Embracing Diversity and Critical Perspectives

Introduction

The major questions that arise, based on this subject are basically; what feminism is, why it is pluralized more and more, and why it is talked about. Notably, these questions often seem elementary or rather, superfluous. However, they purpose to confer a given sense to a variety of debates, as well as positions, which are connected to various dimensions of the world’s political and even philosophical formulations. This paper purposes to propose the opinion that it is better taking about feminisms in the plural form rather than feminism in the singular. In broader terms, feminisms are regarded as critical responses towards hegemonic feminist positions. In this regard, feminisms constitute various ways that feminists devise, in order to integrate various differences that emerge, based on confrontations (Keller, 2012). However, it is important to examine such an issue more critically, in order to provide a comprehension that it goes beyond antagonistic viewpoints and overall, a series of various theoretical elaborations, as well as political postulations, which provide credence to the perception that feminism, poses as a radical critic of a given culture.

Owing to the discussion above, it is evident that feminisms also emerge as significant theoretical approaches, which are spawned via various analysis of specific conditions, wherefore, the lives of women and even other subordinate subjects purpose to develop in particular framework. Notably, the combination of such kind of circumstances has enabled many people to flourish, when initially they were underrated by public awareness, as well as academic analysis (Roth, 2004). In the meantime, the requirement to count on various conceptual frameworks, as well as comprehensive categories stimulate those undertaking the feminist research to exercise boldness whilst constructing innovative forms, which are capable of providing a revelation of a complex mesh of the relationships existing between various social conditions, which previously, had been studies in singular form. Clearly, feminist promotes its capacity towards embracing, wherefore it purposes to achieve deep levels of understanding onto multiple forms of interactions existing between gender, race, ethnicity, sex, as well as other social organizing traits that become significantly articulated into various forms of social organizations, localized, as well as cultural ideologies (Hirsch & Keller, 2015). It is noteworthy that it the course of such a search, feminism has exhibited a significant creativity, transgression, as well as imagination and powers, which oppressed individuals struggle with for emancipations.

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In distinguishing between different feminisms, there exist the critiques of gender in terms of its static, performance, as well as “decoy” role. Notably, in the recent decades, it is evident that gender has significantly moved from being perceived as a useful category, meant for various analyses to becoming a point inflection, used in criticizing its various heteronormativity facets, which are implied in terms of allocating hetero-assigned identities. Clearly, this debate has resulted into polarization and also the elaboration of interpretations, which are becoming increasingly complex and also critical in terms of gender, and especially whilst approaching multiple enmeshments, in line with other socially organizing factors, based on class, race, and ethnicity (Shohat, 2001). The latter is owing to the development of deep relationships, which these kind of elements have with conditions aligned to subordination, as well as inequality. Significantly, a detailed study of such kind of relationships has resulted into better documentation of their social, as well as anthropological dimensions, based on different scales and rigorous analyses onto various dialectic aspects, which connect such kind of enmeshments with economic, ideological, as well as political processes, which intervene at macro-structural elements (Reilly & Nochlin, 2007).

On the other hand, owing to its deep historical, political, as well as philosophical roots, feminism is defined in terms of its conceptual dimension and as a critical theory (Reilly & Nochlin, 2007). However, the existing omnipresence of gender, in line with many other meanings, has brought forth a significant departure point, which results into the conservative glorification of many women, thus enhancing a simultaneous breach between the aspect of feminism and womenism, in line with the confusion existing between the emancipation of feminism and a general state feminism. It is significant noting that such considerations often result into significant perceptions, which entail the avoidance of mechanical substitutions of “feminisms” by “feminism,” thus preserving the existing political force of the second term when required and stressing the aspect of plurality or rather heterogeneity of the concept and avoiding certain pitfalls of various uncritical relativism. Significantly, the latter is specifically vital, as it aids in preventing feminist plurality/heterogeneity or diversity, and also the introduction into the general society, which offers multiple series of masked anti-feminist propositions (Alaimo et al., 2008).

