UK Racism in Education

  • 14 Pages
  • Published On: 28-05-2024

Introduction:

In the United Kingdom, racism, in its different forms, both intrinsic and extrinsic, affects minorities drawn from different ethnicities and colours (Fox, 2013). Racism is quite prevalent in educational institutions, and this has unfavourable effects on the educational performance of the victims. Racism has effects on student victims beginning from the initial preschool levels, all the way to college (Joseph-Salisbury, 2020). A report published by CNN back in 2017 reported that preschool-age black learners were suspended up to 3.6 times more than their white peers. In kindergarten through 12th grade, black learners had a higher likelihood of up to 3.8 times to be suspended as compared to their white peers. These cases of racism, in effect, impact the chances of success for black students, and any other minority groups who are victims of racism. This study explores the issue of racial prejudice in education, with the intention of discovering the exact extent of the problem, identifying possible solutions for the problem, and additionally unpicking how rethinking curricula through restructuring and researching aids would aid in the process.

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I will focus on a child from my first placement. He goes to a voluntary-aided (local-authority-maintained schools usually has a religious character) school in Tower Hamlets (considered one of the poorest boroughs).

Ramon (is not his real name, but an alias I am using for the study) is of mixed ethnicities. His mother is of Portuguese descent, and his father is Afro-Caribbean; his parents moved to the U.K. in the 2010s, where they met each other. His mother is a nurse at the local hospital; she came to Britain through a work contract to support the NHS (National Health Service).

He and his mother live in the East-end of London, sharing the property with other people who are not relatives, which subsequently means he shares a bedroom with his mother. Additionally, at the moment, Ramon has no contact with his father.

Ramon is a very articulate, lively and outgoing member of the class, with many friends. The teacher and teaching assistants would often remark that he shouts out during lesson time. When supporting Ramon, I understood that using rewards encouraged him to think about his behaviour and focus on wanted behaviour (Sprout, 2020),

Literature review: Race, what is it?

“….. they are in reality closer to notions of identity than identification—how people describe themselves, rather than how others see them.”(Zack, 2018, p 113). Before we uncode ‘race’ in the classroom, we need to bring awareness of the ingrained power structure that has become the norm in our society (Wakkad, 2020, p 167).

Race is a socially constructed category that explains people who share the same biological traits that society defines. In contrast, ethnicity is a shared cultural heritage that involves language, religion and ancestors. We find that a minority is a group of people identified according to their cultural or physical traits that are lesser in population in a place.

Kmietowicz (2020), define racism as a stressor that contributes to mental and physical health disparities along the lines of race and ethnicity and to variations in the outcomes within ethnic and racial minority groups. According to Page (2020), racism is the set of beliefs, institutional arrangements, attitudes and acts that have the tendency of denigrating groups and individuals as a result of phenotypic characteristics and ethnic group affiliations. Gamlin et al. (2021) utilise the increasingly generic term, ethnic discrimination, in reference to different groupings of individuals on the basis of race and culture of origin. Adebowale and Rao (2020), consider racism as a form of social ostracism where phenotypic and cultural characteristics are used for purposes of assigning individuals to an outcast status, effectively rendering them as targets of unfair treatment, harassment and social exclusion. In particular, self-reported racism and racial discrimination, are a rather prevalent phenomenon. There are multiple reports from members of different ethnic and racial minority groups of exposure to racism during the course of their lifetimes. A recent study by Devakumar et al. (2020) actually reported that episodes of ethnicity-related maltreatment happened every week for some groups. From different studies, there is evidence that points consistently to the presence of relationships between mental health impairments and self-reported racism, and this is especially depressive symptoms and negative moods (Dos Santos et al. 2019; Younis, 2021; Olivet et al. 2019; Castro-ramirez et al. 2021). There is even evidence that links self-reported discrimination to hypertension, with a more consistent body of evidence linking racism to hypertension and coronary heart disease risk factors (Taylor and Richards, 2019). Additionally, past studies have also linked racism to other different health conditions, and to perceived health, which by itself, is a predictor of all-cause mortality.

