Implications On Organizational

Masculinity versus Femininity and Uncertainty Avoidance Index

Culture has been construed in different methods; either as a composite scheming of the brain, meant to differentiate affiliates of one team from another, but it usually a conjoint aspect, but can also be linked to various composites. Hofstede’s cultural dimensions theory identifies the different cultures across the modern world, in which there are six dimensions that he and the other two; Michael Bind and Michael Minkov developed. Focusing on two dimensions masculinity versus femininity and uncertainty avoidance index (UAI), various groups of different backgrounds would subject an organization into operational issues of achievement established on the level of highness or lowness the two groups subject the business but probable recommendation would promote the avoidance of the problems altogether.
Hofstede (2010), administered one of the utmost infinite researches of how attitudes in a institutes are culturally influenced. Hofstede (2010), defined culture as ‘an aggregate formulating of the apperception differentiating the representatives of one team of individuals from the rest. He proposed hexadic proportions of country’s culture that are hinged on autonomous propensities for one condition above a different country thus differentiating nations from other states. The aggregates of nations on the extensities are analogous, in that every living person is unique. In plain English, culture can be utilized meaningfully by contrasting.
The ideal entails the following proportions; Power Distance Index (PDI) that articulates the extent to what end the inferior group of associates within a community allows and assumes that power is shared unfairly. The essential part in the proportion is how a community handles


inequalities among individuals. The second dimension is the individualism versus collectivism (IDV), where the higher side is the individualism, that is considered to be a propensity for a lavishly knit community system where people individuals are anticipated to care for themselves and their instantaneous folks, and collectivism is the completely different (Hostede, 2010). The third one is the masculinity versus femininity (MVF), where masculinity in a society is determined by heroism, achievement, assertiveness as well as material remuneration. On the other hand femininity stances for an inclination for modesty, care for the feeble, cooperation as well as equality of life.
The fourth dimension is the Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI) that articulates the amplitude whither the associates of the community experience distressed with doubt and dubiety. According to De Mooij and Hofstede (2010), the essential issue in this dimension is how the community copes with nitty-gritty that the forthcoming can and will no way be familiar. Long-Term Orientation versus Short-Term Normative Orientation (LTO) follows the dimension, where Clements et al. (2010), suggests that each society must keep up with its innate past while managing current and future challenges. Societies prioritize these two factors differently thus defining them. The last proportion is the Indulgence versus Restraint (IND), where indulgence signifies a community, which accepts a rather costless delight of natural, and basic persons initiatives linked to appreciating existence and relish. Caution or restraint, on the other hand, implies a community that stifles the satisfaction of desideratum’s and controls it indubitably by stern social patterns.
Focusing on just two dimensions, which are Masculinity versus Femininity (MVF) and Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI), there are issues that arise from the two dimensions within a business set up that affect performance due to a varying cultural interpretation of the

Focusing on just two dimensions, which are Masculinity versus Femininity (MVF) and Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI), there are issues that arise from the two dimensions within a business set up that affect performance due to a varying cultural interpretation of the roles. In this case, MVF that refers to a distribution of roles between men and women and an issue can arise when an organization merges with another one, in a case a technological company such as Sony a Japan-based company joint ventured with a Swedish Telecommunication company based in Sweden in the manufacture of electronics. According to Minkov and Hofstede (2014), national cultures and company cultures are firmly connected together. Thus, cultural variations are more likely to demolish a continuous coaction than market problems.

It is also the common reason behind the failure of joint ventures due to lack of common shared vision, cultural mismatch and poor communication now that organizations are increasingly becoming global based entities. According to Kim and Kin (2010), Japan has the highest level of masculinity with a score of ninety-five, whereas Sweden has the lowest level of masculinity scaled at five. Therefore, in Japan, companies are operated in a hierarchical, traditionally patriarchal and deferential society. It is where long hours are the norm, and it makes some of the employees to possess advancement. Viberg and Grönlund (2013), claim it is where young scholars learn the value of competition as well as winning as part of a team from a young age. On the other hand, Sweden is a feminine society, where people are focused on managing through discussions, negotiation, compromise, and consensus.

Five years later after the Joint venture of Sony Ericsson and Swedish Telecommunication Company, productivity has dragged itself compared to competitors such as Nokia and Apple. The reason behind the slow growth even after the merger was that the firm based in Sweden, employees worked to live, meaning work played a minimal part in their lives, compared to employees in Japan who live to work, meaning that work plays a major role in their lives.

