Theoretical Foundations and Critical Analysis

Chapter introduction

This chapter in the current research is playing a crucial role as it is providing a theoretical support based on the analysis of literatures collected from various sources. The chapter contains the prominent findings and conclusions, which are made in the research works similar to the topic “The impact of cultural intelligence on employee job performance”. For this purpose, information has been obtained from many sources such as books, journal articles, research papers, newspapers and many more. Not only this, but, there was also focus on acquiring the suitable information on the topic of the current research works from internet sources, which include websites and many others. In the chapter, information described in these sources is interpreted to find what previous studies have been conducted on the topic and what their findings are. In addition to this, the chapter also draws the noticeable gaps in the analysed literatures.


The concept of cultural intelligence

According to the research work completed by Ersoy, (2014), cultural intelligence can be understood as the awareness of the employees of an organisation with the culture of the targeted market. The study has suggested that in different markets, different people exhibit different approaches and practices, which are accountable for bringing differentiation among the cultures. For this reason, same ways of customer targeting cannot provide the desired outcomes and results to the companies (Bharwani and Jauhari, 2017). Due to this, it becomes important for the marketing managers in organisations to develop the quality of cultural intelligence within the employees and marketing professionals. The ultimate aim of the cultural intelligence for organisations is to develop as much understanding of the culture and the behaviours of the targeted customers as possible.

Ljubica and Dulcic, (2012), have completed his research work on the cultural intelligence for the employees working in an organisation. The scholar has found in his study that there are several peculiarities associated with cultural intelligence, which are supposed to be focused by the companies. These may include attitude of the targeted customers in a market towards the brand as well as the products and services which are offered. In addition to this, the marketing professionals also need to evaluate the cultural factors in a market, which are much likely to affect the product purchase decisions of the targeted customers (Alshaibani and Bakir, 2017). It can be understood that cultural factors such as religion, rituals and many more may develop particular behaviour and attitude for the targeted customers towards the products. For this reason, it becomes highly essential for the marketing professionals in organisations to have high cultural intelligence.

From the analysis of the above literatures, it can be said that there are many considerations that should be made by the organisations while developing cultural intelligence.

Relationship between globalisation and cultural intelligence

Cultural intelligence is becoming a growingly vital aspect of global business, providing a host of advantages to organisations that perform to enhance it. With growing connectivity through every organisation and people and with international cooperation becoming growingly instrumental for business effectiveness, cultural intelligence has taken on a new significance. Globalisation signifies greater access to more human resources, knowledge and talent, which gives a dynamic working strategy. Nevertheless, this also indicates gap in intelligence of diverse cultures and customs, which are presently being exposed a lot more regularly due to globalisation. This can results in divides that effect employees. Morale, work environment, working relationships and accordingly employees’ performance. Hence, it is vital for encourage cultural intelligence in global organisations (Randstad, 2018).

Employee job performance in organisations

Employee job performance is described as the performance of the employees of an organisation. It is found in the research work accomplished by Kanten, (2014), that based on the cultures and other factors in organisations, performance level of different employee varies significantly. There can be organisations and workplace conditions, in which the employees of an organisation are highly performing and productive. On the contrary, there are also possibilities that due to unfavourable workplace conditions in a company performance of employees is low. This way, employee job performance can be understood as the productivity level of the employees and workers in a company.

Butler et al., (2014), have explained in their research study that there can be several factors within an organisation, which are likely to have significant effects over the employee job performance. The study indicates that organisational culture, policies, strategies and business approaches are some of the factors, which may affect the employee job performance in organisations. In addition to this, there are also some determinants of employee job performance. These may include comparative productivity level of the employee, engagement and commitment of the employees towards their responsibilities and duties, sales of the products and services in the organisation and many others (Bakir et al., 2017). It can be analysed that employee job performance play a significant role in determining the success of an organisation in targeting its strategic objectives and operating excellently in the business markets.

It can be analysed from the above literatures that employee job performance is the productivity and performance level of the employees while working in a company.