Notably, it has become clear that the more plural the aspect of feminisms are referred to, the better. It is owing to the opinion that there is no doubt that such kind of proliferation often responds to the existing evidence that there are various feminists everywhere. Essentially, each of the feminisms often imply a political, as well as a cultural project towards the transformation of various substantial aspects of forms of human existence. They have a potential towards generating various radical changes, and this depends on themselves and simultaneously on their self-articulations. Various scholars stress that the rights of women ought to be questioned and also politically radicalized by means of adopting significant programs of gender actions, as well as radically pluralized actions (Humm, 2014). Notably, this significantly confuses and clarifies all, that lie at stake for feminisms. Clearly, and based on an academic perspective, feminisms proliferation has brought forth subsequent broadening of various research problems as well as topics, which then have enriched various feminist perspectives in a considerable manner, and especially in various social sciences and also humanities. Simultaneously, the approach that is given to various emerging and also recurrent topics, based on a novel viewpoint, explores significant lines of inquiry, which had initially not been recognized. However, they have enhanced the aspect of innovation in the procedural processes, needful in generating significant knowledge, in order to provide a diversification of various methods that have dynamized the manner in which research id done in varied fields where feminisms have developed (Nagle, 2013).

Theoretical fields have as well faced various challenges that feminist expansion has brought. Since the earlier days of academic feminism, there are various critical readings of foundational texts relating to sociology, philosophy, artistic theories, as well as politics, which settled in as basic epistemological procedures. Notably, as time passes by, there has been the consolidation of various feminist theoretical currents (connected in various cases with numerous academic discussions, as well as demands associated with various social movements, particularly on feminist movements and those others, which express the issues that women face) (Gillis et al., 2004). These have led to the possibility of the establishment of dialogues with other non-feminist theoretical positions. Slowly by slowly, there are authors, are being regarded as mandatory references when it comes to discussing certain subjects, yet Academia’s full acceptance of feminist contribution is still underway.

Construction of feminisms

There are various internal criticism against feminist universalism, which is practically consubstantial with the contemporary feminist construction. Notably, the standpoints, which separated the culturalists from biologicists in an attempt to expound on and explain the various elements, radically purposed to differentiate women from men and this emerged in the 60s (Ahmad, 2017). It is evident that as built around the existing dichotomy notion regarding gender and sex distinction, it is worth noting that before long, various positions had already started with the aim of diverging even more, as they purposed to delve into that which separated men from women and also what purposed to radically differentiate some women from their fellows. Based on this direction, it is evident that most feminism significantly defined their positions as to be concerned with equality or rather sexual differences, from the first or third worlds, or black or white among others (Gangoli, 2016). However, it should be noted that these kind of positions are not to be considered as binary in themselves. This is because in reality, they are often established, such that they reconstitute, based on constant self-critique. Moreover, they also lean on a given extraordinary network, which purposes to radically question the aspect of domain power in all expressions, as well as deep social inequalities that are particularly experiences by various sex-generic subjects, which make up ethnic groups, classes, or particular social divisions (Alvarez, 2018).

Based on these divisions, various viewpoints do emerge, which are centered on philosophy, and as such, they question individualism, as well as universalism, and also stresses on the significance of community or communality. Having taken them as examples, it is evident that these positions purpose to allow the comprehension that each of them has got a non-linear critical dynamic, owing to the fact that they unmask various oppressive mechanisms as supported by sex and gender. However, the mechanisms are often entrenched in historic, cultural, economic, as well as political configurations (Gangoli, 2016). They often carry along severe challenges, based on local, as well as global organizations. Significantly, at the center of differentiating between feminisms, it is important to deal with two primary questions and the first is concerned with what feminism is and who poses as the political subject to the term feminism. Clearly, there would be multiple responses but primarily the concrete search would be undertaken by various women who are concerned with the wellbeing of women in general, and those who engage in dialogue with other women. This is in order to unweave various social symbols, as well as practices, which put them at a specific secondary level with inferior valuation, and even less rights, thereby providing a significant base for many feminisms, presented as a form of political construction, which stresses that women exist and should be valued (Alvarez, 2018).

