Analytical Approaches And Critiques

From a definitive perspective, the underlying rationale of reverse racism has to be understood succinctly. It is primarily oriented towards anti-white behavioural directives. Thus, it is directly related to the overall possibility that the white populace of any country could lay claim to having to experience racist overtones, which they could have had to undergo. In this context, Cabrera (2014) has observed that such an issue could be subcategorised into three distinct constituents. These could be understood to be the perception of difference, the element of identity and the prospect of racist behaviour. Racist behaviour defines the previous two from the perspective of constituents which formulate these three. However, James, James and Vila (2017) have outlined the fact that only a relatively miniscule number of researchers have ever undertaken serious efforts to evaluate the overall dimensions of the concept of reverse racism. This form of racism is primarily directed towards the white community of particular nations such as the United States and the United Kingdom and others. Regarding such observations, the research of Kivel (2017), has outlined three specific aspects which could be considered to be analytical approaches towards understanding the core constituents of this specific form of racism which has been taken under consideration in the corresponding study. These three approaches are identified as the following:

Individualised psychological approach. 2: The approach to analyse structures, social implications of power and the effects of utilisation of such power could have on the identified flash points of social inflection such as racial tensions. 3: The structural as well as historical analysis of the entire prospect of racism in all of the varied forms. These approaches have been evident regarding the advent, development and impact of racism as a definite social concept. Thus, the corresponding study would be concentrated upon the academic exploration of the critiques of racism. These would be demarcated as explicitly anti-white in nature concerning the impact upon the determined victims of such racist tendencies. The research of Ansell (2016), has outlined the perspective that the commencement of such racist tendencies are by no stretch of imagination or accumulated evidence, distinctive or divergent. On the contrary, such


The research of Ansell (2016), has outlined the perspective that the commencement of such racist tendencies are by no stretch of imagination or accumulated evidence, distinctive or divergent. On the contrary, such perceptions are overlapping at the points of intersections of social concepts and differential experiences. This has been put into perspective in a better manner by the research of Bonilla-Silva (2017) regarding all of the different situational manifestations which such phenomena could exhibit. Here, it could be understood that, such social and psychological phenomena of reverse racism, could cascade onto one another to formulate a specific collective experience. This could take place in the formats which could be unique in terms of their sociological implications. Lentin (2016) has specified that such aspects are responsible for the divergence of the potential approaches which are utilised by the scholars to underline the observed and researched experiences from the purported victims of such incidents involving reverse racism. This is a particular problem since this could lead to analytical complications of the consistent variations in the claims of racism which is distinctively anti-white in nature and such claims are needed to be validated as well. Kalunta-Crumpton (2017), has provided a vignette criticism in this context. This has outlined that the purpose of development of effective understanding concerning racism involves a sense of intuition on behalf of the researchers. This intuition is necessary so that the process of interpretation of the experiences could be viewed through the prism of racial connotations. This could be considered to be one particularly frequent experience for the young students who could be studying at the urban educational settings at public or private institutions at both the United Kingdom and the United States of America. However, this could be better put into perspective through the opinion of Cabrera (2016), where the apparent differential interpretational perceptions of reverse racism could be ascertained. These involve white and coloured racial labelling processes on a verbal mode. The example of this could be highlighted as the differentiation of the prevalent racial intonations on the human perceptive levels. This could be better outlined as phrases which target white personnel, especially students, such as “whitey”, “milk-bottle” and “milky way” in comparison with those racial labelling phrases and words which could be directed towards coloured students in the high schools. These specifications are also underlined by Spanierman and Cabrera (2015) to be the points of consideration of the impact of individualised psychological interpretations. Such interpretations emerge from the actualities associated with the broadened scope of exploration of targets and perpetrators of reverse racism. This method is also considerate about the name calling aspect from racist perspectives. Song (2014) has stated that moralisation of certain social perceptions. One of such perceptions the perceived socio-cultural dominations of the whites and these perceptions could be the primary delineations concerning the fostering of racism and reverse racism within the premises of social institutions. Such social institutions are the schools or workplaces, where students or workers of any particular colour could be in majority of numbers.