The best way the Sony could have handled the issues is by identifying the distinct work cultures that exist between Sweden and Japan. Then, Shi and Wang (2011), explain that for a successful project to emerge, the manager needs to provide different projects to the two organizations, since one's level of productivity is determined by long-hours culture while the other is the less-hours culture of working. According to Minkov and Hofstede (2014), there is need to set precise targets for each group, were, the Japanese team will be motivated to work on their projects without being interfered by the Swedish team that tries to balance both work and life environments.
Within the Uncertain Avoidance Index (UAI), it describes how individuals carefully deal with anxiety. In communities that indicate elevated proportion in UAI try to create human existence as calculable and manageable as possible. They establish rules and principles to control the outcomes and results. Those societies that their uncertainty avoidance is low, values fewer rules and they do not mind taking risks just to make life more interesting. In a society based in Greece, the dimension measures at a hundred, so when conducting business there, keen generation of discussions are held, since the tendency for the group to be as safe as possible. So Venaik and Brewer (2010), affirm that the decisions are extra conserved, irrespective of any emotional explosion. Then, if you heading the group there is need to encourage more openness to various approaches and ideas, but it could be more appropriate to offer a relatively limited, frame worked set of solutions and options.
A country such as the USA, according to Migliore (2011), the dimension scores the least of at most eight. So you will notice that most cultures in businesses are open to changes and innovation, and are more inclusive, and less sense of urgency. But in such as setting, one may require to ensure that the team stays focused, but with limited structures, and more so, as a

leader, there is more productivity if there is less showing off of experiences and knowledge since individuals respect to those who can manage under all circumstances. Issues may arise in a country like Greece such as slow development, or accomplishment of an object such as an implementation of advanced technology in a business. While similar organizations may have a simple transition to contemporary structures and implementation, a Greece based company may lack behind due to rigidity, conservatism, where the team is expressive, indicating high societal energies, claiming that these changes might deny them control of their lives and subject them to overwhelming life’s inconsistencies.
The Greece based organizations require being clear as well as concise concerning the expectations and objectives when adopting new technologies. In this case, Taras et al. (2012), claim that a leader in the group required to set clear and defined parameters, but at the same time encourage creativity as well as communication where necessary. Importantly, there should be no ignorance of the unspoken principles and rules that exist in such a society. More to that, identifying the emotions, the gestures that exist among the team is also important, so that cases, where there are conflicts, could be avoided.
A US-based company may according to Migliore (2011), on the other hand, adopt contemporary changes so quickly and may lead to effects of disruption, work stress or overload due to less training time or resistance to learning, and the expected performance may fail to meet its target in the process. While the team may possess the energy to accept the changes may be more inclined to open-ended learning and decision-making, such a setting is more vulnerable to heightened risks that may crumble the team leading to conflicts among team members.

To counter such an issue in a US-based company, Clements et al. (2010) suggest that leaders of the team need to make sure that while adjusting to contemporary changes, they need to remain focused towards the general objectives of the organization. Even if there are fewer structures, in the dimension, fewer and moderately governed structures need to be included when adopting a change. In conclusion, Hofstede’s theory and dimensions of culture greatly influence how businesses are conducted in different countries around the world. Some such as Japan have indicated a high level of masculinity and therefore there is exhibit toughness, while a country such as Sweden exhibit femininity, measuring five, therefore values compromise and negotiations. On the uncertainty avoidance index, Greece scores a hundred, and most of the organizational operations are zero-risk while in the US it scores at eight, thus there more risky businesses operated and thriving compared to the latter. These range of distinctiveness affirm the theory that it is natural to identify the main tendencies of society when portraying their cultures.


  • Clements, C.E., Neill, J.D. and Stovall, O.S., 2010. Cultural diversity, country size, and the IFRS adoption decision. Journal of Applied Business Research, 26(2), p.115.
  • De Mooij, M. and Hofstede, G., 2010. The Hofstede model: Applications to global branding and advertising strategy and research. International Journal of Advertising, 29(1), pp.85-110.
  • Hofstede, G., 2010. Geert hofstede. National cultural dimensions.
  • Kim, Y. and Kim, S.Y., 2010. The influence of cultural values on perceptions of corporate social responsibility: Application of Hofstede’s dimensions to Korean public relations practitioners.Journal of Business Ethics, 91(4), pp.485-500.
  • Migliore, L.A., 2011. Relation between big five personality traits and Hofstede's cultural dimensions: Samples from the USA and India. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, 18(1), pp.38-54.
  • Minkov, M. and Hofstede, G., 2014. A replication of Hofstede’s uncertainty avoidance dimension across nationally representative samples from Europe. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 14(2), pp.161-171.
  • Shi, X. and Wang, J., 2011. Interpreting hofstede model and globe model: which way to go for cross-cultural research?.International journal of business and management, 6(5), p.93. Taras, V., Steel, P. and Kirkman, B.L., 2012. Improving national cultural indices using a longitudinal meta-analysis of Hofstede's dimensions. Journal of World Business, 47(3), pp.329-341.
  • Venaik, S. and Brewer, P., 2010. Avoiding uncertainty in Hofstede and GLOBE. Journal of International Business Studies, 41(8), pp.1294-1315. Viberg, O. and Grönlund, Å., 2013. Cross-cultural analysis of users' attitudes toward the use of mobile devices in second and foreign language learning in higher education: A case from Sweden and China. Computers & Education, 69, pp.169-180.

