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This paper is going to assess the critical incident that I have experienced during my placement at school. This assignment will recall the experiences and refer to specific theories and studies. Critical incidents are unplanned and unanticipated incidents which will be used to highlight behaviour management and child adolescent learning and development. The two incidents that will be used are islamophobia among students and disruption of learning among students.
Critical incident one
Islamophobia is identified as one of the largest threats in the school's learning environment (Thijs, Hornstra, and Charki, 2018). Teachers are required to be provide effective learning whilst eliminating islamophobia (Rahman, 2016). In my classroom, I heard some of the students saying “all Muslims are terrorists”. Moreover, there were different comments such as “bomber”, “Bin Laden". The expectations of the school are that teachers are effective in dealing with behavior management (Motameni, 2018). Schools should aim to provide a focus on the prevention of negative behaviour.
In one of my lower ability classes, rumors were spreading that “Muslims were bombers”. Arguments began between Muslim and Christian pupils regarding stereotypes of one's faith. In this situation, Kelly and Pohl's argue that the students need to undertake awareness class in order to educate them on showing respect to others regardless of faith. Reminding students by stating rules and using praise and, reward in the classroom is essential in tackling this issue. As Kelly and Pohl remind us “Therefore positive discipline encourages good social, emotional learning and helps to develop positive behavior” (Kelly and Pohl 2018, p.17)
Anecdotal evidence would suggest that people have a lack of understanding of Islam. According to ELKASSEM et al. (2021), Islamic people are often shown as villains in different movies. This is misleading and students are learning the wrong criteria of discrimination among themselves. Brown and Richard's study in Britain has claimed similar types of components on portraying Islamic and dark-skinned people as villains (Brown and Richard, 2018). Discriminatory and stereotypical attitude towards Islam needs to be changed to support social cohesion. In this incident, different attitudes were observed between students who showed poor understanding of religion. This led to hatred amongst students of different faith groups.
This incident made me learn the concept of cultural differentiation and fault management among students (Perone, 2003). Having observed this incident, I felt that understanding of Islam was being hampered due to the non-management of a person's internal thoughts. Having observed minority groups being taunted I believed that, both schools and the Government need to take stronger action to eliminate such behavior among children. Teachers are influencing rigorous learning and establishing necessary steps to avoid violence in school. However, this incident was linked with the negative effects of islamophobia on the class (Ruth Payne, 2015). Being a teacher, following standard seven, it is my responsibility to tackle the pupils and understand if they require any disciplinary actions on their behaviour (Rahman, 2016). I believe an authoritative style of teaching is important while religious learning is concerned both in school, at for example the mosque, and at home. According to a study of teachers, performed by Rigby "a sample of 285 from 35 schools, found the teacher's reaction to bullying had a strong effect as that bullying stopped after the teacher took control of the situation in 67% of cases” (RIGBY 2014 PAGE p.409). I would argue that this would be similar for Islamophobia.
Von Sikorski et al, argue that a lack of behavior management is the main cause of such issues identified in schools (Von Sikorski, et al, 2021). Racism and Islamophobic bullying need to be managed. My responsibility lies under the tag of preventing such behaviour. I would argue that Zero-tolerance policies should be generated and implemented across all school in the U.K. This might lead the country in improving social harmony. Reminding students of the school’s behavior policy should be done at the start of the year to ensure that students are aware that islamophobia is unacceptable and this behaviour will be reprimanded. Students learn when they come together and so communal development is an important aspect of their learning and growth. I believe that the most impactful situations are when a group of students are engaged in harmonious events which tackle the issues of islamophobia. In relation to my incident, I gathered the pupils together and discussed in a mature manner of the severity of saying such statements.
Encouraging a safe learning environment
Following on from Maslow, encouraging a safe learning environment allows students and teachers to be physically indulged in activities where they are unaware that they are learning about each other’s faiths. By applying Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, student’s physiological and safety needs are required to be met adequately. Friendship and family relations are at stake as there is lack of behavioral analysis done in schools. For example, when coming together in PE to play sport, they are put in situations which can lead to challenging stereotypes. Religious viewpoint affirmation and community engagement is associated with the creation of mutual respect and inclusion of effective learning. When people have secure beliefs, these are associated with the development of interesting and valuable understanding of each other.
