Evidence Based Practice Criteria

Introduction

Evidence-based practice (EBP) is the explicit, judicious and conscientious utilization of the best existing evidence in decision-making concerning the delivery of care to individual patients. Through EBP, the competence of healthcare professionals can be assured as they are expected to consume knowledge from research (Caldwell, et al., 2005). This knowledge consumption entails the ability to read, draw conclusions and make application of information form research. The current systems of nursing education promote a culture where EBP and critical enquiry is accorded high priority. Also, being able to engage in EBP is one of the standards of proficiency that assures quality in paramedic practice (Hospital & Care Professional Council, 2007). While collecting evidence from different kinds of literature, health providers ought to consider the validity and reliability of information. Furthermore, the credibility, dependability, transferability, and confirmability of literature ought to be put into consideration while analyzing research. This is because not all evidence is free from error. This research presents a critical appraisal of the qualitative research article “Patients’ and emergency clinicians’ perceptions of improving pre-hospital pain management: a qualitative study” written by Mohammad Iqbal, Peggy Anne Spaight, and Niroshan Siriwardena. The comprehensive appraisal of this article shall be completed using the critical framework presented by Caldwell et al. (2005). The selected critical framework shall also be used to structure this essay.

The most read part of any paper is the title. This is because it is usually read first (Hartley, 2005). The parameters used in the formulation of a suitable title for a research paper include; a the research purpose; b the research scope; c the tone used to narrate the paper, and; d the methodology of the study (Hartley, 2005). A research title also needs to be created after the study has been completed so that it can capture what has been done accurately. In the selected qualitative article, the title accurately captures what is in the research. A relationship between the variables, where the patients’ and the emergency clinicians’ perceptions are the independent variables and the improving of pre-hospital pain management being the dependent variable, has been identified. The last part of the title indicates how the paper shall be organized, that is in the form of a qualitative study.

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According to Purdue University (2018), a credible author is one who is well-respected in their study field. As credible and responsible authors, they will cite their sources to allow the readers to counter check the support for and accuracy of what they have written (Purdue University, 2018). The sources they provide are useful in supporting the work of other researchers who use this article. At the time of publishing this article, Mohammad Iqbal and Peggy Anne Spaight were affiliated with the East Midlands Ambulance Service NHS Trust, Lincoln, UK and Professor Niroshan Siriwardena was affiliated with the Lincoln School of Health and Social Care in the University of London, UK. The authors have cited and provided a list of references of the sources they have used to support their work. In addition, each author has vast knowledge in the field of pre-hospital nursing and have author several other articles that have been published in the BMJ journals.

According to Andrade (2011), an abstract is a concentrated and condensed version of the research manuscript’s full text. It sufficiently represents the standalone research paper by having the necessary amount of details and being within the limits of the word count. It needs to have enough information concerning the analyses of the outcomes related to manipulation of the secondary and primary measures. The abstract of scientific research constitutes the background, methods and results sections (Andrade, 2011). In Iqbal et al.’s article, there is a background, methods and results section present. The background is precise and straight-to-the-point in explaining in one sentence what is known and what is not known concerning the subject and what the study intends to examine. The methods section illustrates that a qualitative research design was to be used. The setting of the study and sampled patients have been identified in the section as well. The main research instrument used was interviews. The results section indicates the number of participants who completed the study and a thematic analysis of how the results were brought about. In addition, the abstract has a conclusions section which shows the inference drawn from the results and recommendations to support other studies.

A rationale is like a sub-proposal for research (Anon., n.d).edu. It addresses the gap that is present in the already existing literature. It points out that other kinds of literature have not fully exhausted a certain area of the research topic and proceeds to address the particular problem and the particular solution. Some of the sub-arguments that are covered in a rationale include the objectives of carrying out extensive research, how the subject is critical to the field of study, the reasons why better or more research is required and the proposed research method. This is evident in Iqbal et al.’s article in the introduction section where they say “There have been few qualitative studies of pain management in pre-hospital or emergency settings in USA, UK or elsewhere…” They proceed to confirm that there are no past studies which have looked into the “pathway of pre-hospital pain management from home to the hospital” (Iqbal, et al., 2012).