Racial Stereotyping

Stereotyping is an assumption created concerning a group of individuals and then applied to people, irrespective of their personal features, since their affiliation with a certain group. It can be positive stereotyping, negative or even neutral. In most instances, both negative and positive stereotyping is harmful, where in most cases they serve as a learning experience. There are different types of stereotyping, such as too and piercing, women in the kitchen racial stereotyping, male are more aggressive than female and many others to mention. Racial stereotyping is the most prevalent and a form of judgment common in current society even after decades of fighting these prejudices, making it one of the most social attitudes and receiving heightened attention by social psychologist and philosophers.

Based on the Critical Race Theory (CRT), Devine (1989), proposes that to examine the racial stereotype threat study, one needs to identify primary prospects, approaches, and inculcation that attempt to recognize, investigate as well as revamp those cultural and structural attitudes of the community that insists on marginalization and subordination of individuals based on their racial backgrounds. It also claims that racism is related to law, by looking at how legal doctrines are applied to subordinate certain ethnic and racial groups. In several contemporary and classical theorists, Solorzano (1997), depict that they have suggested that biasness is an imminent consequence of common stereotyping techniques, and as long as stereotype exists, racism will follow, meaning that racial stereotyping are automatically applied to the group that is stereotyped. It is further explained that ethnic or racial stereotype is part of a social heritage in a society and nobody can maneuver learning the prevailing stereotype and attitudes assigned to the major racial groups.

So to be of a minority racial group among the majority racial group, it is like you are alone. Most professional individuals working incorporates, in health centers or in government offices and many others, they are needed to specialize in training and credential, in which they must cope with being the minority. It is accompanied by challenges, beyond absolute discrimination, which several still undergo, there is a psychological cost to being one of just a few minority faces in a predominantly majority surrounding. In a research of a minority professional worker in various occupations, it was identified that these workers put more effort to carefully control their emotions in methods that mirrored the racial landscapes they occupied.

Focusing on an African American working in a white dominating environment, Gupta et al. (2014), identifies that the black professional has to carefully indicate feelings of pleasantness and conviviality, even- particularly- in response to issuing regarding race. These individuals could experience emotions of anger, annoyance, and frustration, but they are discouraged, even when he or she is working in a setting where their emotions were basically allowed invalid contexts- contemplate prosecutors interacting with contending counsel, or account analysts reacting towards a stressful day. Strikingly, this in most cases played out at coaching meant to exhilarate racial sensitivity. In most cases, these African American professionals, when they were asked, they claimed that diversity coaching, was meant to foster the work environment for the minority groups, but to be precise, it became a source of emotional stress. Feagin (2010), depict that as they noticed that their native Americans (white) colleagues could apply this coaching to express their negative emotions concerning people of color, but those of African descent were demanded not to disclose their own honest emotional reactions to such statements.

One of the most interesting studies by Gupta et al. (2014) concerning racial stereotyping, an argument was presented saying that while each person was required to develop and put forth a pertinent workplace identity, for those individuals of opposition groups like women and men of outvoted racial group, it becomes specifically burdensome since their working identities must counter common cultural stereotypes. For instance, men of African descent may feel constrained to work extra hours as a method to retract stereotypes of a poor work ethic among African Americans. To worsen the issue, Wann (2012) claim that such approaches can backfire, augmenting other stereotypes; working extra hours may lead associates to assume that the employees do not have the intellectual preparedness required for high-status professional careers.

Conley (2010), argues that racial stereotypes have further been manifested in cases where the minority professionals trace carefully to avoid upsetting the majority group’s responsiveness. Put plainly, they can be obviously black, but do not want to be seen as conventionalized black. For example by Sanchez-Hucles and Davis (2010), an African American female candidate for a law institution who chemically straightens her hair is in a nuclear family system, as well as resides in an abundantly native Americans neighborhood, beacons a constancy to often unspoken racial norms. She does so, in a method that an equally skillful black woman candidate who has a dreadlock hairstyle, historically been known to push for racial adjustment in the same legal environment, a single parent, and lives in the inner city does not. It also happens in other races such as a Latin American attorney, are capable of advancing further in their career endeavors if they can speak fluently with no single blemish of accent. These are some of the issues in addition to others adequately manifested ones- the predicaments discovering mentors of the same race, dealing with racial conventionalization, being treated as an agent for one’s racial group.

