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Rehabilitation is the process of helping the person, who has accused for crime or suffered for illness or injure where it is effective for restoring the lost skill and social values as well as the individuals can restore their social lives accordingly. It is also beneficial to maximise self sufficiency where the individuals can recover themselves and identify the true ways to lead the life. According to Welch, Butler and Gertz (2019), rehabilitation is also effective for mitigating the crime rate in the society. It is the occupational theory which is conducted through physical activities, speech therapy and counselling, where the victims can recover their activities and change their thoughts and mental health in future. Hereby, the rehabilitation plays a crucial role in the society for reducing the crime rate and helps the victims to lead a normal life like others. On the other hand, harsh punishment is also there in the society, where the accused person is getting harsh punishment for their crime. As stated by Bülow and Dagan (2020), there is structured law and legislations, where the accused person is getting punishment as per their crime in the society. It is also another form of reducing the crime rate in the society and makes a safer world in future. This is a continuous public debate, where the lawyer and authority of crime choose rehabilitation program for the criminals in order to guide them and lead them efficiently for better living condition. It is important for the criminals to overcome their behaviour and thoughts and lead a normal life in future.
As opined by Hallett et al. (2016), there are different models of punishment to recover the crime rate in the society. There are US system and the Scandinavian model. In the US system, the authority and lawyer focus more punishing the criminals in the society, whereas the Scandinavian model emphasises on the rehabilitation, treatment and support the aimed to help the offenders as law abiding member of the society. Both the models are effective and the models focus on recovering the individuals and provide them a chance to understand the morality and lead a life efficiently in the society. In the US structure of law, the system mainly focuses on punishment and there is harsh punishment which are effective for the criminals to overcome their thought. This is also leading to the situation, where the US government and other local authority are able to minimise the crime rate in the society. On the other hand, as stated by Curry and Ulentin (2017), as per the Scandinavian model of crime, rehabilitation is the process of treating the criminals and it is beneficial for the criminals to overcome their thoughts and help them to lead a normal life. Rehabilitation in this regard is the process of developing the skills to improve the employability or treating mental health problems. UK falls somewhere in between both the models, although it has highest prison population per capital in the Western Europe. One of the largest schemes is operation checkout, which is run for allowing the offenders for certain types of relatively low harm offences such as theft or crime all damages, they try to identify the causes of the crime rate in the society and try to provide the rehabilitation services to recover their mental condition. The major causes for such crimes are substance abuse and through rehabilitation, they try to improve their mental condition and support them to minimize the use of substance. The result of this program is highly successful, and it shows reduction of the reoffending rates in the society. As stated by Bülow and Dagan (2020), as per the cost benefit analysis, the process of rehabilitation is effective for the low offence crime, where the individuals can recover themselves and they try to lead a normal life in near future. Hereby, the UK government focus on both the models of US system and Scandinavian model, where of the low crime offence, there is rehabilitation program through which the individuals can develop their skill and improve mental and physical health to maximise their standard of living. There is a consistent result in the UK and Wales, where the rehabilitation program is efficient for the individuals in which the non-custodial alternatives can reduce the crime rate in the society. According to Buen, Lee and Moss (2020), the effective sense to crime has always been a matter of debate where retributive idea of justice seeks to inflict a cost or hardship on the criminal as a response to the crime and on the other hand, rehabilitation is another program, through which it is possible to receive the physical and mental health of the criminals and give them the second chance to understand the morality of the life and act responsibly in living in the society. For an example, in the UK, there is high public support for the harsh punishment, however there is also the support for the rehabilitation to give the chance to the criminals through the rehabilitation care program, in case of low crime. As opined by Schlau (2020), the punishment to rehabilitation is also for long years which are effective for reducing the reoffending rates in the society and thus rehabilitation is considered to be an effective way to provide support and help the prisoners for living better and improving their mind set to understand the morality of the life. As per the report, the UK prisoners are suffering from mental illness and there are 90% prisoners who are suffering for such issue. In such situation, the authority suggest rehabilitation program for them in order to support them mentally with effective treatment and care so that they can improve their condition and lead a normal life further. Hereby, it is a great debate, where the authority will decide whether the criminal will get harsh punishment or rehabilitation program. There are different types of rehabilitation program, including physical treatment, mental illness treatment as well as counselling, through which the individuals can overcome their illness and improve their health condition for maximising their standard of living in long run. Hence, it can be stated that, rehabilitation can be successful to mitigate the crime rate in the society. As opined by Redlich Revkin and Kao (2020), the economies of crime are one of the important ways to describe the effectiveness of the practice of harsh punishment and rehabilitation program. Thought he rehabilitation program, mitigating the crime rate in the society is considered to be good economies of crime, where there is huge success rate in the society. The criminals can overcome their thought and improve morality where they are also trying to maximise their living condition in long run. There is in depth debate between sending more individuals to prison versus community sentence through rehabilitation program and it can be seen that, UK is one of the successful country where there is high success rate of rehabilitation program in the society. According to Oleszkiewicz et al. (2018), for example, sentencing 1% more offenders to prison for rotary offence is estimated to reduce the recorded crime by 2693 in the next year and on the other hand, similar 1% increase in the community sentences reduces these offences by 33590. In such situation, it can also be stated that, the community sentence cost on average is a quarter of prison sentences and it appears that there is reduction of the crime rate in the society. This further indicates that, there is huge success rate of the rehabilitation program, where the strategy of community sentence is effective for the offenders to overcome their thoughts and improve their mental health condition as well for long run. They can lead a normal life and improve theory standard of living. As stated by Grasso (2017), although, in the 1970s, rehabilitation was highly criticise in the US, as they follow the US model of providing harsh punishment to the criminals, in the late 1980s and 1990s, it had been analysed that, rehabilitation is successful to reduce the crime rate in the society. There is theory of conflicts, where different countries adopt different ways to punish the criminals in the society, the ultimate goal of the authority is to reduce the crime rate in the society and it has been sense that, the rehabilitation program is adopted successfully by the westerns countries, mainly UK and Wales, where there is reduction in the crime rate in the society through treating the criminals by rehabilitation program. As opined by McKim (2017), it is difficult for the authority to choose one of the strategies for punishing the criminal. However, it can be stated that for the low offence crime, the authority suggest that, they should be treated by rehabilitation program and for the serious crime, there would be harsh punishment for the prisoners. Rehabilitation in this regard is considered to be a successful way to treat the individuals successfully, improve their physical and mental health condition, increase their morality and social skill to lead them successfully and support them continuously so that they can lead a normal life.
