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Preparation for your portfolio submission

  • 26 Pages
  • Published On: 7-11-2023

Introduction

Welcome to the student Assignment workbook which will guide you through the assignment requirements for this unit. Having engaged in the unit thus far this is your one and final assignment for the unit. You are expected to independently gather enough information so that you are able to answer the set questions for each week. The portfolio itself will account for 100% of the graded marks for the unit. The teaching team for the Understanding Individuals and Society have produced this workbook as a practical aid for you as students on this unit in readiness for submission of your portfolio. On completion of the tasks within this booklet you will be required to submit the booklet ONLINE VIA THE BREO SUBMISSION PORTAL. The portfolio ideally builds upon the learning that you have undertaken throughout semester 1 and contributes towards your progression onto Level 4. The portfolio is an opportunity for you to demonstrate your knowledge of the models, theories and debates within the taught lessons and within the field of Social Sciences. It is important that you read this workbook carefully so that you are clear about the assignment expectations. Within this workbook you will find a number of hyperlinks which will lead you to short video clips, these are intended to help you understand specific topics better and therefore to assist you in completing the portfolio to a higher standard. These video clips are there to help you they will not provide you with the complete answers therefore you will need to research a little more using the points raised in the video clips as a guide.

Aims of the module

  • Demonstrate the following knowledge and understanding Understand sociological perspectives in relation to human behaviour
  • Can demonstrate how, where and when to use different information concerning human behaviour

Session Structure and Learning Methods

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The module will run over 12 weeks – please note that the submission of this portfolio has been set for 17TH JULY 2020. Some lectures will be specifically included to provide guidance concerning depth and scope of material to be studied during each of the lectures. You are recommended to extend your learning by consulting relevant subject-specific textbooks and other resources to extend your knowledge and understanding further.

Self-Study & Follow-up Work

You are strongly advised to use self-study time to fully meet the intended learning outcomes of the module by working through the information given during lectures and tutorials. The aim is to enable you to apply your knowledge and understanding of the subject material learnt in this academic Unit in a concise and understandable way. It is important to clearly demonstrate you learning when answering the questions set for you each week.

Preparation for your portfolio submission

An electronic copy of the portfolio must be submitted through BREO. No hard copies are to be submitted. Portfolios will be marked by the Unit Co-coordinator and a second marker and the recommended grade agreed. It is the university policy that you should be able to receive feedback on your work within 15 days of submission. Feedback on your portfolio will be available on BREO. Ensure that your portfolio is submitted with a cover sheet which identifies you via your student ID number, Unit name and code. Please ensure that you keep, in a safe place the electronic receipt which will be given to you once you have submitted the portfolio. These acts of proof of submission should there be any queries about the time of submission or whether in fact you have submitted.

  1. Make sure that you have proofread your work BEFORE it is submitted.
  2. Have you read the questions carefully?
  3. Does your work contain full sentences? Do the sentences begin with a capital letter and end with a full stop?
  4. Have you inserted references?
  5. Have you referenced correctly? Are the references in alphabetical order by family name in your reference list?
  6. Does your work have a clear introduction, middle and ending?

What am I required to do in this assignment?

This assignment asks you to complete weekly tasks in order to build a portfolio of your knowledge and understanding of sociological perspectives and relate this knowledge to everyday experiences. In order to complete this assignment, you will need to follow the steps outlined below: Step 1: Ensure that you complete the weekly tasks set in your workbook which will be provided by your tutor. Step 2: Follow all instructions in the workbook for each weekly task. For example, Week 6 task will be to explain the similarities between 2 sociological perspectives, Week 7 will then ask you to investigate and describe the differences between 2 sociological perspectives on human behaviour. Step 3: In order to address these tasks, you will need to identify, locate and conduct some reading of a variety of different texts -guidance will be given on good academic texts to read. Step 4: You will need to make some notes in your own words based on your reading and your understanding of different sociological perspectives and how they explain human behaviour Step 5: You will then be asked to answer a short essay question which will be written under timed conditions in your classroom. You will be allowed to take your portfolio into the classroom with you. Step 6: You will submit your completed portfolio of work

How does this assignment relate to what we are doing in scheduled sessions?

