Deductive Management Research Designs.


Management research is based on the philosophy branch of logic. There are two approaches to reasoning that form the most fundamental components of a research design. The approaches are induction and deduction. The approach of induction in a research design results in an inductive research. The inductive research uses the reasoning of a bottom-up approach where the design moves from the specific to the more general matters. To be specific, inductive research refers to the observations conducted by a management researcher which eventually results in broad theories and generalizations (Devault, 2018). Deduction, on the other hand, when used in a research design, results in a deductive research. The deductive research uses the reasoning of top-down approach where the design is interwoven from general matters, to the more specific matters. To be specific, deductive research refers to the means by which a management researcher starts a study by taking into consideration the already developed theories in relation to the topic of interest (Devault, 2018). The aim of this portfolio is to present two contrasting illustrations of how to design a piece inductive and deductive management research.


Piece Inductive management research

This is one of the broad style of reasoning that can be used in the expression of arguments arising from observation or experience. Inductive reasoning is usually applied in qualitative research where the researcher begins with making specific measures and observations then proceeds to detect the patterns and themes in the data. In this design, the research has the opportunity to form a tentative hypothesis early on the study before exploring and testing the hypothesis. The end result of the exploration of the hypothesis is the formation of general theories and conclusions. It is for this reason that inductive research is regarded as the building of a theory (Gill & Johnson, 2002). In addition, the intent of a researcher in this context is to acquire information from their sources so as to establish themes which will help them to inductively develop theories.

Usually, ontology is focused on the ideas relating to the relationship between and the existence of society and people. There exist several qualitative approaches which are based on ontological assumptions where reality is thought of being some kind of subjectivism or constructionism (Eriksson & Kovalainen, 2016). This means that reality is comprehended according to experiences and perceptions which could be different from each person and over time, may change in context. Put differently, social phenomena can be can be developed from the consequent actions and perceptions of the social actors who are affected with their existence. The conceptual understandings of reality can be shared.

Usually, epistemology focuses on answering questions regarding knowledge of a phenomenon and proceeding to identify the sources and boundaries of the knowledge. There are several qualitative approaches which use inductive reasoning with the philosophy of epistemology. In particular these business research studies use the subjectivism school of thought under the epistemology school of thought. It begins the research by considering that knowledge is only available from social actors (Eriksson & Kovalainen, 2016).

This is the philosophical branch which studies the judgments made concerning value. Axiology is applicable after having identified the ontological and epistemological sets of assumption concerning knowledge of a certain phenomenon (Ahmad, Musa, Adamu, & Mu'awuya, 2015). While ontology focuses on the being of the phenomenon by identifying whether or not it is true, and epistemology focuses on knowing the phenomenon by identifying which values to go into, axiology focuses on the acting on the phenomenon such as how to write about it.

Piece Deductive Management Research

A deductive management research as aforementioned engages the researcher on what they would think of while carrying out a scientific research. A model management research some using deductive reasons will first rely on developing a theory and hypothesis, followed by designing a research strategy that will test the hypothesis. Simply put, the deductive reason involves the research developing a theory which is then placed under thorough testing. It is for this reason that deductive research is regarded as the testing of theory (Gill & Johnson, 2002). Deductive reasoning lets the business researcher to think about the research which has already been done and idealizes ways of adding to, or extending that theoretical base (Devault, 2018).

From the ontological philosophical thinking, deductive reasoning upholds positivism. This by taking the approach that reality is measurable, stable and observable. Therefore, a phenomenon will be studied using an underlying assumption that quantification and objectivity will be possible (Dawood & Underwood, 2010).

In deductive reasoning, epistemology focuses on the nature of beliefs that are justified (rational, or roughly reasonable beliefs). Deductive inferences which are performed competently usually preserve justification. One of the reasons to why deductive reasoning is thought to preserve justification is because the process of deduction is a cognitive procedure which is reliable (Schester, n.d). This reason brings in the concept of reliabilism in deductive reasoning which holds the notion that a thinker’s held beliefs are justified if they are an outcome of a process of cognition which does not rely on any kind of input belief and yields more truths, or depends on the input beliefs which are true and aims at uncovering more truth (Schester, n.d).

In deductive reasoning, axiology focuses on the procedures and techniques used to collect data so as to assess the quality and value of a research. To test the value of knowledge acquired from deductive reasoning, axiology would consider the benefits which the knowledge will have to humans. Practically, this is done by investigating the opinions and views of the end-users or clients of the knowledge through quantitative and qualitative surveys (Dawood & Underwood, 2010).

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From the above discussion, it is evident that deductive and inductive reasoning are the inverse of each other. In both ways of reasoning, the conclusions are derived according to information which is presented (Fryatt, 2014). In deductive management research, based on the evidence presented, the conclusion will always bear truth this is because information (the proposition) is presented with supporting evidence (particles). Inductive management research is determined using evidence that is found and this gives the opportunity for the formulation of more than one conclusion (Fryatt, 2014).


  • Ahmad, A. A., Musa, I. S., Adamu, H., & Mu'awuya, A. (2015). Ontology, Epistemology, and Axiology in Quantitative and Qualitative Research: Elucidation of the Research Philosophical Misconception. 2(1). Retrieved from
  • Dawood, I., & Underwood, J. (2010). Research Methodology Explained. Advancing Project Management for the 21st Century. Retrieved from
  • Devault, G. (2018). Deductive and Inductive Market Research. Retrieved from
  • Eriksson, P., & Kovalainen, A. (2016). Qualitative Methods in Business Research (2nd ed.). Los Angeles: Sage Publications Ltd. Retrieved from
  • Fryatt, I. (2014). Chapter 9 Study Guide. Retrieved from
  • Gill, J., & Johnson, P. (2002). Research Methods for Managers (3rd ed.). London: Sage. Retrieved from
  • Schester, J. (n.d). Deductive Reasoning. In T. Crane, F. Ferreira, M. Kinsbourne, & R. Zemel (Eds.), The Encyclopedia of the Mind. Retrieved from

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