Need and significance of high employee job performance in Restaurant Associates

As per the study carried out by Solomon and Steyn (2017), Restaurant Associates is one of the leading business of Compass Group, which is a renowned company in the hospitality industry of the UK. The organisation is employer to more than 60000 employees across the world, which put their efforts in manufacturing and servicing the food services and products to the customers (Restaurantassociates, 2019). It can be said that it is important for the human resource managers in the company to focus on employee job performance on Restaurant Associates due to several reasons. Performance of the employees shapes the business activities and their effectiveness in targeting the customers for Restaurant Associates. Therefore, it can be understood that if the employees of the organisation will be highly performing; then, Restaurant Associates is much likely to acquire more business and productivity while operating in UK and Ireland.

Tabariv et al., (2016), have illustrated in their research study that service-based businesses such as restaurants and many others are highly dependent upon the performance of the employees. For this reason, performance monitoring also becomes cone of the crucial elements for Restaurant Associates in the UK and Ireland. The organisation needs to monitor the current performance level of the employees and compare it with their past performances. This approach may allow the human resource professionals to understand the factors affecting the performance of the employees (Alshaibani, 2015). Not only this, but the human resource professionals and managers in Restaurant Associates may also formulate effective plans based on the data regarding employee job performance for organisational growth and excellence. Due to these reasons, it becomes highly important for the managers to evaluate the employee job performance in Restaurant Associates.

Sucher and Cheung, (2015), have found in their research work that the factor of competition and rivalry is also noticeable for developing the practices of evaluating employee job performance in Restaurant Associates. It can find in the study that there are thousands of the restaurants businesses in the UK and Ireland, which may belong to different sizes and categories. These businesses may also offer the same or similar products and can easily change the perspective and decision making of the targeted customers. As a result, Restaurant Associates may face decline in the customer rush, which may ultimately affect their business and profitability (Moon, 2013). Since, employees are the functional units in Restaurant Associates, which put their efforts in organisational processes; therefore, it becomes highly crucial for the managers to evaluate the employee job performance as well as the measures to enhance it (Ang and Van Dyne, 2015). Focus on employee job performance may allow the strategic and human resource managers to find the challenges being faced by the employees at workplace as well as the possible solutions, which may result in higher performance.

This way, it can be said that employee job performance has great significance and need for the business of Restaurant Associates because the employees of the company contribute in organisational productivity. Therefore, human resource managers in Restaurant Associates need to develop the strategies through which employee job performance could be enhanced.

Impacts and influences of cultural intelligence on employee job performance in Restaurant Associates

According to the research paper of Magnusson et al., (2013) cultural intelligence is highly crucial for the employees working in Restaurant Associates for targeting efficiency and excellence in their business markets. It is found in the study that Restaurant Associates operates in the business markets of UK and Ireland. Since, Restaurant Associates is a part of the business managed by Compass Group, which operate in several European and American countries such as USA, UK, Ireland, Germany, France and many more; therefore, it becomes important for the managers and strategic developers to have the employees with high understanding of the cultural differences in these countries (Jyoti and Kour, 2015). Choices made by the targeted customers in a business market or country may significantly vary from the choices made in Ireland and the UK. Therefore, if the company will be targeting the customers with same products and services as that of other markets; then, the approaches and strategies are likely to fail. Upon evaluating the employees’ point of view, it is found that employees may adopt same practices in different business markets, if they will not have the awareness regarding the differences. This is how, cultural intelligence is found highly benefitting in enhancing the performance of the employees in Restaurant Associates.

Further, there are several studies, which indicate that the human resource managers in Restaurant Associates consider several approaches for evaluating and enhancing the cultural intelligence of the sales professionals (Huff et al., 2014). It is found in the study that the restaurants of the organisation are visited by numerous customers belonging to different countries and cultures. These customers have specific choices for the food items and other services, which are offered at Restaurant Associates. Since, the restaurant focuses on enhancing the experiences of its customers; therefore, it becomes essential to evaluate the cultural factors related to different customers. Keeping the past records of the customers and evaluating the customers choices based on their culture are some of the fascinating activities, which can be seen in Restaurant Associates (Crowne, 2013). These approaches for having high cultural intelligence allow the employees and baristas in Restaurant Associates to deliver effective and admirable services to the customers from different cultures. This way, it can be analysed that cultural intelligence allows the employees in Restaurant Associates to treat the customers as per their needs and choices, which enhances their productivity and performance level. As a result, Restaurant Associates has become one of the noticeable restaurants in the UK and Ireland for its appreciable customer services (Duff et al., 2012).