Through building the portfolio (assignment) you are week by week developing and embedding knowledge of the key sociological theories and how to apply it to everyday issues within a society. This assessment is specifically related to developing key academic skills; writing, searching for and selecting appropriate academic literature, reading that literature and paraphrasing its content, referencing, developing notes, following instructions and using IT. By completing the end of semester written assignment, you are showing that you can take what you have learned in the lecture room and develop answers to a set of questions. For further information relating to the portfolio can be found on the BREO shell for this unit.

Subject: Terrorism

  1. Identify a recent newspaper article which discusses the issue of terrorism. You will also need to clearly state the name of the newspaper and the author(s) of the article. BBC article entitled Boko Haram: A decade of terror explained.
  2. Identify the sociological perspective being used to discuss the issue of terrorism. Treadwell (2013) describes Merton (1938; 1968) structural functionalism theory relating to a social identity crisis and the need in a society to accept the new cultural goals by implementing new means to rebel and achieve them. Boko Haram managed to expand their territory by inflicted pain and terror for achieving their goal, killing 3000 people and displacing millions more. However, according to the editor of Boko Haram Reader Abdulbasit Kassim (2019), the Islamic state of West Africa Province (ISWAP) developed the new tactics, focusing on winning their hearts and minds of the communities for the territory. It is controlled through a combination or warfare and state building projects such as having their own judicial system and monitoring economic activities such as fishing cattle-rearing. While, ISIS caliphate is lost in the Middle East, ISWAP attempts to establish one in West Africa (BBC, 2019).
  3. In which way does this perspective explain terrorism? The perspective explains terrorism as an absolute ideology for its followers. It also shows how it was formed by Mohamed Yusuf, who named Boko Haram. According to Nigeria correspondent Mayeni Jones (2019), ‘western education is forbidden’ based purely on the ideology of a theocratic Islamic state. Mohamed Yousuf was a charismatic speaker and ‘its followers were a mixed a bag’ of society's poor and upper-class students. The terror attacks were linked to Boko Haram such as the car bombing in the surrounding countries and the kidnap of 245 schoolgirls brought publicity. In 2009, Boko Haram received and attack from the Nigerian authorities arresting 800 of its members followed by the killing of its leader in police custody, although a year later Boko Haram end up having another leader and this pattern will continue to circulate for the next decade. In the meantime, Boko Haram shifty strategy including the use of female suicide bombers made it hard to put a pin on them (BBC, 2019).

Reference

2020, BBC. (2019). Boko Haram: A decade of terror explained. [online] BBC News. Available at: https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/av/world-africa-49154953/boko-haram-a-decade-of-terror-explained# [Accessed 6 Jul. 2020].

Subject: Mental Health and Contemporary Society

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yO0v_JqxFmQ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G0zJGDokyWQ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fRN8oeMNaDc

The causes of mental health

  1. Identify a sociological perspective on mental health. Symbolic interaction stigma includes considering what one would think of a stigmatised status, predicting what could happen in contact with others, and rehearsing what one might do if anything unwise happens. Even if the internalisation of negative perceptions does not occur, the effect may be incorporated where the definitions and interventions capturing symbolic contact stigma and a quantitative evaluation of its effect is made (Link et al., 2015).
  2. Who is the key thinker of your chosen perspective? According to the Canadian sociologist Erving Goffman, the term ‘stigma’ describes the powerful non-positive master status which further affects the individual self-concept, social identity and interaction with others (Fitzpatrick, 2008). 
  3. What are the two (2) key points used to explain mental health? According to the World Health Organization (2019), mental health is parted in two features good mental health linked to psychological and mental wellbeing than mental disorders.
  4. What are the disadvantages of these perspectives? According to Link et al. (2015), the limitations of the small cross-sectional would relate to the fact that scholars such as (Link et al 1989), who found the study difficult to test and (Markowitz et al. 2011) who suggested the inclusion of socioeconomic categories, class structure in further studies.