Children, are from a young age, able to recognise differences in colour, and with age, these differences transcend into differences in age, and in the merging of these different cultures and groups within school settings, has impacts on children and adolescents. Children have an awareness of race, during these relatively imperative developmental stages, and even so, they do not have the awareness of racial diversity and this leads to scores of children being affected by racial prejudice, and that happens in multiple ways; emotional, individual, social an educational. Trent et al. (2019) argue that contrary to the common beliefs among adults, children are not colour-blind to differences, and therefore, adults should never hesitate to point out differences in fear that their actions, would in effect, promote prejudice. There are however, studies that have established that infants as young as 6 months have the capabilities of categorizing people by gender and also race. Children, are from a young age impacted by their ay to day interactions and observation of comments and prejudices of others, and this has impacts on the different ways through which they view different races. Medlock et al. (2018), report that silence with regards to race does not hinder children from noticing any forms of differences, and instead, they are inhibited from being inquisitive with regards to race, by silence. Whenever there are unanswered questions, children of different races, those who are represented and those who are not represented, end up perpetuating prejudices and stereotypes and these have impacts on how they view the world and the different ways through which they view they see their immediate environments, any new environments they find themselves in, and people who live around them (De Souza et al. 2021). This points to the need for diversity training, and talking to school going children, as educators have to address the basic challenges of societal pluralism, in the different schooling activities. Without a doubt, diversity is part and parcel of the English society and the diversity of the English society has to be reflected in the student body, staff, and faculty, and in teaching approaches. It is worth noting that any diversity training, awareness, recognition and promotion efforts have to made a common goal, consistent with the values of the citizens served by the different systems in the United Kingdom.

The composition of learners getting enrolled into schools has increasingly been diversifying, and therefore, Olivet, Dones and Richard (2019), recommend explicit education for education to equip them on how they can be culturally responsive whenever they go to class.

Equality in legislation:

The coalition government introduced the Equality Act (2010) to combat discrimination in schools and the wider community. This one-act was to replace the anti-discrimination laws, making them easier to understand and follow.

The previous Race relations Act 1965 was a pivotal piece of legislation passed through parliament. After the Second World War, there was an influx of immigrants to support Britain, filling gaps in the job market. Eventually, tensions began to rise when immigrants were accused of taking jobs away from ‘whites’ by accepting lower wages, and competition grew for the positions. This took place predominately up North of England, where there was a substantial textile industry. Then some factories started to put ‘no coloured’ signs to stop any other ethnic groups applying except ‘whites’ from applying for the jobs.

Against that backdrop, it would be interesting to examine the approach that would be taken if the visuospatial deficits have occurred later in the course of the disease long after the PCA diagnosis, or if the visuospatial deficits are overseen during the diagnosis. As such, a review of medical reports and literature points to the latter scenario, as the parieto-occipital dysfunctions have been anamnestically among the first clinical symptoms in some cases (Wong et al. 2019).

This housing also was an added component to cause hostilities. There was already insufficient suitable housing in the inner cities, with the arrival of migrants this expiated the situation more. Again the ‘no coloured’ signs were used in boarding houses, causing immigrants to flee to the more impoverished outskirts of cities. These victimisations grew to the point it was not safe to live in the cities for these groups; some were brutally murdered.

The Act was the first legislation of its kind to be introduced; it made a powerful distinction of discrimination, defining it as an Act of direct/indirect victimisation or discrimination. It made unlawful discrimination in institutions such as workplaces, Education, and other organisations. It came at the height of racial tension to stop any racial discrimination. Under the legislation, the workplace, including the individual, were liable for acts of discrimination. Section 32 made a point that employers are liable through the actions of their employees, even if the employers are not aware of or sanction the discrimination.

In the Race Disparity Audit (2018), the report looked into how ethnic minorities are treated throughout public services, including education, housing, health and the public sector workforce. The report reflects upon data that affects people's quality of life as well as prospects. It found that there was a lot of inconsistency between ethnic groups. One of the main aspects to come out was that the Asians and Black communities were more likely to be poor and were more likely to be in persistent poverty. Pupils from Chinese and Indian backgrounds had a high likelihood of entering further Education than Gypsy, Roma or Irish travellers, where they stopped their Education at sixteen years of age. Black Caribbean students made more progress than the national average; however, they eventually fell behind in their Education. Low educational attainment was closely linked with children’s social, economic disadvantages (Toldson & Snitman, 2010. Pp. 1-5).

The Race Relations Amendment Act (2000) came to force on April 2 2001 and paid particular attention to childcare and school settings. The requirement of public authorities (P.A.) to promote racial equality is central to all activities. The general duty of the P.A. in taking the lead in eliminating racial discrimination. The new public commitment required that all P.A.’s implement race equality in all aspects of employment from training, promotion, discipline and dismissal.