Further, it is also found in the study that Restaurant Associates is employer to thousands of the employees from UK and Ireland. These employees may speak Irish and English languages and have adequate understanding of their culture (Huff, 2013). In addition to this, the organisation also follows the policies of job rotation, in which one employee is supposed to work at different locations allowing him or her to acquire cultural intelligence. These practices have significant impacts over the job performances of the employees as the can compare the quality and nature of the services in different cultures and take decision accordingly.

This way, it can be analysed that cultural intelligence in Restaurant Associates has significant positive impacts over the job performance level of the employees.

Measures to enhance cultural intelligence as well as employee job performance in Restaurant Associates

Ng, (2013) have explained in their research study that there are several ways through which cultural intelligence can be enhanced by the human resource managers in Restaurant Associates for the employees. The scholars suggest that formation of cross-cultural teams is one of the astounding approaches, which can be considered by the organisation. Cross cultural teams are the teams in organisations in which employees belonging to different cultures are supposed to work together and accomplish the tasks. In this process, different employees share their views and experiences, which are likely to enhance the cultural intelligence for others (Thomas et al., 2015). It can be understood that in cross cultural teams, employees may evaluate how things and approaches vary in different cultures and what impacts they may have on the customers. For this reason, human resource managers in Restaurant Associates need to formulate the cross-cultural teams, which may result in acquiring cultural intelligence for the employees.

Further, it is also found in many studies that exposure to different cultures may have significant impacts over the cultural intelligence and the employee job performance (Groves et al., 2015). For this reason, it is highly important for the managers in Restaurant Associates to subject the employees to different cultures by allocating them at different locations at different times. Experiences gained by the employees in different cultures may allow them to understand different needs and choices of the customers in different cultures. However, it is also true that initially the employees may face immense difficulties in complying with the new culture; but, over the course of time, these approaches may benefit them in developing cultural intelligence (Alshaibani and Bakir, 2017). This way, the approaches of cross-cultural working can also be recommended to the strategic and human resource managers in Restaurant Associates to develop cultural intelligence and enhance employee job performance.

Comparative evaluation of the cultures and the performance is also one of the most effective measures that can be considered in Restaurant Associates. The organisation needs to consider and analyse the performance of the employees, when they were supposed to address the customers belonging to a specific culture (Ang and Van Dyne, 2015). This comparative evaluation may indicate whether the employees have developed and enhanced their cultural intelligence or not. Similarly, productivity and performance level of the employees in different cultures should be examined by the human resource professionals comparatively.

This way, many approaches can be considered by the managers in Restaurant Associates to enhance cultural intelligence as well as employee job performance.

Gaps in literature

It can be analysed from the above chapter of literature review that different studies and research works have provided different information and facts regarding the cultural intelligence and its impacts over the employee job performance in Restaurant Associates. Although the literatures analysed in this chapter are presenting vital information of the topic of the current research work; but, there is no real time or statistical information, which can be seen in these literatures. For this reason, the previous studies conducted on the topic can be said highly comprehensive and theoretical. Therefore, the existing studies have the gaps related to statistical information, which have developed the scope for further research study. The current research is addressing these gaps and is exploring statistical information on the impacts of cultural intelligence in Restaurant Associates on the employee job performance.

Chapter conclusion and summary

In the summary, it can be said that cultural intelligence is highly essential for the employees working in an organisations as it allows them to target the customers effectively and affect their purchase decisions. For this reason, cultural intelligence can be said to have close relation with the performance level of the employees. In Restaurant Associates, cultural intelligence has the impacts over the productivity level of the employees in different restaurants in the UK and Ireland. It allows the employees to adopt different approaches as per the culture and enhance the sales and profitability of Restaurant Associates. Further, it is also found that there are many measures considerable for the human resource managers in Restaurant Associates to enhance cultural intelligence such as comparative evaluation of performance, cross cultural team formation and many others.

