Intercultural Business Practices

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Culture is regarded as one of the key elements of working of an organisation. A firm need to focus on building and maintaining a strong culture at the workplace. This report explores the very concept of culture shock and the impact that it has on human behaviour. Culture shock happens when an individual leaves the solace of their home and goes to a totally unfamiliar area, regardless of whether that is for work, school, a get-away, or for a lasting move. The UK based retail giant has relied on using the Hofstede’s Cultural Dimension theory in its expansion and internationalisation process. In this regard, the company has focused on using different aspects of the theory to a get a better understanding of different cultures from different parts of the world. Culture shock happens mainly due to the reason that the person is unfamiliar with the local customs, languages, acceptable behaviours and other such facets.

INTRODUCTION

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Culture is regarded as one of the key elements of working of an organisation. A firm need to focus on building and maintaining a strong culture at the workplace (Jemielity, 2018). Companies, regardless of the industry of their operations, also have to provide such an environment to the employees so that they do not get a culture shock and thus are able to perform to the best of their skills and abilities. This report explores the very concept of culture shock and the impact that it has on human behaviour. Then this report also focuses on identifying and evaluating the different intercultural issues in Tesco, one of UK’s leading retail chain. Further, the report also provides an assessment of the ways in which the company is managing the intercultural issues. In the end several recommendations have been made to the firm to overcome the problem of intercultural issues and culture shock for its employees.

CONCEPT OF CULTURE SHOCK

Culture shock is defined as the feeling of uncertainty, confusion or anxiety that one experiences when they are transplanted into a society or culture which is different from their own. Culture shocks usually happen during vacations, or when one moves to another city or country (Chan and Du-Babcock, 2019). It happens mainly due to the reason that the person is unfamiliar with the local customs, languages, acceptable behaviours and other such facets. According to Verluyten (2020), culture shock is very common among employees of multinational companies that operate in various countries. In this regard, the modern day companies are focusing on providing training to their employees about the local culture, traditions, customs and norms so that they do not face the issue of culture shock.

Culture shock happens when an individual leaves the solace of their home and goes to a totally unfamiliar area, regardless of whether that is for work, school, a get-away, or for a lasting move (Sarmento, 2020). The shock can be genuinely serious if the two areas are totally extraordinary, for example, going from a little provincial region to a huge city in another country. Individuals can likewise encounter culture shock when they move starting with one spot then onto the next inside a similar country. The inclination is especially exceptional toward the start of a stay abroad and can be hard to survive (Wang et. al, 2020).

It is essential to recollect that the condition generally scatters over the long run. As an explorer turns out to be more acquainted with a spot, individuals, customs, food, and language become more acceptable and agreeable. Route of environmental factors gets simpler, companions are made, and everything turns out to be more agreeable. There are essentially four stages of culture shock – the honeymoon stage, the frustration stage, the adaptation stage and the acceptance stage (Holmes and Zhou, 2020).

Tesco, being the UK’s largest retailer and third largest in the world, focuses extensively on providing a healthy and effective environment to its employees. This way it attempts to reduce the chances or cases of culture shock since employees are required to work in a multicultural environment (Mautner and Rainer, 2017). In this regard, the company relies heavily on developing and maintaining strong communication with the employees. Through this approach, the company focuses on interacting with the employees on a regular basis and ensure that they do not experience culture shock. Such open and regular communication enables the employees to understand organisational culture of the company and also learn to accept and imbibe it in their daily routine (Ennis and Riley, 2018). In this regard, Tesco, when a new employee joins, gives a thorough tour (physical or virtual) of the workplace in order to get the new employee accustomed to the culture and also to not get adversely affected. This way the company is able to reduce instances of culture shock by a significant margin (Gut et. al., 2017).