References

Fitzpatrick, M. (2008). Stigma. British Journal of General Practice, [online] 58(549), pp.294.1/294. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2277138/ [Accessed 6 May 2019]. 

Link, B.G., Wells, J., Phelan, J.C. and Yang, L. (2015). Understanding the importance of “symbolic interaction stigma”: How expectations about the reactions of others adds to the burden of mental illness stigma. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 38(2), pp.117–124

World Health Organization: WHO (2019). Mental health. [online] Who.int. Available at: https://www.who.int/news-room/facts-in-pictures/detail/mental-health [Accessed 6 Jul. 2020].

Subject: Gender

  1. Which 2 sociological perspectives explain the issue of gender? Functionalism is also known as ‘ structural functionalism 'is a macro sociological viewpoint that is focused on the premise that society is made up for interdependent parts each of which contributes to the functioning of the whole society and conflict theory which are further originated from the writings of Karl Marx (1818;1883), which is based on the assumption that society is a stage on which struggles for power and supremacy are played out than the struggles are primarily between social groups competing for resources quest as control over the means of production and for a better distribution of all resource (Lindsey, 2016, pp.6–8).
  2. Give one example where women are oppressed by their gender. Masequesmay (2016) stated that, misogyny as women's oppression is the worst type of patriarchal ideology. A culture in which misogyny predominates has high levels of abuse against women — for example, women and their bodies, in their types of domestic violence and rape. In turn, the feminist movement has been fighting for eliminating discrimination and for equal justice for all the women under the law. Women achieve equal representation, housing, education, domestic dispute and reproductive rights through the remediation of sexism in institutions and cultures.
  3. What are the similarities between the two (2) sociological perspectives you have identified? According to Lindsey (2016, pp.6-8), conflict theory and structural functionalism are the intersection of racial race social and class, and when expressed by adherents and beliefs, social influence and cohesion are strengthened. Furthermore, functionalists can sinuously view nearly all the social shift's principles concerning the gender structure of marriage and the family as a major element of their interpretations. Modern conflict theory has been modified from original Marxian theory, reflecting modern models to make conflict theory appealing to the people who want social progress that goes towards equalitarianism, but not by traditional Marxism 's revolutionary means.

References

Masequesmay, G. (2016). Sexism | sociology. In: Encyclopedia Britannica. [online] Available at: https://www.britannica.com/topic/sexism [Accessed 6 Jul. 2020].

Lindsey, L.L. (2016). Gender Roles: A Sociological Perspective. London: Routledge, pp.6–8.

