Exploring the Immune System: Innate vs. Adaptive Defense Mechanisms

The immune system is considered as a host defense system comparing the biological structure and the internal process within and organism, which protects against diseases. The innate arms are considered to the innate immune system that provides initial protection to a wide variety of foreign organisms (Symowski and Voehringer, 2017). On the other hand, the adaptive immune system refers to the acquired immune system, which is composed of specialised, appropriate processes and systematic cells that eliminates the pathogens which further prevents their growth.


The innate immunity arms are present at birth and it is rapidly growing within 0 to 6 hours. On the other hand, the adaptive system, responses to antigens and it is slowly initiated within the days, but it is rapidly developed thereafter. Specific B cells and T cells are engaged with the adaptive immunity system, but the innate immunity system is related to monocytes, NK cells and eosinophils (Morowitz, 2018). Innate immunity is non-specific response, but the adaptive arms have specific responds. The innate system does not retain immunological memory, but the adaptive immune system retains the immunological memory. Innate immune system gives direct responses to the host defense including phagocytes and antimicrobial activity. Adaptive response is recognised initially low affinity receptors through gene rearrangement and clonal expansion.

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Reference List

Morowitz, H.J., 2018. The mind, the brain and complex adaptive systems. London: Routledge.

Symowski, C. and Voehringer, D., 2017. Interactions between innate lymphoid cells and cells of the innate and adaptive immune system. Frontiers in immunology, 8, p.1422.

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