Debunking Cognitive Abilities Adulthood

INTRODUCTION

There are several arguments on adulthood being a period of an inevitable loss of all cognitive abilities. Literature from various authors, however, decline the truthfulness of such claims. Literature by Burri et al., (2013) indicates that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may partly be the cause of cognitive decline in adulthood. Cognitive decline may similarly result from childhood difficulties including sexual and physical mistreatment, loss of parents, emotional desertion and so on (Gould, 2012). Crystallized intelligence is defined as one’s ability to solve problems and make critical decisions from accumulated information, it tend to rise as old age increases. This supports the fact that cognitive decline does not necessarily result from adulthood.

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A report by Schaie and Willis, shows that cognitive decline in elderly people could be reversed through remedial training from 40 per cent to 60 per cent. Through intervention, some of the changes that result from adulthood may be slowed down. Adulthood cognitive decline and behavioural deficits may be caused by epilepsy. There are other factors that lead to cognitive deficit such as psychological problems, seizure type, side effects of treatment and so on. By treating epilepsy, which may also be caused by exposure to medication, cognitive and behavioural impairments are minimized.

From previous research, there is an indication that adults of good health suffers minimal memory deficits. Maintaining good health in adulthood minimizes the chances of experiencing memory loss. This argument shows that being of age is not necessarily a period of cognitive decline. Similarly, a memory from past encounters stored by adults for many years usually remains preserved even in adulthood. Crystallized intelligence which is defined as knowledge or experience gained over time stabilizes as one ages according to research findings.

In adulthood, the ability to stay focused or attentive to a television program increases. One’s verbal ability such as vocabularies are preserved with old age. All these statements have backed the argument that adulthood is not a period of cognitive impairment. Traditionally, approaching problems and giving solutions were meant for the elderly in society. This indicated much faith in adulthood due to their vast experiences in life. Other studies argue that ageing does not affect cognitive speed performance.

Medication usually has side effects on people, and adults are no exception. Side effects resulting from medication are; drowsiness, sensory changes which are likely to alter information processing, depression and anxiety that alters one’s motivation to learn and health changes that have an effect on cognitive procession speed. Some activities may be initiated to evaluate the cognitive decline in persons by sharpening cognitive processing and the brain even in adulthood.

Researchers have identified stress is one of the key causes of cognitive decline in adulthood. High stress levels have the effect of causing learning and memory impairment. Therefore, it is essential to minimize stress levels in adulthood through exercise.

Maintaining good health by regularly visiting the doctor for check-ups is critical to minimize impaired thinking that might result from medical conditions in adulthood. As an adult, sharing your medical conditions with your Doctor. For instance, taking medications that are not prescribed by the doctor (Hanna-Paddy & Gajewski, 2012). Through transparent interactions with the doctor, adults receive guides on medication and this may reduce the effects of medication that causes cognitive decline.

A balanced diet and other lifestyle factors plays a major role in the general health of persons. This fact has attracted an increase in scientific and public interest. Fruits and vegetables such as blueberries and broccoli are essential for the general health of the brain cells. Olive oil is also considered important for the protection of brain cells.

Adults, when engaged in challenging cognitive activities, can be protected from thinking that results from ageing and risks associated with Alzheimer’s disease (Zahodne et al., 2011). Therefore, adults are in a position of minimizing the cognitive decline through such activities as reading, playing games, and attending courses. Such involvement in mental activities that are intellectually stimulating in nature has been identified to envisage diminished cognitive decline in adulthood.

It is evident that the elderly do not use active strategies to encode information thus causing difficulties in storing of such newly acquired information. According to Deary et al., (2009), when they get old, there are weakened differences. Old adults have proven to have a good recognition of new information when helped with hints to jog their memories. Following a routine such as doing a similar activity repeatedly, taking sufficient time and paying attention when actively interpreting new information.

Studies show that more sex is interlinked with better cognitive functioning of persons. Better cognitive functioning may be linked with having more sex according to the recent findings (Bielak et al., 2010). Adults having sex on a weekly basis tend to be higher by 2 per cent as compared to those who have sex monthly, this is much higher by 4 per cent on average for those who never had sex. There are biological explanations on how frequent flows in excitement and release of sex-related hormones could have an influence on the brain functions. Similarly, high levels of intimacy and companionship in a sexual relationship could result in such response to brain functionality (Slater et al., 2011).