This meant all children’s settings was to follow a set of guidelines. These guidelines included having equal opportunities policies that covered safeguarded race, culture, ability, faith and other genres. In my host school, their policy states that no child or family should be excluded, discerning that:

“Welcoming……. regardless of their sex, race, disability, religion or belief, sexual orientation, pregnancy, gender reassignment and socio-economic background” (Host school, 2015, p 4).

The staff have equal access to training and development opportunities. There is no tolerance for discriminatory behaviour or remarks. We are reminded of this when a few years back, there was an incident between Jade Goody (a reality star) and Shipa Shetty (a Bollywood star) on the show Big Brother on Channel 4. There was a significant clash where Jade was accused of being intentionally racist using discriminatory phrases. The screening of the episode resulted in responses of the British and Indian governments in regards to this. Consequently, Ofcom had to step in, ruling that Channel 4 breached the code of conduct and statutory sanction imposed. Big Brother and Channel 4 lost many big sponsors as a result (Wyatt, no date).

The Reform Act (R.A.) 1988 changed the law making it discriminating because of colour, race, or ethnic or national origins a civil offence instead of a criminal offence. The R.A. was established with the idea of a National Curriculum (N.C.) at the forefront for England, Scotland and Wales. The NC set out to “promote the spiritual, moral, cultural, mental and physical development of pupils at the school and of society”; and “prepare such pupils for the opportunities, responsibilities and experiences of adult life”. It introduced Key Stages (periods of school education) with corresponding Attainment Targets (“the knowledge, skills and understanding which pupils of different abilities and maturities are expected to have by the end of each Key Stage”) and Programmes of Study (“the matters, skills and processes which are required to be taught to pupils of different abilities and maturities during each Key Stage”) These principles. However, changes have been made, have been mainly upheld (Education Reform Act, 1988).

Cultural Responsive approach:

We can argue that legislation does not have possible bearings on the education system. It is a system that serves to ensure all children (in England, Wales and Scotland) will have the same ‘knowledge, understanding and skills as part of the wider school curriculum”(DfE, 2013). With the new framework that Ofsted recently introduced, focusing on ‘cultural capital’. The framework concentrates on ‘personal development and how children learn and realise their talents, developing their resilience and character. Likewise, children learn about British values, diversity, mental health, and well-being (Ofsted, 2021).

Pierre Bourdieu was a theorist that came up with the cultural capital theory. He theorised that cultural capital comes in three states; embodied, institutionalised and objectified. He described embodied culture as language, dialect and mannerisms, institutionalised culture as a qualification, education level and objective cultures antiques, books and works of art. Bourdieu states that the middle-class is more likely to possess more of the three capitals. He argues that middle-class children, through socialisation, are more likely to develop intellectual interest and be aware of success. Likewise, working-class children feel that they are considered inferior, so their capital leads to failure. Consequently having the feeling that school is not for them (Bourdieu, Nice and Bennett, 2010, p 3).

Teaching a diverse classroom often makes teachers feel apprehensive about the approach and how to behave. Unlike in recent times, where there was one teaching style fits all approach. In today’s context, we face new pressures of accepting children with diverse perspectives to our own, diversifying the curricula, paying more attention to how children are experiencing the learning process and the class dynamics (a culturally responsive pedagogical practice). Change is of the utmost importance in light of the current changes to demographics. Traditional practises have been advantageous to children from ‘white’ backgrounds and held children from different cultures at a disadvantage. (Ford, D.Y. & Kea, C.D. 2009) (Wachira & Mburu, 2019).

When teaching in a multicultural context, teachers need to plan with multiculturalism in mind and assess their conscious and unconscious biases. Teachers need to develop the best pedagogical to serve all children in their class. Teachers create a syllabus that explores multiple perspectives by incorporating visual aids, materials, and examples as much as possible and ensuring that all learners understand the learning outcome (Pappamihiel,& Moreno, 2011).

Kieran and Anderson (2019), define culturally responsive teaching as a socially-just response that goes a long way in redefining, reframing, and reconceptualising the existing deficit perceptions among students of colour to culturally-rich students, who are also equipped with their own knowledge reserves. Culturally responsive teaching is therefore, not just a simple intellectual revolution, but a rationally-emotional revolution whose basis is on the racial justice for all humanisation project (Civitillo et al. 2019). It is not just about the cultures of students of colour, but about the different ways through which these learners got racially positioned in systems that were racist and that made and continuously make culturally responsive teaching an avenue through which to fight back (Larson, Pas and Bradshaw, 2018). This approach, therefore, provides students of colour with an educational future, and additionally provides them with an avenue of reclaiming their worthiness, facilitating the proper consideration of the education related needs they have.