According to Seamster (2015), the factor of racist discrimination has a specific and distinctive meaningfulness, both from the historical as well as the socio-cultural perspectives. This meaning is responsible to guide the racist behavioural practices towards either the perpetrators or the recipients of such behavioural discrimination. This could be better highlighted through the actualisation of both the actions and the consequences of such actions. Cabrera, Franklin and Watson (2017) have elaborated on this from the perception of the perpetrators of reverse racism. Here, the underlying description could be identified as a form of racist practice which could be either under continuation or could have already taken place involving either one or more than one targeted victims of such a format of racial discrimination. From the point of view of Miller (2016), the elements of prejudice and partiality are integral to any format of racial discrimination. This also involves deliberate actions and attitudes which could emerge out of such prejudiced actions. In this context, the factors related to the interpretations of racial discrimination could be seriously altered while the researchers could consider the perspective of such racism victims. According to Tanner (2017), the point of view of the racism targets could exhibit the overall perception that racist practices and discriminatory behaviours are representative of the conditions of social actualities. Such actualities and situations dictate the existential situations of any member of any under privileged or perpetually marginalised social group. In this regard, Lavanchy (2015) has delineated a number of elements which could reflect the objective conditionalities of such racism victims. These elements could be identified as the dearth of employment or monetary support and resources as well as that of habitation based issues. This could be further extended towards the perceptions associated with the general consciousness based dynamics of other subjective conditions. Such conditions are paucity of credible and effective choices of lifestyle and ultimately and the complete or partial absence of independent individuality. The dearth of such individual personality could be better explained from a particular perspective. It is the fact that general sections of the perpetrators of racial discrimination could perpetuate the stereotypical perceptions related to such an individual who could belong to any such group or community which could be at the receiving end of racial discriminatory practices. According to Badeau (2016), such affected individuals are generally depicted through the perceptual social lens of prejudices and formulated notions which are markedly representative of racist overtones.

According to Alemanji and Dervin (2016), any form of notion relating to white identity has been difficult to be developed within the historic conditions. Such notions could be considered to be stable to some extent as an academic as well as socially tangible perspective. The reason could be precisely understood as the consistently contradicting articulations of the actual meaning of whiteness and what it takes to perceive oneself to belong to a white community. The influence of any extensive panoply of factors belonging to the social, economic and political domain, has been instrumental in destabilisation of any academic position on this subject. Such problems have also included the notion of racial identity formulation of the white populace at the United Kingdom and at the United States of America. Holgersson et al (2016) has analysed such a situation further and has found the fact that the continuity of identity politics within the previous three decades has consistently contributed in the generation of deliberate and intensely percolating angst within many individuals of the latest generation of white personnel within the previously mentioned two countries. This consummate angst has been able to induce a large number of the white populace to the idea of having to confront the overarching effect of their ethnic lineage. The underlying realisations of such white personnel concerning their actual position in the prevailing social perceptions, could be perceived to be numerous in extent. The first such realisation is associated with the social trend that whites could not remain the majoritarian section of the respective populations for much duration of time in future. The second realisation could be understood to be the perspective of racialization, integrally associated with the identity of whiteness. The third realisation is indicative of the various challenges which have emerged during the second half of the 20th Century and during the early decade of the 21st Century and these challenges have jeopardised the supremacy of the white communities over the coloured personnel. The fourth realisation has been that in the view of the majority of the global communities, the white ethnicity has been labelled to be that of oppressors and tormentors. The cumulative effect of all of these realisations has contributed to the sense of acute crisis within the whites. This sense of crisis has emerged in the global white populace from a social perspective. This crisis has been defined by Kumasi (2015) as the Crisis of Whiteness.

In this context, it is necessary to comprehend all of the associated nuances as well as the implications of such a phenomenon of the socio-cultural perspective. This is necessary to build a better understanding, of the overall changes which have set in on the perceptions of the white populace within the United Kingdom and the United States of America during the era of post-civil rights socio-political transformations. This is also indicative of the necessity to involve the pedagogical and academic viewpoints. The concept of whiteness, in this regard, does exhibit the aspect of the core perceptual element which constitutes such an ethnic identity and concern within the influenced global white populace. This aspect has been delineated from the research of Doering (2016) as the paradoxical standpoint which is often subscribed to by many of the white individuals when they could take to expressing their pride on their shared and supposed white cultural perspectives. This is social process to provide the justification of such practices on the basis of the reference of formulation of pride by every non-white community on their cultural and ethnic lineages. Thus, Fletcher (2016) has observed that the new consciousness regarding racial identity has considerably set in at the various contemporary societies of both Europe and that of the Northern American continent. This consciousness is often reflected through the reactionary ideological position of many of the whites in their opposition of the programs of preferential treatments of certain non-white communities.

As per the observed research of Battey and Leyva (2016), such a consciousness is indicative of the necessity of the whites to enquire about their actual identity as a definitive community. Such an enquiry could lead to the realisation that the whites are now the occupants of a racial category. This categorisation has emerged since the racially highly charged social conditions and environments have also resulted in the communities hitherto traditionally discriminated against and marginalised in the process of traditional racism, having consistently gained intense media coverage and exposure to inform others regarding the effects such victimhood. According to Alcoff (2015), this has fostered the disappearance of the previously held notion of invisibility of the white racial identity. In place of such previously held notions of invisibility of racial identity, now, the white community based individuals, especially the young generation, have been concerned with the questions regarding the best possible manner in which such whites could construct their new perceptual ethnic identity. The social basis of such development of new white racial identity has been the newly evolving multiracial social fabric of the world where, in all probabilities, the whites are fast becoming minorities. Thus, it has been deemed necessary from the perspective of Levine-Rasky (2016) to critically monitor and carefully appreciate the extensive political as well as socio-ideological dynamics through which the reconstruction of the racial identity of the white community could be performed by the whites with such new consciousness.