Factors that contribute to Culture Shock

There are various elements and factors that tend to contribute towards culture shock. However, it should be kept in mind that it differs from individual to individual. According to Opengart (2018), when a person makes his family, i.e., marries, has children, then that person would not want to uproot and move to another city or country to a new lifestyle. But when that individual, in such circumstances has to move, then that leads to culture shock. Thus, in a way, it can be said that attitude of people is one of the key factors of culture shock. If the people do not have the right attitude, then there will be high chances of getting culture shock and not being able to adjust to the new environment (Marsden and Kádár, 2017). On the other hand, if a person has the ability to adjust to new cultures and accept new traditions and norms, then chances of that person getting culture shock will be very low. Communication is also one of the factors that leads to culture shock. When people are not able to communicate or share their thoughts and feelings, then it leads to culture shock. Some of the other factors that lead to culture shock include the likes of food habits, climate, dress and appearances, time differences, relationships and many others (Holmes, 2017).

IMPACT OF CULTURE SHOCK ON HUMAN BEHAVIOUR

As per Lau (2017), "Culture shock is the name given to an upsetting sensation of being gone up against with a new culture. This state may bring about dismissal of the way of life or a continuous acknowledgment of the distinctions experienced." Effects of culture shock may shift, this has impact on both the individual and the Organization. This may differ from one individual to another and from one Business to another contingent upon the circumstance.

People do get sick and nostalgic after the vacation period that was examined in the four phases of culture shock. According to Debray and Spencer-Oatey (2019) one of the serious issues with the Chinese Experts was correspondence. Language boundary makes it extremely challenging to impart; consequently had the option to convey to different individuals from staff would be truly challenging. Ene (2019) states that there are three responses to culture shock and one of them is been secluded, relapse, dismissal and outrage. This prompts one been without anyone else or just blending in with the individuals who have comparable culture. That resembles going to a get-together with individuals from their own country Legal issues in some cases emerges because of one not knowing the way of life and the law which may land them in a difficult situation with the law (Wello and Azis, 2017).

Its a well known fact that the world is quickly developing across social limits. For a long time, nations have shared mechanical progressions in exchange and correspondence and have inspected shared characteristics among present day societies, maybe to share methods of being more effective and conceivably to bind together world societies (Jiao and Zhao, 2020). Whatever the case, the corporate world has additionally taken action accordingly and has quickly accelerated the cycle, for maybe some different option from financial advantage, yet one could just hypothesize the reason behind globalization.

One of the ways to understand the impact of cultural issues on human behaviour is by using Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions theory (Dias and Samaratunge, 2020). It is defined as a framework that can be used to get a better understanding about differences in cultures and to determine ways through which businesses can continue their operations despite the cultural differences and gaps. According to the theory, culture is one of the key aspects that has a major impact on the human behaviour. The theory further states that elements of local culture such as values, norms and traditions have a significant influence on work environment and work culture or organisational culture of a firm (Zelenková, 2020). It is due to this reason important that companies focus on understanding and explaining the local culture to their employees, so that there are minimal chances of culture shock or other such issues.

INTERCULTURAL ISSUES IN TESCO

Tesco is perhaps the biggest retailer of food and beverages around the world. Situated in United Kingdom since the time 1920 (Szkudlarek et. al., 2020), it needs to date extended itself into a few nations across the European Union just as in Asia. It sells around 40,000 food and non-food items through its wide organization of 2318 stores and its online help Tesco.com. Such accomplishment of Tesco has been conceivable because of its emphasis on development procedure, and its centre skills which are fundamentally its image notoriety and the worth added administrations its gives through the brand insight.

The UK based retail giant has relied on using the Hofstede’s Cultural Dimension theory in its expansion and internationalisation process (Cartwright et. al., 2021). In this regard, the company has focused on using different aspects of the theory to a get a better understanding of different cultures from different parts of the world. In line with this, the retail firm has also changed its marketing strategies and campaigns to comply with the local cultures. This way it also attempts to reduces any chances of its employees or other stakeholders experience the issue of culture shock (Chan and Du-Babcock, 2019). Furthermore, organisational culture at Tesco is a testament of the broader international culture followed by the company.