In Cultural Responsive teaching, the teacher's central role is to mediate, guide, and be a more knowledgeable counsellor. They are responsible for the learning environment; reflect the children's backgrounds. A positive environment supports children's anxiety, improve their behavioural and emotional needs and reduce stress. Chen, Phillips & Izci, 2020 argue that a positive environment is essential for children from a more impoverished background, but teachers find them the most complex children who need the most support. Chen, Phillips and Izci, (2020) add that the environment offers a child a sense of belonging where they can exercise some ownership. Once the teacher forms a bond with the children, they can build on their experiences and strengths. A constructivist approach to children’s learning fosters a natural about their learning. They attach new knowledge to already learnt schemas, providing a culturally responsive approach that helps engage children with a wide range of differences (Wachira & Mburu, 2019). Gambrell ( argues that although responsive teaching is underpinned by teaching ethnic and disadvantaged children, the concept is transferable to routine Education. He claims that change the narrative and legitimise former under-appreciated groups; they need to include them in the curriculum entirely.

Mistry and Sood state that to support children, the teachers and other staff must understand the children in the class. Each child is different and should be at the centre of all learning, where their needs are at the forefront. This learner-centred approach helps the child be confident in their setting and more likely to succeed and develop in Education (Cudworth, 2008) (St. Clare-Hoare and Taylor, 2005). As teachers, we can appreciate the children and their day-to-day struggles when we make an effort to become aware of their home environment by talking to the child and the parents (Skelton and Orcullo, 2015) (Cudworth, 2008). In the school setting, I noticed little chance to talk to Ramon’s mother because of coronavirus. Meeting her made it very difficult to have regular exchanges because his mother initially was not allowed in the main playground. When she was allowed in the playground alongside the other parents, they would generally just enter the gate at the far end to pick up their child. So, I did not have a chance to converse with his mother only when necessary. Another factor is that he would often go to the after-school club, where we would not see the mother when he was picked up, just like the Bronfenbrenner ecological systems model, especially the microsystem and mesosystems, explains Ruby Argueta (2018).

Case study:

(Leach, 2011) Akala hip hop artist turned activist, claims that the most effective way to replace the ‘whitewash’ of History. Stating that a “people-centred curriculum” is the way to tackle this. He claims for far too long that History has not favoured any Black historical achievements, maintaining that any achievements made overshadowed by malpresentation of data deprecating those accomplishments. There needs to be a proper balance between unity and diversification (OxfordUnion, 20115).

In today’s climate, London has become a hub for multiculturalism and diversity. This is critical for teachers to incorporate culturally responsive instruction (CRI) into the classroom (Morningstar et al., 2015) (Cowden et al., 2021). I will look at the factors affecting the progress of a child from a minority ethnic group. I will look at the support given to him,

“The inclusion of Black history is misguided, and we should look at global history” (OxfordUnion, 2015).

(Hymel & Katz, 2019) Adopting inclusion practice, an awareness of multicultural Education and adapting teaching to a culturally responsive approach benefits all children. Creating this kind of environment helps children become aware of cultural differences simultaneously; diverse children with different backgrounds and needs succeed. It encourages an acceptance where they can thrive in school and outside the exponential school environment. Children need to learn to adapt to our ever-evolving environment. A teacher can achieve this by using lessons as a platform to ensure all ethnicities are represented [Appendix A & B]. I made it a natural occurrence within our everyday talk or lessons. The lesson aided in the children's understanding that one group(s) are not accepted more in society but instead acknowledge all experiences as a shared narrative. The lesson demonstrated that I did not need to limit materials to PHSCE or RE, but I can put inclusion into other subject areas. When you restrict resources to one subject, this adds to further negative discourse making certain groups stand out. Ensuring that all subject areas are inclusive supports all children to access information about equalities (OxfordUnion, 2015).

Every school has an inclusion policy that agrees to celebrate children’s diversity by identifying and removing barriers to learning the children may face concerning age, ability, gender, ethnicity, gender, belief, faith, religion and sexual orientation (DfE, 2015) (Equality Act 2010).