However, there are various authoresses who make arguments against the opinion that women ought to be political subject to feminism. Partly, their argument is because the term “feminism” itself is an overgeneralizations and it emancipates various proposals, which have granted other subordinate subjected, critical elements that they can use in building a libertarian perspective for themselves, thereby, turning them into a another group of political subjects, which are feminists. The duality presented, owing to using both terms provides a definite political intention, which vindicates feminism’s political project without having to ignore the different viewpoints of feminists, which have been practically developed since the time it was presented as a political propositions (Zinn & Dill, 2016). A perfect example, which provides the suitability towards resorting to feminisms, is found in Teresa Maldonado’s writings in 2003, when she made clear, the relevance, which feminism brought forth and thus debated on other trends, regarding multiculturalism, specifically on the issue of radicalization, which results into denying of women’s rights, because of androcentric, as well as patriarchal cultures. However, it is evident that despite, that, she added that it was indispensable establishing a discussion amongst feminists, with the aim of decentralizing many universalist suppositions, as well as finesse those who leaned on extreme relativism. It should be noted that ten years later, she provided a warning that the intense debate the existed between the diverse postion of feminists had become a trademark for significant movement, which for many years, spend much time on various internal discussions rather than refuting various antifeminist schemes (Stryker & Bettcher, 2016). Notably, the warning that she gave provided a key importance, owing to the fact that presently, feminisms are growing stronger. Moreover, it is evident that antifeminist positions are also coming towards the surface, yet they are often masked by applying the feminist terminology. Based on this reasons, it is vital that individuals who consider themselves as feminists ought to look forwards to gaining the theoretical aspect of feminisms, as well as political experiences, in order to be able to identify various anti-feminisms, and to also act accordingly (Kim & Ringrose, 2018).

The topism horizons

Power questioning purposes to cover a broad spectrum, which includes the powers that are exercised on sexualities, as well as bodies to those inspiring wars, ecological injustice, as well as different expressions of the present economic model. Based on this reason, it can be deduced that practically, all feminisms, are seeking to expose given forms of submission, as well as domination, with the intention of showing possible ways of eluding abjection, exploitation, violence, as well as humiliation of basic rights or even the extreme denial of the human conditions of an individual. Presently, people are living in deep contradictions (Kim & Ringrose, 2018). With the gravest expression of disrespect, as well as despoiling of life, capitalist greed, and even social fragmentation, it is evident that the experience related to construction of the basic common good, riches redistribution, as well as generation of significant scientific knowledge, which pursues humanity wellbeing is obviously found. Notably, various forms of political organizations are often tested and this excludes hierarchical considerations. In this regard, various social relationships are often established, which preclude violence and as such, each individual has a significant right of deciding whatever he or she wants. In other words, each feminist position significant contributes towards the establishment of such kind of alternatives and many more (Johnson, 2018).

Noteworthy, all feminisms imply a huge potential on the creative capacity, its capacity towards imagining whatever is different, and enhancing the possibility that human beings have the ability of moving beyond what is known so far, and also that the body ought not to be regarded as a pretext that enslaves any individual. Overall, it is clear that the topic sense associated with feminisms are often regarded to be present in their conceptual arguments, and also in their proposals, which are meant for the future (Dicker, 2016). Notably, the different life possibilities, which they offer purpose to encompass a broader spectrum that relates to development of the capacity of every individual. However, above all, it is noteworthy that they are rooted in the dismantlement of domain powers, which an individual or even a group of individuals can purposely exert on another. This can be exercised in a way, which can provide a critical reflection that women are significantly involved in such kind of powers, thereby, forming a basis for the formulation of non-binary and even non-essentialist feminist positions (Johnson, 2018).

Feminist research/interdisciplinary

It is significant noting that the contemporary developments relating to the positions of feminists can not be comprehended easily without expounding on their many political manifestations, as well as theoretical evolutions. Based on its gneseological source, it is evident that the feminist thought is significantly defined to be a critical, complex, and also interdisciplinary, based on an academic sphere. Over the years, it has been considered a point of departure for the production of various theoretical elaborations, as well as an expansion of various institutional venues, in which research undertakings are conducted with the perspective of feminisms, which is stimulated for the generation of original knowledge and also for specialists training (Johnson, 2018). There exists a palpable presence, based on this perspective, in various diverse knowledge fields, which include social science, experimental sciences, humanities, as well as life sciences. Whilst considering the theoretical field, it is worth noting that the feminisms position debate, in line with other theories. Especially in terms of research, feminisms have been able to provide a great contribution, with broadening, as well as enrichment of various methodological procedures. Moreover, with regards to epistemology, it is evident that feminisms have significantly refreshed various discussions on the role that sex-generic subject play towards the generation of significant knowledge (Phoenix, 2016). On a parallel perspective to what have already occurred with feminisms being regarded as a social movement, it is evident that feminisms have developed a significant genealogy of knowledge, which could easily be documented and traced.