Communities should come together as a unit as well as peers, and teachers showing respecting to each other. I believe growing segregation between Muslim and non-Muslim peers is something which is inevitable but with the correct form of education of each peer’s faith unity can be found. (Sequeira, 2007). I have researched steps of creating an environment where students who have limited knowledge of faiths can see the use of pictures in presentations for showing the diversity of the classroom. Implementation of this is associated with the promotion of students' behavior on the right track. This engages in the creation of harmony among all types of students.
Encouraging safe learning is possible by allowing students to communicate with each other freely. The students openly with each other should discuss the different social issues. In this way, they can develop competency and effective rapport can be managed. Improvement of RE teaching is something that encourages student-teacher relationships to the core and development of sustainable concepts (Moore, 2013). I focus on the ways of developing individual learning and try to engage the students. I utilize the game of name generator where everybody is allowed to talk. Whatever name appears first must take the responsibility of introducing self and talking about how one should behave. It will also include islamophobia as a part of discussions. The racist and Islamophobic approach is to be tackled by the pupils and provide adequate addressing of issues in order for pupils to gain a better understanding of each other’s perception of the issue. According to Williams et al. (2021), community cohesion building and following the laws are also essential in terms of managing islamophobia. A key way to support the staff behaviour towards Islam is by providing CPD on issues relating to islamophobia in order that they may act as a positive role model regardless of faith. Lack of implementation on behavioral policies in school is a reason behind islamophobia, but it is essential in order to reduce student hatred and negativity.
Managing the behaviors of with laws
According to Van Hoose, Strahan, and L'Esperance, "Promoting behaviors of harmony can help students develop socially especially when this is stated at the beginning of the school year" (Van Hoose, Strahan, and L'Esperance, 2001). Collaborative academic learning can be explained here using Piaget's theory. Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development suggest that children are moving through different stages of mental development. The author gives an idea on how a child acquires knowledge. In this study, the relations can be drawn out of collaborative learning factors and understanding the nature of intelligence associated with students. With an increasing intelligence among students and teachers, islamphobia can be reduced. This might also reduce discrimination among children. A study by Zine (2001), shows that a reduction in negative behaviors of students is often observed, while the improvement in social skills at an early stage. Basic understanding of R.E is necessary for the development of students which allows them to understand the basics of each key religions which leads to managing positive behaviour towards each other. The “Child Care Act, 2004” is essential in terms of “maintaining a system against the maltreatment of a child and the need to make their findings of maltreatment known to the relevant authorities (legislation.gov.uk, 2004). Islamophobia is growing and there is maltreatment happening to the Muslim people. Students see films which show a negative light on characters who have dark-skinned features and this should be addressed and tackled (Darling-Hammond, and Cook-Harvey, 2018). Promotion of multiculturalism and stopping of showing the Muslim people as villains should be done. Encouraging equality and leaving racism behind is associated with the correct form of education. Some socially degraded terms such as “Taliban” and “Hijabi” should not be permitted under the Human Rights Act. There should be role models and cooperation so the needs of students who are of Muslim faith can be addressed. This is important for racial equality through the school. Following on from this “The Education Inspections Act 2011" has made important aspects of inspections that fulfill the legal requirement of preventing islamophobia. This will help the whole school in tackling the issues.
Critical incident two
As previously stated, a critical incident is something, which is unplanned and it is unanticipated. It might occur during a class or outside the class. Through the second critical incident I am trying to find the cause of the incident that occurred in my school placement using behaviour management techniques and learning theories. This incident is of students being talkative and inattentive in class. Some pupils in my class were being talkative after the lunch break and they were not interested in participation in class work (Ruth Payne, 2015). They talk and try to gain the attention of the other pupils in class. I try to put my training practice all together, to ensure, that they remain all calm and composed while lessons are given. Usually, the pupils only nod their head as a sign that they are not going to repeat the same mistake. As Schiff (2018) tells us, students who are not enjoying a lesson are the ones who cause disruption and talk. In this particular lesson, towards the end of the session, pupils that were not enjoying the class made a rude comment and showed that they want to continue talking.