‘By developing close relationships, such schools have demonstrated the importance of knowing individuals to better understand their background and preparing teachers and leaders to acknowledge and cater to diverse cultural needs in the classroom’ (Mistry and Sood, 2011. P129).

Zimmerman & Astor (2021) say that teachers can make sure that the curriculum and class environment positively react to our society’s increasing cultural diversity. Strategies’ will encourage children’s cultural awareness that enhances the identity of each child and tolerance, which eventually adopts a sense of inclusion within the classroom.

The teacher understood children in her class which ensured she was aware of the ethnicities in the makeup of the class. The teacher took time to explain each child’s cultural background and what makes them unique. In the class, I was very aware of the many ethnicities. Ranging from Roma Gypsy, Africa (all over the continent), Italy, Spain, Asian (far east and I had a genuine interest in learning about all the children and their culture because I wanted to establish trust and form a bond that children will value. Children who feel appreciated are more likely to feel comfortable discussing themselves and respecting their peers within the class, creating a calm atmosphere (Gorski, 2016). The national curriculum, the history programme of study, states that “teaching should equip pupils to ask perceptive questions, think critically, weigh evidence, sift arguments, and develop perspective and judgement” (DfE, 2013, p 1). I wanted to be culturally responsive to the children in the class. I felt that it was a way to build a connection between home and school experiences, social reality and the school curriculum. I allowed children to add opinions and personal experiences, discussing their grandparents' involvement in the war. Equally, it gave the children a platform to think about weighing up the evidence about the treatment of African and West Indies soldiers. It made the children reflect on those countries that European countries colonised, why they become involved in the world wars, and the aftermath of the wars. Culturally responsive teaching guides children not to think that there is no one version of the truth.

However, sometimes equitably treating children is mistaken for equally (colour-blind). One of the stances, of colour-blind, is when someone believes that racial inequality is at a low level or non-existent where society has moved away from racism. Egalitarianism works based on race is the problem, then we should take race out of the equation rather than deal with it ( TEDx Talks, 2019, 6.06). A denier makes a point of justifying by seeking proof. They quantify evidence by looking at successful people of colour, i.e. Barack Obama, to guarantee no systematic problem. They try to find individuals of colour that support their claim denying there is a problem, and shamefully attack people who try to highlight there is a problem. Or are forced to make remarks like ‘I’m not a racist, I like to eat curry’ or ‘I have an ………….. friend’ when faced with blatant evidence. It lends itself to mask the problem that exists; this ultimately affects children’s performance and will achieve less than their ‘white’ counterparts (Race Disparity Audit, 2018).

Conclusion

In conclusion, I believe that housing plays a big part in the way Ramon behaves. You can tell when he comes to school every morning if he is ready for learning. The fact there are more Black African and Afro-Caribbean compared to white people on the social housing brings into play more questions about why that is, because the population of Asians compared to blacks residing in Tower Hamlets are far more outweighed. Is it that the Asian people are more likely to buy their property, again? Why? Although I tackled some of the issues surrounding race, ethnicity and schooling, it was difficult to get conclusive results. Many cases made it hard, especially maintaining a meaningful relationship between and Ramon’s mother and me. I have to find new ways to communicate more effectively with her. Typically when I contact a parent at home, I already have built a relationship with that parent. I was a bit apprehensive because (a) I was a student teacher, and (b) I had not been able to establish that relationship.

These results did not reflect the child competencies; although his outburst was a concern, he was knowledgeable because he enjoyed finding out facts.The teachers, from observing them, I felt always had the children’s best interest. However, there was no clear indication if they were ‘colour-blind’. They were working in an inner-city school ln London. You are very likely to teach and work with ethnicities that are different to your own. I feel that we have learnt to co-exist and that the Black lives movement has forced us to talk about and acknowledge racism and the social construct that some ethnicities are superior and some are less.

I recommend that more training needs to be done to appreciate and fulfil the Equality Act wholly. The Equality Act gives us that platform, but there needs to be more done to make sure it filters into modern-day society. I felt that having training gave me an understanding of how I can apply inclusion as a whole experience rather than as a point of reference, i.e. Black History Month. To me, BHM just highlights the inequalities further.

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Likewise, the Macpherson report highlighted the institutionalised racism of the police, which continues today. We understand the reasons behind the breakdown of societal Britain. Having legislation does not necessarily mean that it filters into mainstream society. That is why it is essential to tackle issues directly within the school environment, implementing a Culturally Responsive Teaching to ensure cultural capital is fulfilled to its optimal degree.

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