A race is still a divisive issue and it also affects politically manifested via stereotypical aspect, Wann (2012) adds that it is where intense and discorded feelings over issues such as affirmative action and busing are obvious. A white manager is afraid to be seen as racist if he provides critical feedback to his Latin American subordinate. An African American engineer is disregarded a promotion wonders whether the color of his skin has anything to do with it, but he seems reluctant to raise such complain since he will be perceived to be ‘playing the race card’. An African American woman associate wants to make partner in a law firm seeks more coaching in leadership styles since she is worried that failure to do some extra education, she will be regarded as not having what it takes to make partner is a predominant white partner. All these types of events happen on a daily basis in politically correct norms and cultures, where Pickett et al. (2012), claim that these are unspoken precept of decorum that governs character in cross-cultural synergies depicting the various racial stereotypes in the political arena. People feel that they are judged and are afraid of being blamed and worry so much about how others perceive them as representatives of their social indent group. It depicts that political correctness is a new form of racial stereotyping acting as a double-edged sword, where instead of acting as a form of including several traditionally underrepresented individuals in work areas, it has acted as a double-sword, excluding them in various ways individuals respond to others of a minority group.

Within work, racial stereotyping has profoundly indicated to affect the economic performance of individuals, where certain cues used during task allocation or operation are more likely to affect the ethnic minorities intentionally perform an inaccurate task, begin rumors, and ignore co-workers who require aid. In a correlational research by Pauker et al. (2010), employees in various business entities were asked whether they were concerned as being identified negatively because of their ethnicity/ The more they were concerned about how they are expected to perform, it was more likely to hear cases where they engaged in delinquent behavior, such as being late for office, verbally abusing a colleague, or vandalizing organization’s property. It was also identified that in the process of undertaking tasks in the office if an individual comes across slight cues, such as a column entailing an adverse stereotype or pricisely recalling an arduous event of being arbitrated unjustly, could render a significant impact. While it seems like most people reject overt racism nowadays, Tadmor et al. (2013), claim that biasness can strain its adverse impacts in more exquisite methods. Threats to social identity can critically affect individual’s prospect to succeed in a career, specifically for people who already know they are socially underprivileged.

McCloud (2016) identifies that while most businesses are technologically equipped, there is rampant unfairness and mistreatment leading to a large number of individuals of a minority ethnic group quitting their jobs. This arises from the stereotyping that certain minority ethnic groups do not deserve better opportunities irrespective of their accomplishment of know-how in the field. Women of color to be precise have been reported to have highest rates of discrimination due to the notion that there are certain fields they do not belong to, such as technological aspects, when compared to white and Asian women.

In conclusion, it indicates that racial stereotyping still is rampant, perceiving an individual as a representative of his ethnic group. Whereas there have been efforts to in rethinking of some of the existing efforts of inclusivity, then there should be more considerations made or education provided to learn how the minorities or any individuals feel when subjected to judgment due to ethnic backgrounds.

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  • Conley, D., 2010. Being black, living in the red: Race, wealth, and social policy in America. Univ of California Press.
  • Devine, P.G., 1989. Stereotypes and prejudice: Their automatic and controlled components. Journal of personality and social psychology, 56(1), p.5.
  • Feagin, J.R., 2010. The white racial frame: Centuries of racial framing and counter-framing. Routledge. Gupta, V.K., Goktan, A.B. and Gunay, G., 2014. Gender differences in evaluation of new business opportunity: A stereotype threat perspective. Journal of Business Venturing,29(2), pp.273-288.
  • McCloud, D., 2016. Racial stereotype threat: A critical race perspective. Illinois State University
  • Pauker, K., Ambady, N. and Apfelbaum, E.P., 2010. Race salience and essentialist thinking in racial stereotype development. Child Development, 81(6), pp.1799-1813. Pickett, J.T., Chiricos, T., Golden, K.M. and Gertz, M., 2012. Reconsidering the relationship between perceived neighborhood racial composition and whites’ perceptions of victimization risk: do racial stereotypes matter? Criminology, 50(1), pp.145-186.
  • Sanchez-Hucles, J.V. and Davis, D.D., 2010. Women and women of color in leadership: Complexity, identity, and intersectionality. American Psychologist, 65(3), p.171. Solorzano, D.G., 1997. Images and words that wound: Critical race theory, racial stereotyping, and teacher education.Teacher Education Quarterly, pp.5-19.
  • Tadmor, C.T., Chao, M.M., Hong, Y.Y. and Polzer, J.T., 2013. Not just for stereotyping anymore: Racial essentialism reduces domain-general creativity. Psychological Science, 24(1), pp.99-105. Wann, C.G., 2012. (Mixed) Race Matters: Racial Theory, Classification, and Campus Climate (Doctoral dissertation, UCLA).

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