Common Causes And Diagnostic Approaches


Patients get to the clinic with various unique needs and history. Cases of infertility have been noted and most are caused by common problems. Millions of couples in the United Kingdom are affected by both male and female infertility. Approximately 10-18% of couples face difficulties of getting babies and having successful deliveries. In most cases, about one third of both female and male factors result to infertility. However, other cases have unknown causes. In females, infertility causes are very hard to diagnose and treatments vary according to the main causes. One of the most common infertility problems in women is tubal-factor infertility of the fallopian tubes. According to the American Society for Reproductive Medicine, 25-35 percent of women experience infertility issues from tubal factors. Hysterosalpingogram (HSG) therefore is recommended by doctors when they suspect that one is experiencing infertility due to blocked fallopian. HSG tests not only helps to identify blocked fallopian but is also essential in finding out structural problems in the uterus that may have led to repeated loss of pregnancy. These structural problems may be polyps or fibroids that affect maturity of babies in the uterus.


HSG test is a special X-ray examination of the uterus and fallopian tubes (Tripathy, S. 2013). The test involves a thin catheter injected through the cervix to the uterus and a special ray radio-opaque contrast material dye is inserted. This test takes about 45 minutes. The dye is used to help see the shape of the fallopian and the uterus. Its movement is followed by fluoroscopic x-ray to see its progress through the reproductive system. After the test, there is mild or severe cramping felt depending on individuals and if the tubes have been blocked or not (Hurd, W. 2007). This paper therefore presents a strategy to the management for service improvement for HSG patients. It specifically seeks the management to have a separate waiting room for patients to sit while waiting for the doctor to have the procedure.

Why the Strategy?

HSG are often performed in a regular obstetrics’ or gynecology’s office, a health facility with the services or at a radiology center. The test is not very intense nor painful and recovery is quick, though there are side effects depending on the outcomes of the test in various people. The side effects are; heavy bleeding, fever and severe pain (Editors of Conceive Magazine and Hahn, K. 2012). This however should be reported to the concerned doctor and investigated with immediate effect. For that reason, HSG patients should have their waiting rooms to be able to settle from the procedure and have a quiet time to come to terms with their results. Nonetheless, many United Kingdom industries in management practices defined UK medical delivery as disorganized with overworked staff managing millions of patients without enough resources hence they view their results similar to what the system is designed to deliver. The United Kingdom health care system is inconsistent in information delivery treatment and evidence, difficult to navigate and very broken (Davidson, S. 2010). He also places his concern in the system lacking enough rooms for patient’s recovery.

Billions of dollars are always set aside annually for public health care facilities (Youngberg, B. 2013). Healthcare in the United Kingdom is usually paid for by taxation and is also publicly funded though the private health cares are accessed on private insurances (Great Britain, & UK Statistics Authority, 2005). This necessitates the need for hospitals to improve their physical environment, technology and culture to generally improve safety of patients and quality care from the health care givers. Attention should heavily be placed on the architectural design of the healthcare facility to address this safety concerns. With the concerned healthcare facility in this case, HSG patients have been noted to mix up with others having various issues. Most complain of contracting even severe conditions from the environment. Having their own space easily helps them keep off from contracting diseases and internalize on their condition (Youngberg, B. 2013).

According to Colling, R. and York, T. (2009, p.483) safety and the general performance has been linked with the physical environment. Cognitive psychologists have acknowledged this reporting a significant effect of the environment to the patients and the health care givers. Considering the inter-relationships between patients, health care givers, equipment used and the general environment, it is basic to learn the design of a health care facility. Health care givers and patients do not always behave clumsily and they rarely blunder respectively but they can be provoked when placed in a bad, disorganized health care setting (Pfannstiel, M.and Rasche, C. 2017). HSG patients therefore, feel safer when they are placed in their own rooms after the test. Having their room also aid in first healing from the procedure and be able to quickly leave for other businesses of their concern.