Tesco likewise has upgraded provider relationship programs, which are extraordinary in their construction and explicitly planned keeping in see its socially and ethnically different providers from everywhere the globe. Solid correspondence joins are created and cozy connections are kept up with to expand trust and regard, and to draw in more planned providers through verbal (Sarmento, 2020). Moreover, Tesco regards its human asset as a significant resource and puts due completely in it. The Times 100 examination has shown that, keeping in see the Maslow's Hierarchy Model of Needs, Tesco looks to satisfy all the degree of necessities, from essential to the most noteworthy through its different worker inspiration programs.

It gives fundamental compensation and storage space offices and wellbeing security and benefits. Also it tends to the higher necessities of the people by engaging them in a group based climate, giving them criticisms and examinations, and persuading them through consolation and regard. Tesco even has Personal Development Plans, which center around the character and ability improvements of the workers, assisting them with advancing in profession and throughout everyday life (Barmeyer and Davoine, 2019). In this way, Tesco's treatment of its workers covers all parts of the representative necessities.

As indicated by Gut et. al., (2017),Tesco is the greatest private area boss in UK. It looks for representatives from changed societies, foundation through various sources, including government projects and missions. Its enrolment framework permits the businesses to think about individuals from different social and nearby gatherings, and fit them into specific positions relying upon capacities and inclinations. It likewise takes an interest in the public authority 'recovery' programs which looks fro workers among those that have been constantly jobless. It likewise ensures that its supervisors work side by side with its labor force, and know about the specialized parts of the work (Debray and Spencer-Oatey, 2019). Tesco gives its representatives compensations dependent on the idea of work, and extra advantages, both money related and individual as adaptable work hours. Tesco likewise upholds the low maintenance work, which is turning out to be more mainstream than regular positions (Jiao and Zhao, 2020).

Tesco is a vigorously client arranged association, with an attention on its outer climate. Zelenková (2020) has depicted the interaction of an association change regarding Tesco. He says that there is a connection between association culture and association results. To achieve change, an association needs first to choose what it needs to accomplish thus. This was executed by Tesco in 1987. As per the article, when Coca-Cola selected Verax to do explore on retail locations, it made the examination discoveries open to the actual stores. Tesco's finding was the absence of polished methodology among its senior supervisors. Accordingly, Tesco chose to survey its administration practices to further develop client satisfaction (Szkudlarek et. al., 2020).

It created experimental runs programs for character advancement of its senior supervisors which covered all parts of the administrators' character. One of such drives was the Store Management Development Project, after whose achievement the organization continued onward to move the whole association to an expert and client arranged culture. The change was need-driven and zeroed in on regions where improvement was required (Wang et. al., 2020). This load of measures helped Tesco acquire esteem as far as better client reaction, which converted into a fruitful business result.

TESCO’S MANAGEMENT OF THE INTERCULTURAL ISSUES

TESCO is a United Kingdom-based worldwide store chain which is producing yearly incomes of around £20 billion. Jack Cohen established this organization in 1919, he got going by selling overflow food from a slow down in the East End of London, and the primary store was opened in Edgware, North London in 1929. By 1960 Tesco possessed a chain of 212 stores in the north of England and the quantity of accumulates up to 356 continuously 1965 (Braslauskas, 2020).

Tesco turned into the main significant retailer to underline the dietary benefit of its own-image items by dispatching its 'Good dieting' drive in the year 1985. Continuously 1995, Tesco ruled the English market in food retailing, and in this manner began extending the business past the limit across the world. Tesco PLC was presented and set up in Hungary, Northern Ireland, Poland, Czech Republic and Slovakia. In 1998, the business was dispatched in Asian nations Taiwan and Thailand, and by 2004, Tesco business exercises were stretched out in South Korea, Malaysia, Japan, Turkey and China (Jemielity, 2018).

As indicated by the report of Mautner and Rainer (2017) Tesco Plc may be viewed as the biggest retail area of the UK business, enrolling very nearly 3,000,000 representatives for the item assembling and administrations. Around 9% of the absolute homegrown creation is provided food by Tesco. Albeit this current period have shown an extraordinary tendency of providers to purchase organization possessed items having an all around presumed brand name, consequently expanding limits forced on the general stores yet the essential advancement of supply networks is viewed as the excellent main impetus for the retail location networks working inside the earlier decade (Marsden and Kádár, 2017).