Subject: The role of religion and science in society

  1. Which two (2) sociological perspectives are critical of the role of religion in society? According to Manca (2014), social cohesion refers to the degree of social ties and unity between the communities. This identifies two key dimensions: a group sense of belonging and relationship between members of the community itself. However, Marx and Engels saw religion as a conservative force, which created false conscious to prevent social change. This post offers a summary of their key idea with supporting evidence and criticism (Thomson, 2018).
  2. What are the differences between the sociological perspectives identified? According to Henslin, Possamai and Alphia Possamai-Inesedy (2014, p.403) conflict theorists such as Karl Marx (1864/1964) are strongly critical of religion as it legitimises social disparities, while the functionalists Durkheim, Lukes and Halls (2014, p.120) argued that, the social cohesion promotes the feeling of belonging and harmony in working society.
  3. Discuss the different definitions of religion and the weaknesses of the definitions. According to Thomson (2018), the conflict approach by Karl Marx suggested that, religion does not always prevent social change by creating false class consciousness and it can be used as a tool of manipulation and oppression, this does not explain its existence. However, it still exists where there probably is no oppression. Religion may fulfil other individual and social needs suggested by functionalist theorists Durkheim who was criticised by P. Worsley (1956) regarding study of the Arunta from an anthropological and theological perspective and highlighted the misused aspects of religion, particularly the belief of separation between the sacred and profane and the significance of totems. He also argued that, such theory is outdated and little informative about today’s religion by envisaging a society with one unifying religion that brought people together and focuses on western beliefs in religion. Moreover, even in the countries, where there is a state religion and a high level of religiosity, religion is often a major factor in conflict, such as in several Middle Eastern countries (tutor2u, 2019).
  4. ‘Jonestown, (November 18, 1978), location of the mass murder-suicide of members of the California-based Peoples Temple cult at the behest of their charismatic but paranoid leader, Jim Jones, in Jonestown agricultural commune, Guyana. The death toll exceeded 900, including some 300 who were aged 17 years and under, making the incident one of the largest mass deaths in American history ‘. Just because affiliated with a denomination or theological education, Jones opened his first church. His adherents were a mixed bag, but mostly African Americans persuaded they would be rounded up in government run camps, if they fled the people's temple. The Temple of the Peoples was involved for the social purposes in his societies, but Jones was still less than compassionate in the care of his followers. The members were routinely subjected to abuse, beatings, and threats and others were forced or brainwashed to register the church on their property including home. When the press started raising questions about the activity of Jones, he travelled to Jonestown with several hundred of his supporters. Congressman Leo Ryan visited Guyana to look into the activities of the Peoples Temple and the Jonestown case. He investigated reports that, some cults were held against their own will and that some were physically and mentally tortured. Jones initiated a "revolutionary suicide" attempt shortly afterwards on this site, with fruit drinks laced with cyanide, soothing agents and sedatives, but Jones was killed by the wound of a shotgun (Eldridge, 2018).

References

Eldridge, A. (2018). Jonestown massacre | History, Facts, Jim Jones, & Survivors. In: Encyclopedia Britannica. [online] Available at: https://www.britannica.com/event/Jonestown-massacre [Accessed 6 May 2019].

tutor2u. (2019). tutor2u. [online] Available at: https://www.tutor2u.net/sociology/reference/sociology-functionalist-views-on-the-role-of-religion [Accessed 6 May 2019].

Thompson, K. (2018). Karl Thompson. [online] Revise Sociology. Available at: https://revisesociology.com/2018/07/10/marxist-perspective-religion/ [Accessed 6 May 2019].  Henslin, J.M., Possamai, A. and Alphia Possamai-Inesedy (2014). Sociology. Frenchs Forest, N.S.W.: Pearson Education, p.403.

Durkheim, E. (1964). The division of labour in society (G. Simpson, Trans.). New York: Free Press. (Original work published 1893), p120. ‌Manca A.R. (2014) Social Cohesion. In: Michalos A.C. (eds) Encyclopedia of Quality of Life and Well-Being Research. Springer, Dordrecht, (978-94-007-0753–5), pp.6026–6028.

Subject: Sociological perspectives on criminal behaviour

  1. In what way is Charles Murray’s explanation of crime similar to Emile Durkheim’s explanation? According to Mclaughlin et al (p.13,127) Durkheim research typically takes a less conflicting interpretation of society, which tends to interpret social systems, by consensus or a collective descriptive, as the features of economic conditions and social structures e.g. ‘the broken families. Charles Murrey also argues that, the rise of crime lays with the growth of the underclass e.g. single-parent families; boys do not have a positive role model.
  2. In which ways are these two (2) perspectives different? Durkheim (2008) ignored variables, such as age, sex and country and believes that state of anomie has its roots in the French Revolution of 1789, where the people collectively shown a state of solidarity in rebellion. On the other hand, Charles Murrey explanation of crime is more complex and includes a consistent amount of attempts in explaining crime such as the link between low intelligence and criminality e.g. ‘people of low intelligence have a hard time finding a job’ Herrnstein, R.J. and Murray, C. (2010). In other words, Durkheim perspective on crime is based on solidarity whilst Charles Murrey sees crime as political.