The main reason for the inclusion of a literature review is to demonstrate the necessity of an author’s study. The literature review consists of different sorts of arguments which build up the necessity of their research (Purdue University, 2018). The arguments are key to identifying the gaps present in current research. The gaps consist of information and details which have previously been understudied, misjudged or overlooked by previous authors. In Iqbal et al.’s article, a literature review section has not been provided. Although, the introduction is extended to highlight information from sixteen different studies and a gap in the respective field of study is identified as a rationale. This extended introduction takes the form of a literature review which illustrates that there is the need for more research concerning the practitioner and patient perceptions regarding pain management (Iqbal, et al., 2012). However, considering that the article was published in 2012, the information cited can be regarded to be up to date. This is because most of them are published within 10 years from the actual year of Iqbal et al.’s article. Only one article was published in 1994.

Carver et al. (2011) explain that for scientific advancement, there is a need for strict compliance with the ethical guidelines for scientific writing and research. Different professional organizations exist to address ethical conduct necessary while carrying out scientific research, such as the UK Research Integrity Office (UKRIO) and the Royal Society through its Research Culture Programme (The Royal Society, 2018). Some of the main ethical concerns that relate to scientific research include plagiarism, authorship, and objectivity versus subjectivity (Carver, et al., 2011). In Iqbal et al.’s article, ethical concerns are addressed. To avoid plagiarism, information retrieved from different studies are cited and included in a reference section. Up to date, there exist no authorship problems concerning this article, and this suggests that there exists a good professional and personal relationship between the authors (Carver, et al., 2011). Before including participants in the research, the authors specified that it was only after an agreement from the general practitioners was received that the authors proceeded to interview patients as part of the study (Iqbal, et al., 2012).

A qualitative methodology seeks to answer the “how?” and “why?” about a research topic. It uses a constructivist perspective which suggests that there exists no single reality about an underlying phenomenon, but there are several interrelated dimensions about reality that can be captured partially using naturalistic and subjective methods (Kielman, et al., 2012). Iqbal et al.’s article has a methods section which identifies the use of a qualitative design that adopts a constructivist view along with an interpretive phenomenological approach, just as a qualitative methodology needs to be. This is justified by the use of separate semi-structured focus groups and interviews for patients, ED and ambulance clinicians (Iqbal, et al., 2012).

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Conclusion

In conclusion, Iqbal et al. researched the experiences and views of patients and practitioners regarding pain management in the pre-hospital context so as to determine ways in which delivery of care can be improved, and a patient-centered approach is adopted in treatment. The title of the research does reflect the content of the study as it accurately captures what has been done in the qualitative research. The authors are credible because there lacks any professional or personal relationship challenges amongst them relating to the publishing of the article to date. The abstract summarizes the key components of the paper, and it extends to highlight the conclusion drawn from the research. With regard to its date of publishing, the article’s literature review can be regarded to be up-to-date. Ethical conduct was observed while collecting information from and selecting participants for the study. The participants are representative of the general population.

Bibliography

  • Andrade, C., 2011. How to write a good abstract for a scientific paper or conference presentation. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 53(2), pp. 172-175.
  • Caldwell, K., Henshaw, L. & Taylor, G., 2005. Developing a framework for critiquing health researc. Journal of Health, Social and Environmental Issue, 6(1), pp. 45-49.
  • Carver, J., Dellva, B., Emmanuel, P. & Parchure, R., 2011. Ethical considerations in scientific writing. [Online] Available at.
  • Hartley, J., 2005. To Attract or to Inform: What are Titles for?. Journal of Technical Writing and Communication, pp. 203-213.
  • Hospital & Care Professional Council, 2007. Standards of Proficiency. [Online] Available at:
  • Iqbal, M., Spaight, P. A. & Siriwardena, N. A., 2012. Patients’ and emergency clinicians’ perceptions of improving pre-hospital pain management: a qualitative study. Emergency Medical Journal, 30(3).
  • Kielman, K., Cataldo, F. & Seeley, J., 2012. The Quantitative-Qualitative Continuum. In: Introduction to Qualitative Research Methodology: A Training Manual. s.l.:Department for International Development, pp. 12-17.
  • Purdue University, 2018. Literature Reviews. [Online] Available at:
  • [Accessed 20 December 2018]. The Royal Society, 2018. Integrity in practice toolkit. [Online] Available at:
  • -practice/ [Accessed 20 December 2018].

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