In review of approximately 600 articles and more, researchers found out that a complete health care facility with all the requirements for each and every patient has the best outcomes (Colling, R. and York, T. 2009). There are reduced distractions and patients experience the best from the facility. Consequently, Pfannstiel, M. and Rasche, C. (2017, 282) postulates that there is marked general improvement in service provision of such facilities. Patients waiting for HSG test would rather be kept off distractions to help them build on their expectations and calmly wait for the procedure. It is also important for them to be segregated in a room because they are already changed to hospital garments and it feels uneasy for them mixing up with others who are in their normal clothing waiting for other tests. More so, a separate room for them ensures adequate space to keep their stuffs as they undergo the test. Proper documentation also be effected as everything that concerns them can be done within enough space. The waiting room can also harbor some space to be used in keeping their tools and equipment for the HSG tests. This enables quick access and reduce on the aspect of time wasting. Furthermore, patients from HSG tests need a lot of monitoring to ensure there are no complications arising from the side effects. Effects like, severe bleeding, severe pain and any other discomforts are managed before adverse effects (Pfannstiel, M. and Rasche, C. 2017). They therefore need nurses, doctors and any other appropriate health care providers around to ensure any errors are mitigated. Enough space is also vital to make sure family members can get space to keep their loved ones’ company as they encourage them to be positive for the results.

Significant reviews on the literature of the physical environment relations to the patient outcomes have been made. Youngberg, B. (2013, p. 20) identifies that having specific waiting areas for specific groups reduces noise pollution and contributes to factors that promotes quality health conditions for patients. Reduced medical errors are one aspect of it. Facility design influence patients’ experience, self-satisfaction, and reduced stress giving them the right perspectives on the facility. Moreover, other researchers found that the hospital design in terms of room allocation specifically in providing waiting rooms according to health concerns minimized environmental associated stressors (Montone, D. 2012). A well ventilated spacious room with a view of nature allows for good lighting leading to patients relaxing and have a comforting effect waiting for the test. The waiting areas can also be supplied with water, if possible tea and coffee to keep the patients hydrated before meeting with the health care providers. These factors are significant in preventing potential stressors (Montone, D. 2012).

Furthermore, to meet patients’ needs acquisition of room for patients waiting on HSG tests is vital. Nurses in health facilities have a common working station and are also always moving in various rooms to perform their duties. However, this constant movement is influenced by the structure and design of the given health care facility and the temporal structure of the duty they perform in the various rooms. Statistics in the medical units show nurses are disturbed an average approximate time of once every 12 minutes (Wagner, K. Rounds, C. and Spurgin, R. 2008). This therefore calls for an introduction of various rooms for various patient needs with specific nurses allocated to work there. This is to avoid the movement of the nurses and be able to concentrate in one department they are well specialized. Also it is key in decentralizing the nursing work stations to have supplies, linens and equipment areas. Such arrangement immensely reduces on nurse’s fatigue by largely cutting off time used to find equipment and movements thus improve on their productivity (Montone, D. 2012). Patients in this case waiting for HSG tests highly benefit from more time with the nurses and increased monitoring surveillance. Consequently, emergencies can highly reduce. Ultimately, resulting to marked improvement in the general care giving in the facility

How do you involve the Management for Strategy Implementation?

Service improvement in a health care facility entirely involves the management. Managers have principles like team spirit, division of labor and have a focus in success. Management plays a major role in organizing, planning, leading, coordinating and control. In regard to health care management, there are three managerial levels, the top level, middle level managers and the frontline managers (Turner, P. 2019). Therefore, effecting the strategy of a waiting room for patients who have completed the HSG and those waiting for the test can be done with ease. However, a multifaceted approach is key. The staff in health care facilities are the best personnel to give feedbacks of areas that need improvement to the management. They have direct contact with patients and have earned trust from them hence can be able to communicate effectively to help in the general improvement of health care facilities. Therefore, they are to be involved in major decision making. Nevertheless, management has leaders that know exactly how care is delivered to patients and are in the frontline in improving these processes. They are trained to facilitate in coming up with solutions to problems rather than fixing them. Concerning this health care facility, patients waiting for HSG test have aired their concerns and the management has to play a major role in helping them out (Kaplan R. and Norton, D. 2008).