References

Herrnstein, R.J. and Murray, C. (2010). The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life. [ebook] Free Press. Available at: https://www.perlego.com/book/779499/the-bell-curve

Durkheim, E. (2008). Contributions to L'Année Sociologique. [ebook] Free Press. Available at: https://www.perlego.com/book/779709/contributions-to-lanne-sociologique Mclaughlin, Eugene, et al. Criminological Perspectives: Essential Readings. 1966. London Etc., Sage Publications, 2005, pp. 13–127.

Over the past five weeks you should have been in the process of answering a series of questions which will come together to form your portfolio. The portfolio is the only assignment that you will have to submit for this unit, therefore we would like to encourage you to reflect upon your work in this portfolio before you submit it on the deadline date. To help you with this please read and think about the following questions. How well did your work meet the stated assessment criteria? How can you improve your performance in future tasks? We will revisit these questions again in weeks 10 and 12.

Tutor feedback:

How well did your work meet the stated assessment criteria?

How can you improve your performance in future tasks?

Subject: The changing nature of families and childhood in society

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  1. What is a child? Oxford Dictionary of English describes a child as ‘young human being below the age of puberty or below the legal age of majority’
  2. How would you define family? Macionis, J.J. (2017) stated that, ‘family, a social institution found in all societies that unites people in cooperative groups to care for one another, including any children.’ He argued that, kinship is a social bound based on ancestry, marriage or adoption is found in every society, as well as the fact that families change over an individual spam and create a family of their own normally involving ‘economic cooperation, sexual activity and child breading’. The traditional expectation, having children after marrying comes from the Latin ’matrimony’ and translated ‘the condition of motherhood’. Families are split in two categories the extended family is a family consisting of parents and children and relatives or consanguine or other relatives such as uncles, nephews and the nuclear family is a family consisting of one or two parents and their children or conjugal
  3. In which ways has the concept of family changed since the 1960’s? According to Bruce and Yearley, (2006), research since 1960 has shown a decrease in the 'expanded family' and a broader variety in family types in industrializing societies. Young adults frequently abandon their parents, but often remain in touch with phone calls and visits. Elderly also move to a married child and their grandchildren. Single parents often move to support their mothers. The family was much more complicated by the end of the 20th century than in 1950, with the effects of increased levels of illegality, divorce and unmarried living being created.This difficulty has been compounded by increasing the number and acceptance of openly homosexual families of their own or adopted children and by increasing recognition of homosexuals. According to Arlie Russell Hochschild, a family consisting of previous adults and children and family dysfunction has hypersymbolised the role of the mother,seen as the last stable representative in the family

References

Macionis, J.J. (2017). Sociology, Global Edition. 16th ed. [ebook] Pearson Education Limited. Available at: https://www.perlego.com/book/811852/sociology-global-edition

Bruce, S. and Yearley, S. (2006). The SAGE Dictionary of Sociology. [ebook] SAGE Publications. Available at: https://www.perlego.com/book/860454/the-sage-dictionary-of-sociology

Subject: The physical health of the nation

  1. How would you define the term ‘health’? According to the World Health Organization, ‘health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.’
  2. Which ethnicity is understood to be most at risk of obesity? According to BMI Ltd. (2012), The Health Survey for England (HSE) 2004 contained a sample of persons from ethnic minorities and gives the strongest Information on the prevalence of adult obesity by ethnicity. Obesity (BAI above 30kg / m2) in the Black African, Indian, Pakistani and, most notably, Bangladeshi and Chinese communities is lower than the general population. Among women, the prevalence of obesity is apparently more pronounced among Black African, Black Caribbean and Pakistani women than among the general population and less prevalent among Chinese women.
  3. Why? The risk of morbidity, death, social exclusion and inequality place a huge human risk. The treatment of obesity and its direct consequences are also involved significant health care costs. The rates of social services for obese people are also higher. Higher rates of sickness and lack of work among obese people reduces productivity and raises costs on businesses. In the absence of obesity, premature death reduces national productivity relative to the amount it would be (BMI Ltd. 2012).
  4. What is the role of sociology in understanding health? According to Cockerham (2011), the study of social causes and effects of health and disease are also referred to as medical sociology. Main areas of study include social health and disease determinants, the social comportment of patients and healthcare providers, the social roles of health organisations and institutions, the social pattern of use of health services, healthcare systems' relationship with other social institutions as well as health policy policies. The critical role played by social factors in deciding or affecting the health of individuals, groups and the broader community is significant to medical sociology. The research focus in medical sociology also includes the socio stigmatisation of mentally ill people. Stigmatisation prevents proper patient reinsertion and can lead to mental health recurrence after the patients have a worse social condition. Therefore, medical sociologists also emphasise how certain patient groups can minimise social stigmatisation. The core theoretical basis of socio-psychiatrist and the social reaction to disease / diseases were the works on complete institution and stigma by Erving Goffman (1961, 1963). The group psychology most frequently portrays the Goffmanian de-unionisation approach to alleviate patient isolation and estrangement. The challenges are those fields in which medical science is interested in psychiatry (Amzat and Razum, 2014).
  5. Reference