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Research Methodology

Research Philosophy

Research philosophy is regarded as the beliefs regarding the characteristics of realism in the research. This philosophy give the justification regarding how the research is conducted. There are three key philosophies, which are important in any research procedure, which are discussed below.


Ontology is regarded as the study of realism. It defines the characteristics of the realism. It help to understand how research impact on the behaviour of people. Goddard & Melville (2004) highlighted that ontology help one to know how realism actually is and the influence it has on the environment and individuals living within it. Mostly, there are three philosophical stances which come under ontological perspectives, which are objectivism, constructivism and pragmatism. In this context, it can be stated that the reality of this research is objectivism in nature. It is believed that the research reality can only be understood by observing the subject from objective viewpoint. It is also believed that cultural intelligence has diverse meaning that different people ascribe to it.


Epistemology is mostly utilised in scientific research and it intends to find the common acceptable knowledge and address the evidences accordingly. There are three philosophical positions under the epistemology perspective, which are positivism, critical realism and interpretivism. This research is based on positivism philosophy. In this research, it is believed that realism is constant in nature and therefore can be observed and described from objective perspective. Therefore, the personal perspective of researcher is irrelevant in this research. Hypothesis is also created in positivism philosophy.


Axiology assist to learn how opinions influence on the collection and evaluation of data in the research. Silverman (2013) highlighted that axiology makes one to comprehend that opinion of people plays vital part while conducting a research. In this research also opinions of people is important as they help to understand cultural intelligence and hence can assist the organisational decision makers to consider culture while developing human resource strategy.

Research Approach

Research approach is regarded as the plan and process that comprises steps of extensive assumptions to comprehensive method of data collection, data analysis and data interpretation. It is hence subject to the characteristics of the research problem being addressed. There are basically two types of approaches for conducting a research, which are deductive and inductive. In this research, the deductive approach is used. This research begins with a hypothesis, which is describe below.

(Alternate hypothesis) H1: There is significant impact of cultural intelligence on employee job performance

(Null hypothesis) H2: There is no significant impact of cultural intelligence on employee job performance

The research is based on tensing this particular theory. This approach is specifically suited for positivism philosophy. This particular research also characterised as creation of knowledge from general to specific. In this research, different understanding of people is considered by collecting empirical information. The data collected assist in confirming of rejecting the hypothesis.

Apart from inductive and deductive, there are also two other approaches for conducting a research, which are qualitative and quantitative. Qualitative approach is based on collection of descriptive information. It is drawn from constructivism model. This approach necessitates researcher to avoid imposing the individual perception of meaning of social occurrence on the respondent (Kothari, 2004). In this approach the key objective is to analyse how the respondents understand their individual realism. On the other hand, quantitative approach deals in numerical information. It uses varsity of statistical methods for making the research valid. This approach is utilised in order to analyse a social phenomenon, comprising feeling of respondents from individual perspective.

Research Design

Research design is regarded as the outline or framework for conducting the study. The research design is utilised as a guide for collecting and evaluating data. There are basically three kinds of designs that can be used in a research, which are exploratory, descriptive and causal. Exploratory design is based on obtaining thoughts and insights regarding a research subject. Descriptive design is based on defining a population on the basis of specific variables and causal design is based on understanding cause and effect relationships between the variables (Creswell, 2003). In this research, causal design is used. The key objective of the research is understand causal relationship between cultural intelligence and employee performance, i.e. how cultural intelligence variables effect on employee performance variables. In this context, cultural intelligence variables are regarded as the independent variables of the research, which is measured against employee performance, which is the key dependent variable. The cultural intelligence has been measured by three variables, which are cognitive cultural intelligence, motivational cultural intelligence and behavioural cultural intelligence. On the other hand, job performance has been measured by task performance of the employees. There are two kinds of experiments, which can be used in causal design, which are laboratory experiment and field experiment. In this research, the field experiment is used. Meanwhile the research is conducted in realistic organisation where independent variables are manipulated to understand its impact on dependent variable.

