations discover it amazingly difficult to execute key projects that are replied to according to the requests of the organization (Boiral, Heras-Saizarbitoria and Brotherton, 2019, p. 701).

CSR practices and jewelry industry

Universally accepted definition relation to CSR in both small and large organizations remains elusive. For instance Batat (2019, p. 211), characteristics of social responsibility is the firms’ consideration of and response to the possible issues beyond the stated requirements that the fund needs to accomplish, the possible social, economic and environmental aspects related to CSR. However, Husaini (2019), suggests defining the responsibilities of business through the problematic word social.

D’Anolfo et al. (2019, p. 428), further argues the fact that such responsibility should be taken into consideration in CSR. In similar regards, it is additionally taken into account that smaller firms are not necessarily made to be subjected to global critique when exposed to behaving out of the traditional policies. It is for the same reason, the jewellery manufacturing units in India do not take the CSR policies with enthusiasm (Pinto et al. 2019, p. 1366). Nevertheless, the researcher needs to reflect on the distinctive aspects of small business perspective within the domains of CSR. Such aspects are inclusive of empirical reality. The importance of personal motivation to engage in CSR related activities by business owners; social importance of maintaining livelihood for employees; maintaining well being of the employees and distinctive competitive relationships can help in determining the competitors representing the stakeholders rather than enemies (Riguelle and Van Caillie, 2017, p. 100). The series of characteristics related to social responsibility draws a theory from large perspectives that are less transferable in nature Greater recognition can be provided to the interdependent networks that often creates a hindrance for small businesses to stick to the responsible and social practices (Dauvergne, 2017, p. 136)

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Theoretical framework

Wheeler (2019, p. 25), proposed the possible notion related to harm chain that allows the policy makers to consider the ones who are harmed, as well as those individuals who can address the harm throughout the chain. Previous studies extended this theoretical framework in several contexts such as the jewelry. The harm chain suggests that within the business exchange there are four stages that can help the researchers to understand the levels of harm and their chances of occurrence; namely pre-production, production, consumption and post-consumption. Recent literature in regards to marketing has characterised a change from value in exchange to value in use, suggesting the fact that consumers are highly involved in creating value for a specific product. Thus, Abbasi (2020), provided improvement of Hewamanne (2017, p. 226), harm chain while implementing the perspective of Quairel-Lanoizelee (2016) ideas allowing the analysis to make symbolic dimensions of the chosen industry. Despite the possible strengths presented by Wagner and Disparte (2016, p. 221), harm may occur, it is for the same reason Moraes et al. (2017, p. 525), further improved framework with additional dimension addressed as institutional forces leading to harm. The chosen dimension is captured through the lens of institutional theory, providing strong theoretical analysis. However, the same institutional theory can be implemented to explain homogeneity and persistence. Stekelorum et al. (2019, p. 6), advocated the fact that he can work on explaining the action of an individual or an organization as a whole. The mentioned intervention works on powerfully driving the change and shaping the nature of change across levels and contexts. Thus, the chosen institutional theory helps us in explaining the institutional forces that may lead to potential harm within the industry. The same forces could potentially lead to positive transformational change helps in pointing the process of change. For instance, the harm related to co-creation of jewelry designers who are often seen to ignore the gem provenance during the stage of pre-production (Theron, 2019, p. 187). The ignorance points towards the need for stronger policies to comply with the possible policies and environmental initiatives. The institutional perspective is deemed useful in explaining the structural elements that include political pressure and existing professional traditions within the construct of traditional business practices. Stekelorum (2019, p. 25), identified the isomorphic driving agents through which institutional changes are likely to occur are normative, coercive and mimetic.

As per the study conducted by Parguel et al. (2020, p. 428), coercive isomorphism happens due to pressure from the regulators and stakeholders upon whom organization depends. Mimetic isomorphism links with the imitation of the competitors to reduce the chances related to cognitive uncertainty. In similar regards, normative isomorphism is linked with pressure arising from trade associations, media and NGO. Inb understanding the internal forces Fransen, Kolk and Rivera-Santos (2019), suggested an updated framework for driving the change. Similar to Roy (2019), coercive isomorphism is Athwal (2019, p. 405) institutional process of changing to achieve the desired stability for ensuring social welfare of the workers. The second institutional process that can be proposed is validating and involves a series of legitimacy through interaction with trade association. Sheehy (2016, p. 1), hints towards the importance of validating composed normative and mimetic isomorphisms. The third process within the institutional theory links towards the importance of habitualising and is composed of corporate beliefs and cultural norms. These factors are composed of possible emergence of new institutional forms