    Amzat, Jimoh, and Oliver Razum. “Sociology and Health.” Medical Sociology in Africa, vol. PMC7121984, 28 Feb. 2014, pp. 1–19, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7121984/, 10.1007/978-3-319-03986-2_1. Accessed 21 May 2020.

    Cockerham, William. “Medical Sociology.” Oxford Bibliographies Online Datasets, 27 July 2011, 10.1093/obo/9780199756384-0034. Accessed 14 July 2020.

    World Health Organization. “Frequently Asked Questions.” Who.Int, 2019, www.who.int/about/who-we-are/frequently-asked-questions Bazian Ltd. BMI and WC Thresholds 1 Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference Thresholds for Intervening to Prevent Ill Health among Black, Asian and Other Minority Ethnic Groups in the UK External Evidence Review. Sept. 2012.

Food for thought.

Over the past seven weeks you should have been in the process of answering a series of questions which will come together to form your portfolio. The portfolio is the only assignment that you will have to submit for this unit, therefore we would like to encourage you to reflect upon your work in this portfolio before you submit it on the deadline date. To help you with this please read and think about the following questions.

  1. How well did your work meet the stated assessment criteria?
  2. Have you referenced correctly?
  3. Have you ensured that there is enough detail within your answers that clearly demonstrates that you have answered the questions correctly and that what it is that you have written can be clearly understood?
  4. How can you improve your performance in future tasks? We will revisit these questions again in week 12.

Tutor feedback:

How well did your work meet the stated assessment criteria?

How can you improve your performance in future tasks?

Subject: Effects of globalism and multiculturalism

What are some of the positive effects of globalisation?

Probably, globalisation is one of our most used and abused words. According to Nagle (2016), globalization steams from multinational corporations' marketing practises that adapt the global product to the local group's cultural culture, both its ads and the product themselves. The notion of global interconnectedness is a key future of globalisation. The information society Castells (1996) informed that, It is likely modern ways of Communication and Transport have contributed to this pace all global communications, and that goods ideas and people can be increasingly quickly linked to the poor countries by means of new digital technology, such as the Internet and new e-mails (Punch et al. 2013).

What are some of the issues with ‘outsourcing’ jobs?

Winter and Baguley (2006) argued that, the effect of outsourcing on firms is often described as a way of vertical disintegration, contacting any activities or services to the third parties. Vertically aligned entities have been specifically engaged by the government in economic and production-enabling technology development activities. Marketing leadership difficulties are linked with identifying the core skills through the application of technical knowledge of proprietary companies. Even if, research & development in the Pharmaceutical Industry has always tried, in house products production proof, to maintain intellectual proprietary rights of outsource payment by sub-contributors, either research organisations (CROs) or manufacturing organisations (CMOs). A recent impact on the outsourcing issue was released by Fontenay (2012), stating that, outsourcing with manufacturing inconsistencies caused serious problems for several big farmers leaving them short on mainly injectable medication. While, in house production facilities did not always feel the same pressure to keep costs down as to do external suppliers.

What is your definition of “culture?”