Prevention of cognitive decline in adulthood can be prevented by getting enough sleep. Similar research on an ageing group from 65 years and above found out that having daytime nap has an influence of lowering the cognitive decline. Conversely, when adults sleep for a few hours at night and excess during the day, it will contribute to an increased risk of cognitive decline after ten years. Poor quality sleep and longer sleep durations in both men and women aged 65 and above are due to bad memory according to research. These findings recommend eight hours of sleep to be the most ideal. Poor cognitive functions in late adulthood could be as a result of poor sleeping patterns and disturbances in early adulthood. This supports the fact that sleeping is influenced by is cognitive functions during adulthood.

Gender equalityy has a relationship with adulthood cognitive functioning of a persons.Literature indicates that women may be subjected to a much lower risk of cognitive decline as compared to men due to undertakings they embrace. Women tend to engage themselves in social activities, volunteer work and reading which have the effect of reducing cognitive decline. Perception of people about themselves and others is influenced by society perception and practices of culture based on gender role. When changed, there could be a likelihood that leisure and lifestyle activities, women and men engage in could have an impact on cognitive potential in adulthood life.

The perceptions of people believing that the elderly are vulnerable, sick and grumpy also matters in the cognitive performance in adulthood (Wang et al., 2016). For instance, there is a study about the “role of expectations on memory”, research established that in as much as students of Chinese and Americans performed well on cognitive activities, Americans of older age performed significantly poorly on cognitive tasks as compared to Chinese equivalents (Wang et al., 2016). This disparity much is detailed in theories concerning ageing in both cultures, the older adults who purport that memory of a person decline with age also showed more memory declines as compared to the older adults who imagined that memory did not necessarily decline with age (John, 2017)

When considering possible causes that are associated with cognitive age decline, active and engaged lifestyles are frequently conveyed as being protective (Costa & McCrae, 2013). This may be of particular interest since it present chances for or purposeful cognitive decline or delivered intervention. Recent studies integrated research by linking cognitive function and physical activities. The agreement was cognitive decline associated with age and seemingly delayed in individuals that are physically well built. A significant caution to this study that shows that physical activities should not be strenuous in nature (Erickson et al., 2010). People spend most of their time walking experience less decline in adulthood life.

Researchers have started to comprehend the factors that allow some people to perform cognitively better as compared to others in old age. For instance, there is research that shows, people who are in a position to easily adjust to a changing situation at an early adult life are equally able to adjust in late life of adulthood (Gow, Pattie, & Deary, 2017). And with the ability to adjust, one may not necessarily undergo ca cognitive decline in adulthood.

Although a large number of research focuses on the health condition of ageing individuals, there are few informative studies that provide detailed information on the ageing molecular biology of the brain functionality (Raffo et al., 2011). Several changes of molecular are due in part to a brain size reduction and plasticity loss (Erickson et al., 2012). Brain plasticity is the ability of the brain to change in function and structure. The brain has a major function of determining the type of information it can store and one it should dicard (Rubino et al., 2009). The brain eliminate any form of action, thought or information that is not useful to it. This , however, does not necessarily mean that elimination of information by the brain at adulthood age is cognitive decline. Generally, procedural memory of an older person which refers to memory performance for a particular type of action remains the same, whereas the system working memory that extensively holds multiple pieces of transitory pieces of information in a person mind where they can be easily manipulated declines.

It's never too early to commence doing things that would prevent cognitive decline. Other research indicate that older adult’s interventions have minimal impact and this could be due to participants who suffer from cognitive decline. Some Studies examine cognitive rate decline in participants of old individuals who do not have cognitive or dementia impairment, however, show results that promising. Everyone encounter cognitive decline as they grow older, this is a natural process that often occurs at a different pace for everyone. However, it could be better to address this issue earlier enough than holding until middle or older age. It therefore time to come out and take a lifelong approach in order to keep brains healthy as we grow old (John, 2017).

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CONCLUSION

From the above findings, it is justified to argue that adulthood is not a period of cognitive decline. Some cognitive abilities such as vocabularies are resilient to brain ageing. Allison (2009) states that, even though body and mind are actively slowing, adults of old age nevertheless tend to maintain an active lifestyle, they remain to be happier as compared to life they lead in younger age, and continuously value their friends and family. Similarly, less accurate executive control and slow processing neither mean worse intelligence nor memory. As one becomes aware of the performance of the cognitive process, he or she will encounter something at the core of rational-self. Practically, demographic change man economies and care services will be well placed to auger with the cognitive ageing burden if they are hints to prevention and improvement.

REFERENCES

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