Tesco plc is influenced by the outer climate wherein it works. The organization currently possesses just about 2318 shopping complexes with the labor force of 326,000. Internet shopping office is additionally given under the organization's true web area "Tesco.com". The market focus ofTesco is very much disseminated in United Kingdom with expansions of Superstore, Express, Metro and Extra. Yearly offer of items is assessed to be 40,000 with the incorporation of dress line and adornments (Debray and Spencer-Oatey, 2019). The items dispatched by the organization can be grouped into three classifications of "significant worth, typical and best". Other than that Financial administrations and gas stations are likewise controlled by Tesco Plc in United Kingdom.

Individuals do get sick and achy to visit the family after the vacation time frame that was examined in the four phases of culture shock. According to Wello and Azis (2017) one of the serious issues with the Chinese Experts was correspondence. Language hindrance makes it undeniably challenging to convey; thus had the option to impart to different individuals from staff would be truly challenging. Dias and Samaratunge (2020) states that there are three responses to culture shock and one of them is been disengaged, relapse, dismissal and outrage. This prompts one been without help from anyone else or just blending in with the individuals who have comparative culture. That resembles going to a social event with individuals from their own country Legal issues now and then emerges because of one not knowing the way of life and the law which may land them in a tough situation with the law (Cartwright et. al., 2021).

Its a well known fact that the world is quickly developing across social limits. For a long time, nations have shared mechanical headways in exchange and correspondence and have analysed shared characteristics among current societies, maybe to share methods of being more proficient and perhaps to bind together world societies (Wang et. al., 2020).

Whatever the case, the corporate world has additionally taken action accordingly and has quickly accelerated the interaction, for maybe some different option from financial advantage, however one could just conjecture the reason behind globalization. Nonetheless, the inquiry that is usually discussed universally is whether the globalization interaction does more damage than anything else to nearby societies all throughout the planet (Ennis and Riley, 2018). This discussion likewise implies that individuals are really worried about their own social personalities. A little level of individuals overall have encountered various societies other than that of their own through close to home or business travel (Holmes, 2017).

CONCLUSION

Culture is regarded as one of the key elements of working of an organisation. A firm need to focus on building and maintaining a strong culture at the workplace. This report explored the very concept of culture shock and the impact that it has on human behaviour. Culture shocks usually happen during vacations, or when one moves to another city or country. It happens mainly due to the reason that the person is unfamiliar with the local customs, languages, acceptable behaviours and other such facets.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Culture shock happens when an individual leaves the solace of their home and goes to a totally unfamiliar area, regardless of whether that is for work, school, an excursion, or for a lasting move (Dias and Samaratunge, 2020). The shock can be genuinely exceptional if the two areas are totally unique, for example, going from a little rustic region to an enormous city in another country. Tesco regards its human asset as a significant resource and puts due completely in it. The Times 100 exploration has shown that, keeping in see the Maslow's Hierarchy Model of Needs, Tesco looks to satisfy all the degree of requirements, from fundamental to the most elevated through its different worker inspiration programs (Wang et. al., 2020).

It gives fundamental compensation and storage space offices and wellbeing security and benefits. Furthermore it tends to the higher necessities of the people by enabling them in a group based climate, giving them inputs and evaluations, and rousing them through consolation and regard (Sarmento, 2020). Tesco even has Personal Development Plans, which center around the character and ability advancements of the representatives, assisting them with advancing in profession and throughout everyday life. Subsequently, Tesco's treatment of its representatives covers all parts of the worker needs. Tesco Plc may be viewed as the biggest retail area of the UK business, selecting right around 3,000,000 workers for the item assembling and administrations. Roughly 9% of the absolute homegrown creation is catered by Tesco (Braslauskas, 2020).