Culture can be described simply as a common understanding. Whether people speak about it or not, everything in the mind is called culture, for example music: hip-hop or classic?, political views: raise or cut taxes? religious views: Hindu, Catholic, Muslim, Protestant or Jewish? moral values: wright or wrong to eat animals? Culture also has two categories, ideal culture, which refers to society professes such as the idea that college students should not drink alcohol and other is real culture, which refers to what society acts on such as the idea that is normal for college students to drink alcohol. Unlike structural sociologists, culture is characterised as ideas and values, which change relatively rapidly and can vary widely within a single neighbourhood or even within a family society. People can hold such ideas and values to themselves or even encourage them to do so, and they can change the same ideas and values over their lives (Gabler, 2010).

Why is cultural diversity important?

Diversity is a subjective phenomenon, produced by group members, who categorise others as similar or different, on the basis of their different social identities. “A group is diverse if it is composed of individuals who differ on a characteristic on which they base their own social identity” (O’Reilly, Williams, & Barsade 1998, p. 186). The Government Equalities Office releases the Equality Act 2010, which made it illegal to discriminate in the workplace and wide society against the factors including age, disability, gender reassignment, marriage and civil partnership, pregnancy and maternity, race, religion or belief, sex, and sexual orientation. And by doing so it is effective to enable multicultural society for expanding in business and the marketplace than inspiring creativity and driving innovation. The multicultural organisations have an advantage in attracting and retaining the best talent. The capabilities of women and minorities offer a wider labour pool. Organisations that can attract and retain qualified minority group members and keep faith with them through fair and equitable career advancement treatments, gain competitive advantage and derive high quality human resources dividends (Mazur, 2010).

References

Winter, J.E., Baguley, J. and Pharmaceutical Contract Management Group (2006). Outsourcing Clinical Development : Strategies for Working with CROs and Other Partners. Aldershot, England ; Burlington, Vt: Gower Pub.

Fontenay, C. de (2012). Risky business: the Human Cost of Outsourcing Drug Production. [online] The Conversation. Available at: https://theconversation.com/risky-business-the-human-cost-of-outsourcing-drug-production-5078 [Accessed 14 Jul. 2020].

Government Equalities Office (2013). Equality Act 2010: guidance. [online] GOV.UK. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/guidance/equality-act-2010-guidance.

Mazur, B. (2010). Cultural Diversity in Organisational Theory and Practice. [online] Journal of Intercultural Management: Politechnika Białostocka, pp.5–15. Available at: http://joim.pl/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/2-2-Cultural-Diversity-in-Organisational-Theory-and-Practice.pdf [Accessed 15 Jul. 2020].

Nagle, J. (2016). Introducing Sociology: A Graphic Guide. [ebook] Icon Books Ltd. Available at: https://www.perlego.com/book/569538/introducing-sociology

Punch, S., Harden, J., Marsh, I. and Keating, M. (2013). Sociology: Making Sense of Society. 5th ed. [ebook] Pearson Education Limited. Available at: https://www.perlego.com/book/810856/sociology

Food for thought.

Over the first semester of your studies should have been in the process of answering a series of questions which will come together to form your portfolio. The portfolio is the only assignment that you will have to submit for this unit, therefore we would like to encourage you to reflect upon your work in this portfolio before you submit it on the deadline date. You would have been given a number of opportunities within the lectures, seminars and individual tutorials to explore and discuss with the teaching team how best to develop your portfolio in accordance with the assignment brief. To help you with this please read and think about the following questions. How well did your work meet the stated assessment criteria? Have you referenced correctly? Have you ensured that there is enough detail within your answers that clearly demonstrates that you have answered the questions correctly and that what it is that you have written can be clearly understood?

  1. Make sure that you have proofread your work BEFORE it is submitted.
  2. Have you read the questions carefully?
  3. Does your work contain full sentences? Do the sentences begin with a capital letter and end with a full stop?
  4. Have you inserted references?
  5. Have you referenced correctly? Are the references in alphabetical order by family name in your reference list?
  6. Does your work have a clear introduction, middle and ending?

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