The social and global environmental harm caused by the jewelry industry stems from the series of complex features and networks, exclusively found within the jewellery sector. However, Jensen and Scheuer (2016, p. 97), argued the positive implication arising from business transactions that underpin the sector of fine jewellery. The possible harms that arise are cancelled from the goods produced. Noronha (2016, p. 56), states the fact, as long as the industry tells itself that their actions are likely to bring good rather than harm, they are less likely to reflect on the possibility of minimising the potential harm. While, there exists a series of voluntary certification processes that work on removing unethical practices in the sector of mining of precious stones have gathered a series of criticism directed towards the schemes (Biswas, Raj and Srivastava, 2018). Thus, the jewellery sector must work on considering the external stakeholder groups perceiving their responsibilities of firms to appear to be broader than those defined by the business (Chen and Luk, 2017, p. 281). Thus, a research perspective that includes the harm linked with marketing of jewellery is beneficial, due to the possible environmental and social performance that are now imperative to sustainability and competitive advantage in business.

Ways to address the issues

Training can be termed as one of the most primitive ways of ensuring better ways of ensuring that CSR initiatives are maintained. Training can be the most sought after method to ensure that workers within the mentioned sector comply with the standard health and safety norms. Nevertheless, it is of prime importance to note the fact that training can provide better manifestation in light of proper education and awareness (Riguelle and Van Caillie, 2017, p.81). Most of the working population in the chosen sector are poorly educated, especially the women and children. In similar regards, children are often seen to lack the basic knowledge pertaining to safety making the aspect of training a futile attempt to recover the workplace scenario. Thus, there exists a series of things other than training that can be deemed helpful to improve the existing situation. For instance, stringent laws for a better work environment can be termed as a good way of ensuring better safety prospects. Employee health and safety should be CSR priority. Keeping employees safe within the workplace is an important responsibility of the organization. As influenced by Bedu-Addo et al. (2019, p. 545), it is easy to assume that the problems in the mentioned scenario are strictly human resource related. The fact that it should be implemented for keeping the employees safe needs to go a long way towards communicating the prioritization of the condition of the chosen industry. A research conducted by Jamali, Karam and Blowfield (2017), gives a great example pertaining to the employee health management. Results suggest that evidence based studies are implemented to find that proactive measures can be implemented to promote better health and raise employee motivation along with productivity. In similar regards, the Indian jewelry business can make use of comprehensive health care annual checkups to initiatives that can work on coping with occupational health hazards that are aimed at preventing long working hours.

However, Hiquet, R. and Oh (2019), stated US spends more on healthcare related facilities than any other industrialised developed nation, people are seen to live and preventable sickness and diseases. Nevertheless, Visser (2017), on the basis of business perspective, represents a great opportunity to make the health of employees a catalyst for larger societal issues. Reframing wellness and health is termed as a broader value chain issue, ensuring that the CSR agenda reflects the shift, dedicated to sustainability (Kotler and Maon, 2016, p. 205). New scope related to business opportunities may arise as the chosen sector forms a holistic understanding of the ways how wellness and safety is linked with the social and environmental challenges in business. In similar regards, it is important to understand that there exists a massive crossover between human resources and CSR. The health of the employee needs to be a focal point for the business organizations trying to move forward (Silva and Schaltegger, 2019). The current issue within the chosen sector is the concern related to talent. The concern related to talent needs to be well past the retention competence. Thus, it is important to note the fact that just because the organization provides a cost effective plan that addresses the health concern of the employees, this may not be enough. An active promotion of health is needed to ensure that the health priority from every angle



The term research methodology is used to describe a specific set of procedures that is implemented to identify, choose, process and analyse the available information on the topic. Within the current research paper, the methodology section allows the readers to critically evaluate the overall validity and reliability of the study. The section thus makes use of relevant terms such as research philosophy and works on providing a clear idea about the ways data should be collected and analysed.

Research Approach and Strategic Design

The chosen approach is implemented in social and life science related issues as they allow extensive study of a particular research group over a series of units. The implementation of the embedded methods is apt for investigating modern issues within the context of real life. In the mentioned context, the aspect related to CSR and the dearth of the same can be termed as an ongoing issue. The term epistemology, what is known to be true, as opposed to the existing doxology which is believed to be true, holds different philosophies research approach. The research in the mentioned case makes use of constructivism as the chosen mode of philosophy. As influenced by Bresler and Stake (2017, p. 113), constructivism in research has strong links in epistemology. The researcher needs to have prior experience and knowledge about the topic chosen which is often determined by the cultural and social environment. On the mentioned scenario, it can be clearly stated that the researcher and even the general public is aware of the potential harm associated with working in the jewelry industry. The occupational health hazards and lack of suitable CSR policies is evident in the mentioned case scenario. Learning in the mentioned scenario, is carried out by constructing knowledge out of the experiences gained by the researcher.