While the issue of misbehavior is increasing, there are classroom disruptions that need to be stopped. The management of rewards systems helps in identifying teachers the right way to allow continuation of incident management in schools. It is important to immediately identify the consequence based behavioral system for the pupils to achieve their goals. My placement school had a system of purple stamps and red stamps used to give positive and negative reminders. Using the color encoded process of learning is essential as per the positive behavioral growth development. The system of rewarding individuals for their behavioral good is important as well. Negative reinforcements are unlikely going to be successful in tackling negative behaviour (Payne, 2015). I believe that the best way of managing the disruptive students is making students aware that they are not only losing their opportunities of education but the opportunities of fellow students in the class by their disturbance. Constant punishment is not the only way to resolve the issue of negative behaviour. The pupils are usually avoiding work due to the fact that do not understand the task given. As a teacher, it is my responsibility to know who these students are and be able to cater for their needs. During this critical incident, using the technique of ignoring the pupil was not an active way to solve the issue because it only led to continuation of the disruption and fulfilling their desire of not participating in any work (Harris, and De Bruin, 2018). Techniques such as writing pupil names on the white-board without distracting and slowing the pace of the lesson is a tool which I have utilized within my incident and it has been successful in tackling bad behaviour.
Promotion of the rewards system is important for the development of managing behaviour in the classroom. Praising a well-behaved pupil can be linked with the actions of managing the other pupils as they can take him as an example. The theories can be seen from the lenses of Vygotsky, who is a psychologist. “Vygotsky's theory revolves around the idea that social interaction is central to learning.” This directly gives a meaning of assumption that are made by the society people are same. The assumptions made incorporates Instructional scaffolding and allows to building up connection. Social interaction is highlighted here mostly. The relation of this theory with this study is associated with an example taking from a well behaved student and using the example as a guide to a child’s development. The tools identified as playing and imagination development for stretching the child ability (Vygotsky, 1997).
Students can indulge in different ways of learning and communication mode that require positive alignment of staff and students. During my placement I observed that when behavior, teaching, and learning was good, it improved learning in RE teaching and helped develop students' (Turner, and Harder, 2018). Positive reinforcements result in the communication and development of pupils who then try to help each other. In my incident, controlling students who were passing comments, which were inappropriate was important in dealing with the issue. I believe that the understanding between students and teachers and creating a firm relationship is fundamental in tackling the issues of negative behaviour within the classroom. Following the theories are essential in terms of acquiring knowledge and organizing the subjects of learning.
There exist different types of rules and regulations that prevent the pupils from being misguided. One of the rules is to remind the students of their aspirations which should be made clear. As a teacher, I made systematic evaluations on the relevance of pupil’s growth and justification of their behaviour. These systematic evaluations should be made for the development of student’s characteristics (Joshi, 2018). It is never too late for the systems being incorporated inside the development of a children's mind to get the ideal evaluation of characteristics.
Various activity engagements help the students to focus on the concepts of learning and supremacy. Piaget's theory as mentioned before changes the mode of teaching for all teachers (Berkowitz et al. 2017).
Learning and improvisation help in the management of students. The idea of using collaborative learning techniques draws concepts using constructive approaches. “A teaching approach that emphasizes the active role of the students in the educational process” is called the constructive approach. With and application of Piaget’s learning module and constructive approach, certain educational games can be introduced in primary schools (Piaget, 1976). This approach towards learning believes that knowledge should be 'actively created by the child. While the learners are actively enrolled in the process of learning construction of knowledge occurs and children are not supposed to be treated as blank slates. Instead, sensory and activity based learning are improvised as a part of pupils overall growth and behavioral management.