The management with agreement to effect this strategy for service improvement can help to implement it by coming up with a need assessment analysis. This can be by the use of stakeholders (Kaplan R. and Norton, D. 2008). Stakeholders involved here are the health care providers, management board and sponsors of the facility. They help in finding out if the suggested strategy is of importance to the facility, determine priorities and make necessary improvements. The assessment also assist in determining whether with the strategy the facility improves and be able to meet its goals of success. In addition, when the need for the waiting area is established by the stake holders involved then the management can take full accountability of the same. They can be able to break down their target for the strategy (Turner, P. 2019). For instance, the design of the waiting area, ways to incorporate it in the building, timeline for the construction and find experienced personnel to help in the construction among other targets. More so come up with ways to get funds for it and eventually having the waiting rooms in place for HSG tests.


HSG fertility test has its own complexities. Infertility is a sensitive issue of concern globally hence patients seeking the test have to be taken good care of and be given priorities. If the strategy is implemented it can help them be comfortable and even share their experiences with each other and allow for encouragements among themselves. The waiting area is also not only help the patients but also the nurses and other care givers in settling down in the hospital and ensure proper effective care is given to patients. Satisfied patients give referrals to friends, family and colleagues about the facility. This is significant in ensuring growth of the entire facility.

Order Now


  • Colling, R. L., & York, T. W. (2009). Hospital and healthcare security. [Place of publication not identified]: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • Davidson, S. M. (2010). Still broken: Understanding the U.S. health care system. Stanford, Calif: Stanford Business Books.
  • Editors of Conceive Magazine & Kim Hahn. (2012). Fertility Facts. California, United States,
  • Great Britain, & UK Statistics Authority. (2005). United Kingdom health statistics. London, Stationery Office.
  • Hurd, W. W. (2007). Clinical reproductive medicine and surgery. Philadelphia, PA, Mosby/Elsevier
  • Kaplan, R. S., & Norton, D. P. (2008). The execution premium: linking strategy to operations for competitive advantage. Boston, Mass, Harvard Business Press.
  • Montone, D. (2012). Introduction to medical practice management. Clifton Park, N.Y., Delmar Pfannstiel, M. A., & Rasche, C. (2017). Service business model innovation in healthcare and hospital management: models, strategies, tools.
  • Tripathy, S. N. (2013). The fallopian tubes. New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd. Turner, P. (2019). Leadership in Healthcare: delivering organisational transformation and operational ... excellence. [Place of publication not identified], Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Wagner, K. D., Rounds, C. D., & Spurgin, R. A. (1998). Environmental management in healthcare facilities. Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders Co. Youngberg, B. J. (2013). Patient safety handbook. Burlington, Mass, Jones & Bartlett Learning

Google Review

What Makes Us Unique

  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • 100% Customer Satisfaction
  • No Privacy Violation
  • Quick Services
  • Subject Experts

Research Proposal Samples

It is observed that students take pressure to complete their assignments, so in that case, they seek help from Assignment Help, who provides the best and highest-quality Dissertation Help along with the Thesis Help. All the Assignment Help Samples available are accessible to the students quickly and at a minimal cost. You can place your order and experience amazing services.

DISCLAIMER : The assignment help samples available on website are for review and are representative of the exceptional work provided by our assignment writers. These samples are intended to highlight and demonstrate the high level of proficiency and expertise exhibited by our assignment writers in crafting quality assignments. Feel free to use our assignment samples as a guiding resource to enhance your learning.

Live Chat with Humans
Dissertation Help Writing Service