Reflective assessment is effective for understanding own thoughts and capabilities as well as develop personal and professional skill planning, so that in future, it would be possible for the individuals to develop the skills of academic and employability to get higher career success. The Gibb’s reflective model is one of the effective model to reflect own thoughts and capabilities and there are six factors as per the model, through which it is possible to conduct the reflective assessment. The six approaches of the Gibb’s reflective cycle will be discussed for further evaluation o own skill and capabilities.
It is important to describe own thoughts and abilities. As per the description, it can be stated that, the academic skills are required for career success as well as achieving higher in both personal and professional field. In this regard, I try to review my own skill and abilities, and I can say that, the representation skill through writing and presentation, I can share my own thoughts and knowledge with others. The knowledge of grammar, vocabulary as well as subject matter of interest are strong which help me to progress in my career and gather more in depth skill for further career success.
I feel that, it is mandatory to improve my employability skill in order to get greater opportunity in near future so that I can fulfil my career objective. It is important to improve my communication skill, so that I can interact with others and gather more ideas and gain the creative thoughts for professional career success.
As per my experience, the academic skill and cooperation with the peers are effective for me to improve my knowledge where I can analyse the situation and make decision to overcome the problems. The analytical skill improvement can be possible, where I have support from the senior members which are helpful for me to progress in my career. Continuous motivation from the seniors as well as support is also helpful for me to analyse the subject and conduct in doth evaluation further.
As per the analysis, I try to identify my weakness so that I can overcome them in long run through continuous improvement. I realise that, I need to improve team work and leadership skill, which are mandatory employability skills in getting higher position in the organisations. Patience level of mine is also necessary to be improved so that I can handle any situation calmly.
It is mandatory for me to improve the employability skill in order to achieve my career objective. I am successful to improve my academic skill and I am also efficient to conduct in-depth analysis by utilising my experience and academic knowledge. In this stage, I need to improve leadership skill as well as teamwork so that I can work with others through enhancing communication and internal collaboration.
For personal and professional skill development, I would like to improve team work, where I try to direct the team members and share all the necessary information with them. I also try to encourage them to conduct open conversation and interact with each other for working as a partnership basis.
Buen, A., Lee, E. and Moss, S.A., 2020. Fostering Openness to Rehabilitation and Reintegration of Criminals into Society in a Fearful World: The Moderating Role of Regulatory Focus. Victims & Offenders, 15(1), pp.103-118.
Bülow, W. and Dagan, N., 2020. From rehabilitation to penal communication: The role of furlough and visitation within a retributivist framework. Punishment & Society, p.1462474520953676.
Curry, C. and Ulentin, A., 2017. From Punishment to Rehabilitation: An Historical Overview of Incarceration in The Bahamas. OUR PRISONERS, p.3.
Grasso, A., 2017. Why pursuing more rehabilitative policies may actually lead to harsher punishments for prisoners. USApp-American Politics and Policy Blog.
Hallett, M., Hays, J., Johnson, B.R., Jang, S.J. and Duwe, G., 2016. The Angola prison seminary: Effects of faith-based ministry on identity transformation, desistance, and rehabilitation. London: Routledge.
McKim, A., 2017. Addicted to rehab: Race, gender, and drugs in the era of mass incarceration. London: Rutgers University Press.
Oleszkiewicz, A., Kanonowicz, M., Sorokowski, P. and Sorokowska, A., 2018. Attitudes toward punishment and rehabilitation as perceived through playing a Prison Tycoon game. Games and Culture, 13(4), pp.406-420.
Redlich Revkin, M. and Kao, K., 2020. How Does Punishment Affect Reintegration of Former Offenders? Evidence from Iraq. Evidence from Iraq (July 28, 2020).
Schlau, S., 2020. Disciplining sinful women: Magdalena de San Jerónimo's all-work, no-play model of punishment and rehabilitation.
Sekarwinahyu, M., Rustaman, N.Y., Widodo, A. and Riandi, R., 2019. Development of problem based learning for online tutorial program in plant development using Gibbs’ reflective cycle and
e-portfolio to enhance reflective thinking skills. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Vol. 1157, No. 2, p. 022099). IOP Publishing.
Welch, K., Butler, L.F. and Gertz, M., 2019. Saving children, damning adults? An examination of public support for juvenile rehabilitation and adult punishment. Criminal Justice Review, 44(4), pp.470-491.
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