Poor Dietary Patterns On Health

Introduction

Social determinants of health tend to be a key factor in implicating observed differences in individuals’ dietary patterns, diet quality, and their diet intake. A higher prevalence of nutritional disparities among persons is often reflected in incidences of overweight, underweight, or micronutrient malnutrition like anaemia (Mann and Truswell, 2017). Notably, malnutrition increases the immune system’s vulnerability to illness thus promotes chances of bodily complications and may cause death in severe cases. On this note, this paper analyzes three dietary case scenarios that present poor dietary patterns, elaborates some consequences of poor dietary habits, and highlights interventions recommended in these instances.

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A highest frequency of overweight or underweight incidences is often associated with nutritional disparities. According to (Mann and Truswell, 2017) a basal metabolic rate of below 18.5 reflects on underweight while that of 25.5 to beyond 30 indicates overweight or obesity. Moreover, significant weight gain is attributed to sugary and saturated fats kinds of diet. For instance, the first case study presents Michael, a 42-year-old parent as obese with a BMI of 30.93kg/m2 in relation to his weight of 98kg and in his 1.78 meters height. In addition, Michael’s daily meals mainly feature carbohydrate components and saturated fat energy. Besides, he hardly takes short distance walks to enhance his blood flow. In this regard, such nutrition exposes him to health risks like micronutrient deficient diseases or chronic diseases, particularly heart diseases due to his fatty diet. (Handbury, Rahkovsky and Schnell, 2015) Moreover, hypertension is ranked as the second leading cause of mortality amongst obese individuals as a consequent of practicing an unhealthy diet.

Also, some behavioral risks enhance unhealthy eating patterns thus promote further health complications like fractures in case of injury. A lack of certain micronutrients particularly in young children may interfere with their development. Imram, a 12-year-old boy dietary scenario comprises of junk food that have no nutritional value. In addition, he is constantly indoors hence hardly gets vitamins D from sunlight that strengthens the bones in the process of his growth (Handbury, Rahkovsky and Schnell, 2015). In this regard, Imram is diagnosed with a fractured left tibia upon him tripping while walking since his bones are weak. Moreover, his behavioral act as a gamer hardly encourages him to exercise his body muscles. For instance, Imram plays video games during his free time in his room or after school. Evidently, Imram is likely to reflect characteristics of malnutrition besides development complications since his diet lack the essential nutrition to facilitate his growth and development.

Similarly, nutritional disparities associated with nutritional deficiencies tend to affect fertility in women. (Perez-Escamilla et al., 2018) It is estimated that approximately 500 to 600 million people endure iron deficiency anaemia besides it being a major cause to human morbidity. Moreover, iron deficiency is common in females since they lose a lot of blood during menstruation. The second dietary scenario presents Stephanie, who is anaemic and has issues giving birth. According to (Perez-Escamilla et al., 2018) an anaemic woman may be incapable to sustain a pregnancy since the disease interferes with the processes of cell division hence a high prevalence for miscarriage. Also, general weakness during a pregnancy may prevent pregnancy sustenance. For instance, Stephanie weighs 5 stones and 10 pounds and her size 6 clothes loosely fit her. Regardless, Stephanie dietary changes may recommend iron food supplements to deteriorate her anaemia condition and increase chances of pregnancy. Research confirms that food elements rich in ascorbic acid or Vitamin C and meat promote iron bioavailability and enhance non-haem iron absorption into the blood stream (Mann and Truswell, 2017). In this relation, Stephanie dietary habits may include lots of fruits and legumes during her gestation period.

Notably, further interventions can be implemented to reduce complications of obesity, particularly in Michael’s dietary changes. Firstly, Michael may forego or limit his greater reliance on fast foods when visiting restaurants with his wife since such foods tend to be high in fat thus initiate an adipocyte factor. Also, his meals can include whole meal grains that have less unsaturated fat or more starch like yams, oatmeal or whole meal brown bread for breakfast (Buttriss, 2016). Despite his injuries, Michael may also opt for short-distant walks of ten meters in order to alter his body composition and reduce the accumulated fat. In addition, he may occasionally increase his incidental activities like moving to press TV buttons to change a channel instead of using a remote control. On the other hand, Imram’s mother may reschedule his son’s gaming routine in order to ensure his welfare. As earlier noted, Imram’s obsession for playing video games in his room overlooked his welfare. In this essence, Imram’s mother may monitor his schedules after school. For instance, he may request him to help her with some house chores during his free time. Also, Imram’s mother and sister may ban him from playing video games the entire day and concentrate on his school work or play outside with his friends for a few hours. Such incidental exercises are likely to improve his blood flow besides his brains development. Similarly, calcium dietary foods like dairy milk may be included in his diet instead of crisps to reform his bone structures (Buttriss, 2016). Plainly, such suggestions may improve these subjects’ nutrition hence their health and lifestyle.

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REFERENCES

  • Buttriss, J. L. (2016). The Eatwell Guide Refreshed. Nutrition Bulletin, 41(2), 135-141.
  • Handbury, J., Rahkovsky, I. M., & Schnell, M. (2015). What drives nutritional disparities? Retail access and food purchases across the socioeconomic spectrum.
  • Mann, J., & Truswell, S. (Eds.). (2017). Essentials of human nutrition. Oxford University Press.
  • Perez-Escamilla Rafael, Bermudez Odilia, Buccini Gabriela Santos, Kumanyika Shiriki, Lutter Chessa K, Monsivais Pablo et al. Nutrition disparities and the global burden of malnutrition BMJ 2018; 361 :k2252

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