It should be noted that the fundamental purpose of interdisciplinary that is dedicated to feminisms is basically to present various works of young researchers who already have significant experiences in life, various academic, as well as activities, which have placed them in significant historical situations. In this regard, feminism or feminisms have played a significant role in allowing the feminisms to be able to pass from dictotomic discussions existing between varied perspectives to analysis, as well as elaborations, wherefore, plurality of various positions are recognized, validated, and also sanctioned by various epistemic authorities (Phoenix, 2016). Each chapter purposes to provide a reflection of some of the contemporary interest motifs or are concerned with the issues, which have been regarded as “classics” or those emerging from local dynamics, which characterize the simultaneity of contemporary worlds. Having taken these wholly, it is clear that these works often approach problems, which are centered around a broad range of subjects, various explorations of sexuality or a the body of politics of various subjective experience, and searches of various categories (Scharff, 2016).

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Conclusion

This paper presents various importance, as well as contributions brought forth by feminisms, which have been incorporated subjectively and also intellectually in finding solution to various problems. Notably, these contributions significantly revive, based on one guise or another, and present multiple vindications that may seem to be out of fashion, yet cannot be underestimated in any way. This is owing to the fact that their deficit is still regarded as the best expression of various debts, which are noted in the contemporary society with women, as well as other subordinate sex-generic subjects like liberty, equality, human equivalence, as well as justice. Having in mind the pluralism associated with feminisms, this paper maintains on the list of various debatable conceptions, the notions associated with democracy and even equality. However, it stresses that liberty, and even justice are presently unquestionable whilst putting into consideration, the political, as well as philosophical planes and this is also witnessed in their theoretical, as well as research guidelines. Overall, it is better to talk about feminisms in the plural rather than feminism in the singular.

References

Ahmad, A. (2017). Living a feminist life. Contemporary Political Theory, 1-4.

Alaimo, S., Hekman, S., & Hekman, S. J. (Eds.). (2008). Material feminisms. Indiana University Press.

Alvarez, S. E. (2018). Latin American feminisms “go global”: trends of the 1990s and challenges for the new millennium. In Cultures of politics/politics of cultures (pp. 293-324). Routledge.

Dicker, R. C. (2016). A history of US feminisms. Hachette UK.

Gangoli, G. (2016). Indian feminisms: Law, patriarchies and violence in India. Routledge.

Gillis, S., Howie, G., & Munford, R. (Eds.). (2004). Third wave feminism. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Hirsch, M., & Keller, E. F. (2015). Conflicts in feminism. Routledge.

Humm, M. (2014). Feminisms: a reader. Routledge.

Johnson, P. (2018). Feminism as radical humanism. Routledge.

Keller, J. M. (2012). Virtual feminisms: Girls’ blogging communities, feminist activism, and participatory politics. Information, Communication & Society, 15(3), 429-447.

Kim, C., & Ringrose, J. (2018). “Stumbling Upon Feminism”: Teenage Girls’ Forays into Digital and School-Based Feminisms. Girlhood studies, 11(2), 46-62.

Nagle, J. (2013). Whores and other feminists. Routledge.

Phoenix, A. (2016). Re-narrating feminist stories: Black British women and transatlantic feminisms. In Transatlantic Conversations (pp. 55-68). Routledge.

Reilly, M., & Nochlin, L. (Eds.). (2007). Global feminisms: New directions in contemporary art (p. 14). London: Merrell.

Roth, B. (2004). Separate roads to feminism: Black, Chicana, and White feminist movements in America's second wave. Cambridge University Press.

Scharff, C. (2016). Repudiating feminism: Young women in a neoliberal world. Routledge.

Shohat, E. (2001). Talking visions: Multicultural feminism in a transnational age (Vol. 5). MIT Press.

Stryker, S., & Bettcher, T. M. (2016). IntroductionTrans/Feminisms. TSQ: Transgender Studies Quarterly, 3(1-2), 5-14.

Zinn, M. B., & Dill, B. T. (2016). Theorizing difference from multiracial feminism. In Race, gender and class (pp. 76-82). Routledge.

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