Research Strategy

Research strategy defines how the researcher aims to undertake the research. It is a step by step plan for activities that provides direction of thoughts, empowering to conduct the research systematically. There are various strategies for conducting a research, such as experimental strategy, survey strategy, action research strategy, case study strategy and systematic literature review strategy among others (Saunders & et. al., 2007). In this particular research, the survey strategy is being used. The reason for using this strategy is that it is much suitable for deductive approach. It is a finest and economical research strategy. Through this strategy, rich and reliable information has been collected for the study. This strategy is useful for observing supporting variables of cultural intelligence and performance of employees in one UK organisation. This strategy help to collect vast amount of information, which is utilised in order to answer the research questions.

Research Choice

Research choice assist to understand whether it is acceptable to combine both qualitative and quantitative approach or to utilise only one approach. There are basically three choices for conducting a research, which are mono, mixed and multi. In this research, the mono method is chosen. Therefore, the research is based on collection of one type of information, which is numerical information (Flick, 2011). Accordingly, only quantitative approach is used in this particular research. The reason for selecting mono method is because the subject is subjective in nature and is based on positivism philosophy. The relationship between cultural intelligence and job performance can only be best understood by using statistical methods.

Time Horizon

Time horizon of the research defines the necessary time for completion of the research. There are two kinds of time horizons, within which, a research can be completed, which are cross sectional and longitudinal. In this research, cross sectional time horizon is used. Therefore, in this research the data is collected only once.

Data Collection and Analysis

On the basis of sources, there can be two kinds of data, which are primary data and secondary data.

Primary Data Collection

There are various methods which can used for collecting primary data, such as questionnaire, interview and focus group among others. In this research, the questionnaire method is used in order to collect primary data. Through this method large amount of information can be collected from the respondents. Furthermore, this method is suitable for quantitative approach, as the responses can easily be converted into numerical forms. The sample of this study comprises employees in the Restaurant Associate. The organisation is a large company operating in many industries in the UK. The company used in this research operates at Bank of America Merrill Lynch. It provides great food to people along with great services. The purposive sampling method is used in order to collect data. About 100 respondents from the Restaurant Associate has been approached for the purpose of collecting information regarding cultural intelligence and employee performance.

Secondary Data Collection

The secondary data for the research has been collected from various online sources, such as journals, articles, websites and books. The secondary data is helpful for understanding the theoretical aspects of the research. It has helped to create a basis for understanding the subject and the key variables that has been used in the study.

Data Analysis

There are various statistical methods, which can be used in order to analyse the numerical data and the hypothesis, such as measures of dispersion, measures of central tendency, graphical representation, T-test, Z-test, correlation and regression. In this research, graphical representation, correlation and regression method is used in order to analyse the subject and to test the hypothesis. The graphical representation method is important as it will help to illustrate the data through various charts and graphs for better interpretations of findings. Correlation analysis is important to judge if there is any relationship (positive or negative) between cultural intelligence and employee job performance. Besides, this method will also help to judge the severity of the relationship. Understanding such relationship is important for fulfilling the objectives of the research. Then again, regression analysis is important as it will help to determine the significance of any relationship between cultural intelligence and employee job performance. In this way, it will help to analyse the hypothesis for rejection or acceptance. Apart from that Cronbach’s Alpha method is used in order to analyse the reliability of the research findings. Popular applications MS Excel and SPSS is used in order to analyse the data collected from questionnaire.

Ethical Considerations

Since the research comprises human respondents, various ethical aspects has been considered. For instance, informed consent has been taken from the respondents who are involved in the survey. Furthermore, the survey was completely voluntary in nature. Appropriate level of confidentiality has also been maintained while conducting the research. Information which can reveal the identity of the respondents have not been taken through the survey. Apart from that academic integrity is also maintained while developing the report.


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