Qualitative research

A qualitative approach can be considered suitable due to the exploratory nature of the current research study Fletcher (2017, p. 181), coupled with the lack of suitable investigation within the jewellery sector of India. Thus, it can be stated, qualitative research is a multimethod in focus, involving a naturalistic approach making use of an interpretive approach. This means a qualitative approach to research to the mentioned subject matter. As influenced by Wiek and Lang (2016, p. 31), qualitative research can use a series of methods for developing a deep understanding of the exact ways how people perceive their existing social realities and act within the social world. The mentioned research thus works on understanding the ways of ensuring the most possible ways of reinforcing CSR related policies within the chosen industry. The qualitative research method makes use of semi-structured interview generating data through the use of open ended questions. This can further allow the respondents to frame their answer. On the other hand, use of a qualitative approach to data collection can help in choosing their own words and the researcher can develop a real sense of understanding about the situation (Mohajan, 2018, p. 23). The research will thus collect the relevant sources of data both primary and secondary

Data collection and sampling

The empirical data related to the current research are collected through a series of face to face interviews. The interviews are conducted with SME representatives and key trade informants at the premises of Indian jewellery. An empirical data for the project is collected through a series of interventions of two sources (managers) from Mumbai and Chennai respectively. The research makes use of comparative case study arising from both the places mentioned. The series of interviewing lasting between one and two hours may probably lead to data saturation. This small number of research participants are in terms with a prescribed methodological approach for executing fine enquiry. The interview through the given prospect can work on reflecting the issues that are termed to be important to the current research topic

The relevant data is collected from the jewellery market for SME, trading on global and local basis. The jewellery sector is termed as a difficult sector to gain access due to the high levels of security and secrecy involved. The topic related to healthcare and safety is a sensitive one for the employees to discuss and demands extreme secrecy. The method of data collection is mixed sampling strategy incorporating a method of purposive sampling for identifying the participants. It should be taken into consideration, unlike Mohajan et al. (2018, p. 23) the research in the current context does not cover the stages of extraction and stages of manufacturing supply chain. Nevertheless, the research in the current context engages with the different stages of supply chain and several intermediaries of the supply chain inclusive of the people who have a clear idea about the process of extraction. Thus, the sample used in the current research for collecting the relevant data provides an informed idea about the jewellery trade and operations within the Indian market. All the interviews are recorded and transcribed to address the issues related to confirmability and credibility. In addition to that secondary sources are analysed and a systematic review of literature is conducted for understanding the possible prospects of CSR within the chosen industry. Thus, it becomes important to understand the influence of CSR.

Furthermore, the research makes use of qualitative and quantitative study to collect the needed data for the research. The qualitative study makes use of primary data collected through a series of interview questions (semi-structured). The quantitative data are secondary, collected through the research work done by previous researchers and make use of the comparative case study to align with the mentioned case study.

The subjects chosen for the participation need to meet the stated criteria:

Exhibiting a high level of willingness to participate

Falling within the age range of 40 to 60 years but not below 18 years of age

Participants are chosen irrespective of gender or race’

Engaged in the chosen business for minimum 6 years


The ethics in the domain of research are a complex matter that needs to be addressed with care. As influenced by Cuervo‐Cazurra et al. (2017, p. 233), ethical principles of beneficence, autonomy, justice are guides for the researcher to balance the needs and goals of the research and protect rights of the participants. In similar regards, the secondary sources used in the following case scenario are rightly referenced. The work of the authors is rightly referenced and untested, making sure that there remains no scope of plagiarism. As stated previously, the point of wellbeing and security activities is to forestall conceivable outcomes of injury or mishap to individual prosperity of an individual emerging during the occasion of work. The activity should be possible by sensibly rehearsing forms that can take a shot at diminishing the potential perils at the work environment. The security in spaces identified with work is profoundly shifted among various nations, social gatherings and financial areas. There are accounted for 2 million passings of individuals working inside the adornments business because of word related wellbeing risks. Hence, it can be conclusively stated it is important to ensure that the well being of the research participants are not harmed.


The research in the mentioned context is laced with the challenges such as unsolicited approaches to the business. As stated by Ørngreen and Levinsen (2017, p. 70), unsolicited approaches to the business are prone to rejection. The researcher gained the needed permission to access the information. Due to the possible time and cost involved, qualitative designs do not draw the required information from large sets of data leading to a series of limitations. A research conducted by Cuervo‐Cazurra et al. (2017, p. 233), states the fact, the problem of reliability and validity is often perceived as a major criticism. Furthermore, the problem related to data reliability and validity is termed as a major criticism. The subjective nature of the data makes it difficult for the application of traditional standards of validity and reliability. For example, the prime role played by the researcher in collecting the data it is difficult to replicate. In similar regards, the time needed to collect the data, analyse the same and interpretation of the data is equally time consuming. Analysis of the collected qualitative data can be termed as a difficult task and demands expert knowledge.

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