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In this current time have shown an incredible tendency of providers to purchase organization possessed items having an all around presumed brand name, along these lines expanding restrictions forced on the stores yet at the same time the essential advancement of supply networks is viewed as the excellent main impetus for the retail location networks working inside the earlier decade (Ennis and Riley, 2018). Tesco plc is influenced by the outer climate wherein it works. That resembles going to a social affair with individuals from their own country Legal issues some of the time emerges because of one not knowing the way of life and the law which may land them in a difficult situation with the law (Jemielity, 2018).

Its a well known fact that the world is quickly developing across social limits. For a long time, nations have shared innovative progressions in exchange and correspondence and have inspected shared characteristics among current societies, maybe to share methods of being more proficient and conceivably to bind together world societies (Verluyten, 2020). Whatever the case, the corporate world has additionally gone with the same pattern and has quickly accelerated the cycle, for maybe some different option from money related advantage, however one could just hypothesize the reason behind globalization. Nonetheless, the inquiry that is regularly discussed internationally is whether the globalization cycle does more damage than anything else to nearby societies all throughout the planet (Barmeyer and Davoine, 2019).

REFERENCES

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Braslauskas, J. (2020). Effective creative intercultural communication in the context of business interaction: theoretical and practical aspects. Creativity studies, 13(1), 199-215.

Cartwright, C. et. al., (2021). Constructing the Learning Outcomes with Intercultural Assessment: A 3-Year Study of a Graduate Study Abroad and Glocal Experience Programs. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 33(1), 82-105.

Chan, A. C. and Du-Babcock, B. (2019). Leadership in action: an analysis of leadership behaviour in intercultural business meetings. Language and Intercultural Communication, 19(2), 201-216.

Debray, C. and Spencer-Oatey, H. (2019). ‘On the same page?’Marginalisation and positioning practices in intercultural teams. Journal of Pragmatics, 144, 15-28.

Dias, D. and Samaratunge, R. (2020). Examining the role of cultural exposure in improving intercultural competence: implications for HRM practices in multicultural organizations. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 31(11), 1359-1378.

Ene, E., (2019). Using intercultural rhetoric to examine translingual practices of postgraduate L2 writers of English. Journal of Second Language Writing, 45, 100664.

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Holmes, P. (2017). Intercultural communication in the global workplace, critical approaches. John Wiley & Sons.

Holmes, P. and Zhou, V. X. (2020). Intercultural business education: The role of critical theory and experiential learning. In The Routledge Handbook of Language and Intercultural Communication (pp. 457-472). Routledge.

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Jiao, J. and Zhao, X. (2020). The Development and Validation of an Intercultural Business Communication Competence Scale: Evidence From Mainland China. SAGE Open, 10(4), 2158244020971614.

Lau, H. C. (2017). Intercultural Competency for Petroleum Professionals. In Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition & Conference. OnePetro.

Marsden, L. and Kádár, D. (2017). The pragmatics of mimesis: A case study of intercultural email communication. FLEKS-Scandinavian Journal of Intercultural Theory and Practice, 4(1).

Mautner, G. and Rainer, F., (2017). Handbook of business communication: Linguistic approaches (Vol. 13). Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG.

Opengart, R. (2018). Short-term study abroad and the development of intercultural maturity. Journal of International Education in Business.

Sarmento, C. (2020). Tourism as Intercultural Business: Locating Concepts and Questioning Identities. European Journal of Sustainable Development, 9(3), 400-400.

Szkudlarek, B. et. al., (2020). Communication and culture in international business–Moving the field forward. Journal of World Business, 55(6), 101126.

Verluyten, S. P., (2020). Cultural biases in intercultural business communication courses and how to avoid them. In Exploring the Rhetoric of International Professional Communication (pp. 191-209). Routledge.

Wang, Q. et. al., (2020). The role of emotions in intercultural business communication: Language standardization in the context of international knowledge transfer. Journal of World Business, 55(6), 100973.

Wello, M. B. and Azis, A. (2017). Intercultural communication at higher education context: portraits and practices. International Journal of Language Education, 1(2), 8-16.

Zelenková, A. (2020). Using Cultural Taxonomies to Understand Intercultural Relations in Business. In Exploring Business Language and Culture (pp. 157-171). Springer, Cham.

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