What I have learnt from these incidents
Drawing together both incidents and what I have learnt from behaviour management and learning theory, I have found that building adequate student learning and effortless communication are essential in Piaget's and Vygotsky's views. Constructivists have shared themes and they are required to understand the role of a teacher in RE. While behavioral analysis is conducted, they need to identify the systematic gaps in between learning styles. Focusing on the build-up of rapport between teachers and students is essential according to Carter and Pool (Carter, and Pool, 2012). For example, greeting the students at the door with real-life engagement and marking them according to their performance in behavioral learning has become essential.
I have also learnt that it is important to understand how students learn effectively and help them in development (Cook et al. 2018). The plan is to identify which of the characteristics of the students’ needs development in order to maximise their full potential. Analyzing adequate learning opportunities is important as the socialist people are tackling the issues. Behaviorism and mannerism are expected to be indulged in the long-term goal analysis of the student’s life according to the development concepts of learning. The students need to get adequate information on how behaviorism and mannerism are taking place. I, as a teacher, need to focus on students' effective understanding of the concepts. There should not be any room left for the blaming of maltreatment of students by teachers. None of the pupils should break the rules of implicit motivation and learning.
According to Vygotsky, psychologists approve the social constructivist approach of learning and it holds a great understanding of incidents occurring one after another. Piaget's theory is associated with the learning of spiral curriculum and students finding it most challenging. Burner shares a similar type of concept as well. Burner explains the learning of constructivist theories in detail while the specific generation of components is improvised. I started adopting the constructivist's approach where the development of the formal operational stage aligned with people (Carter, and Pool, 2012). The effectiveness of the constructivist approach will be seen only if the students began to talk with each other and show their interest in the development of learning essentially. The factors, which are creating an influence on the behavioral analysis of a classroom, are essential in terms of improving communication. Students need to respond according to the requirements of pupils and essentially focus on the development and management of threats. Piaget's theory ensures learning and improvisation of teaching staff. Willingness to respond positively in the field of managing the incident of behaviorism is important to be highlighted. The development concepts are associated with the managing of the captivity learning.
As an individual, I find it essential to engage in the improvement of rapport between staff and students. Student-led learning is essential as the development of positive behavioral outcomes is expected. Once the social development occurs there is collaborative, experimental, and active learning engaged within the focus on class time. Positive reinforcement and motivation are important in the development of students that helps in the incident that I have faced. Through this incident I am also improving my teaching and learning style and learning to adapt to all situations that can possibly arise in my future teaching career.
Being comfortable on asking the teacher regarding the issues that bothers students is important (Renshaw, 2018). They should not feel any hesitation while doing so. This essential communication engages in the engagement of the behaviorism among students. Students should feel free to state the options that are associated with effective learning and becoming an expert of subject matter. The student is who are least bothered with the studies and syllabus need to be taken under mainstream learning therapy. Behavioral analysis of classroom is essential for the development of pupils and their extraordinary components. Therefore, the disruptions should be controlled at an early level so that the pupils do not become a threat for the society when they grow up.
The significant attributes of child adolescent learning and development is described in this assignment using two critical incidents occurred to me in class. I have concluded that for the upcoming teaching sessions as well as a long-term goal in my teaching career, I will focus on ways that help to provide teaching styles in various activities which will focus on student-led learning. The teachers need to focus on the concepts of building adequacy and learning individual commitments. Students are no longer interested in classroom activities like note taking or lecturing. They require interactive learning and audiovisuals. Using presentations to show how Islamophobia is growing and how they overcome it is important. The study gives a summative idea of two distinct incidents. The critical understanding of them is presented here with a behavioral analysis. I have also come to a point where the improvisation of behaviorism is important. Student’s needs to understand the factors that teachers are always there for their guidance and whether is behaviorism or islamophobia the students need to listen to their respective teachers and guides. Parental guidance and association of important utilization of concepts is also important in the case of affecting the behaviorism of many pupils in the school. The concept is to manage the image of Islamic people. They are required to come out in the light of managing equity and concerned authority.
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