As has been observed by Aggarwal (2016), it is inherently difficult to point out the core and essential constituent elements of the concept of whiteness with certain measure of clarity. Thus, it is necessary to historicise such a concept so that generalisation of statements concerning the progression of such a socio-psychological phenomenon could be developed with considerate measure of clarity. However, Gallagher and Twine (2017) have observed that even this format of an academic approach could be of extreme difficulty since the overall concept depends upon the historical as well as social constructs which are not static or definite at all and are hyper dynamic. The new conditions of the late 20th century and circumstances have influenced the alterations of the intensive interactions between the multiplicity of manifestations of authority and social power. In this respect, Cabrera (2014) has opined that the most prevalent and dominant impulse related to the development of the identity of whiteness had evolved during the early phase of the enlightenment of Europe. In this respect, the rationality related notions underwent some specific changes. The most important of this could be recognised as the change in the perception of a transcendental and privileged racial identity of the white male. This could be better elaborated that such a racial identity could always have been seen to operate at the exact recesses of the power structure of the socio-economic narratives of the concurrent era. From the historical perspective, such a racial identity has been always perceived as immune to the implications of the prevailing financial conditions during the colonial period since the effects were mostly felt and experienced by the various other non-white communities.

The contextual analysis of the historical narrative of whiteness as an entity has been effective in divulging the realisation that such an entity emerged primarily as a social perspective during the late 17th Century and the early 18th Century. The geographic location of such a social perspective could be identified as the particular space of the Western Europe. This has been the backdrop on which the research perceptions of Kivel (2017) have been formulated. Such perceptions have delineated the fact that the human nature and psychology are completely incumbent upon the capacity of arriving at proper reasoning when psycho-dynamic configuration of identity based perspectives of entire communities such as the global white populations concerned.

The signifiers of the concept of whiteness as a reactionary element to the existence of reverse racism closely involve the actualities which underline the social construction of the reason through which emergence of whiteness related sensibilities have taken place. According to the perception of Song (2014) the rationalistic approach on part of the Western European and Northern American continent based white communities, is reflective of the fact that the concept of whiteness has been established. This has brought forward a social norm which has represented a hierarchical structure based authoritative social power and domination over other communities which could be non-white or distinctively coloured. Such research perceptions have received considerable support from the historical analysis of the decades which immediately followed the European Enlightenment and these decades heralded in the advent of colonialism which then got extended into the next four centuries. The ethnic encounters with the non-white communities had been undertaken from the rationalisation perspectives. The concept of whiteness had been indicative of rationality, self-control and imposition of a sense of order. On the contrary, the concept of non-whiteness has been representative of irrationality and violence and complete dissolution of self-regulation. In this context, the racial prejudices had been developing for the previous five centuries which have led to the final culmination into the racial identity based conceptions such as that of reverse racism of distinctive anti-white nature. Through the evaluation of such historical dynamics of racial concept development, Bonilla-Silva (2017) has stated that the perceptions related to reverse racism evolved in this backdrop to provide the social pivot around which the variegated aspects social orders could be demarcated.

Furthermore, the analysis of structures of power could be understood to be the instrument through which the academic evaluation of reverse racism could be identified. Holgersson et al (2016) has outlined the fact that the primary constituents of Racism as a definite concept had been the conjugation between the elements of power and prejudice. In this context, the previous academic and social assumptions bordered particular propositions. One such proposition had been that since the coloured communities had been historically relatively devoid of power and authority, therefore, the existence of racism within the coloured populace could be impossible. However, the subsequent researches into such assumptions, as per the observations of Levine-Rasky (2016), have outlined the fallacy of such concepts. In terms of the defining factors of Reverse Racism, the existing concepts could contribute in a threefold manner. The first one is the shifting of the developed academic understandings about the reverse racist tendencies beyond the cognitive processes of individuals. The second one could be considered to be the acknowledgement of the imbalance of social status and power distribution mechanisms which could be seriously jeopardised through the influence of racial discrimination. The final one is the different relationships between the socio-cultural aspects and the individual members of the society. Such dynamics are the most important to formulate a concise structure of understanding of the assumptions related to Reverse Racism and the associated implications. Finally, Fletcher (2016) has propounded the fact that the traditional notions of prejudice and power have formulated the core of racism. These have been responsible to eschew the symmetrical assumptions which have been also used to establish linkages between explicitly racial experiences.

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