Skills For Interdisciplinary Study


Empirical research is inspired by observation, but also can extend beyond this, and apply other methodologies such as interviews, and questionnaires a basis of data collection in the pursuit to test the laid hypotheses, and reach upon logical conclusions. The intent of this presentation is a submission to the research interns, on how to effectively carry out a research participant interview.


The essence of qualitative research interviews is to define and establish meanings for central themes underling the area of study. According to Kvale 1996, the main purpose is to comprehend what the interviewees say. Interviews help in understanding participants’ experiences. The interviewer can adjust the scope of what he/she want to derive from the participants. According to McNamara 1999, interviews form a basis for questionnaires preparation, for further investigation of responses.


Critical Aspects in Research Interviews

Interviews are by far a more personalized form of research, relative to questionnaires. In personal interviews, the researcher works closely and directly with the respondents. Interviews are completed by the researcher according to that which the respondent presents. Contrary with mail surveys, the researcher stands a chance to ask follow up questions.

In circumstances where the researcher is looking for impressions or opinions; interviews are for respondents. They are resource intensive and time consuming. The interviewers should be adequately trained on how to react with any contingency, and he/she is regarded as part of measurement tool.

Interviews Typologies

General interview guide approach: This typology is geared to ascertain that similar pieces of information are gathered from every respondent, to offer more focus than mere conversations, while giving room to adaptability and freedom while acquiring the information from the respondent (Alvesson, and Deetz, 2000).

Informal, conversational interview: No predetermined questions are interrogated. Closed, fixed interview: All respondents are asked similar questions, and requested to select answers from given choices. Standardized, Open-ended interviews: similar open-ended questions are presented to respondents.

Sensory: focus is on people’s experiences using their five senses; for instance what they have smelled, touched or heard are doing or have done. Knowledge: Geared to extract facts about given topic of study. Background: requires responses to standard background information such as education levels, or age. Opinions: focus is on peoples’ thoughts or perceptions. Behaviours: asks what the respondent

Training of the Interviewer

Interviewer training is vital in helping him/her control the quality of the interview outcome. It is important to organize yourself and rehearse prior to the actual interview day. During interviewer training (Brinkmann, and Svend, 2014); Describe the whole study including its rationales, and its background. Explain the sampling logic and process, and get to choose samples with ut

Interviewer Bias

There is a need for an interviewer to master various ways by which he/ she can inadvertently bias the findings. Giving the results a skewed eye can jeopardize the analysis, leading to illogical or inaccurate conclusions. Preparation for an Interview Select an interview venue with minimal distraction, free from loud noise, and eloquence of comfort on the side of respondents. Exemplify the rationales of the interviews to the respondents. Observe terms of privacy and confidentiality. Expound on the format of the interview. Demonstrate the duration an interview intends to take. Give contact information of the interviewer. Provide a rapport for the respondent to clarify issues of doubts concerning the interview. Initiate data collection methodologies, such as note taking.

Competence areas for the Interview

Remembering; provides for retention of subject information from the respondent Gentle; interviewing requires tolerance, patience and sensitivity to provocative responses. Knowledgeable; mastery of the research topic (Walliman, 2017). Steering; control the directional course of an interview, to avoid irrelevance. Clear; easy, precise and short interrogations presented understandably. Critical; for testing validity and reliability of gathered information. Interpreting; give interpretations of the responses given by interviewees.

Phases of Interview Investigation

Thematising; the what and why of the study. Designing; prepare the design of the research. Interviewing; carry out the interview, upon the framework of the guide. Transcribing; prepare the materials for interview; for analysis. Analysing; critique and select appropriate methods for data analysis. Verifying; substantiate validity of the findings. Reporting; communicate the research findings according to scientific criteria.

Interview Procedure

Periodically, ass the performance of the tape recorder if indeed it is being used. Ask questions sequentially. Strive to remain within the bounds of neutrality. Motivate responses. Provide for visible transition between main topics. Maintain focus of the interview, and adhere to relevant issues.

After the Interview

Verify the accuracy of the tape recorder in case it was used in the entire interview process. Make important notes, from the already written notes. Put down main observations noted during the interview process.

This article vividly digs into the fundamental precepts constituting the law, and examines its probable impacts on construction proponents. Potential social-economic effects are also presented herein. The three scholars take cognizance to the fact that the Act is applicable to all corporate and companies within the United Kingdom operating within the construction industry. The document is full of information embedding the potential social impacts, such as the induction of grave misery and despondency to loved ones, reduced productivity in the industry, amongst other impacts, which can thus contribute into the research and address the research question accordingly, and come up with conclusive conclusions.

This paper presents the possible effects of the corporate manslaughter and Corporate Homicide Act 2007, in the jurisdiction of the Act’s application to security officers induced by a grave negligent act or omission of security officers. Griffin and Moran 2012, identify accountability of security officers, particularly the police as a corporate body. The research concurs with the premise that security officers’ accountability is vital in rekindling their duties and responsibility, thus believes that the Act will likely to awaken the security forces, and take podium for safeguarding their mandate.

According to the authors, the impacts of the Act revolve around psychological domain including distresses; but again pinpoint the need for the law being clear enough to inspire confidence to the public entities. The paper is developed based on secondary data collected from various scholars, who give various thoughts and experiences concerning the Act. The source is thus a good source of knowledge in the area of study to draw from pieces of meaningful information, to supplement other scholarly works for the better responses to our research question herein.

The paper is concerned with the nature of the prosecutions conferred to the organizations, and thus is important in the developing a report, based on the premise that understanding the nature of the prosecution can offers a nice rapport for the deduction of potential impacts such prosecutions can bring forth. The paper concludes with a proposition that that the Act is a construction of both positive and negative impacts, which therefore will help me unravel the impacts to develop the research question accordingly.

The book is important in the context the research question, for it provides mastery of concepts underlying the aspects of criminal; law, and therefore connections to the research. The book constitutes of a rich reservoir of information concerning the source of law, and the justification of the Corporate Manslaughter and Corporate Homicide Act 2007. The book thus is a great reference to the question at hand, in supplementing the research with related principles, which can be critiqued for the betterment of understandings underlying the Act.

This article acknowledges the premise that the Corporate Manslaughter and Corporate Homicide Act as enacted to divert resolve the issue of discrepancies between prosecutions against small-sized corporations and large ones. There was a huge gap between the natures of prosecutions between the two entities. The legislation disputes the gap, creating a system of equity and thus through the understandings presented by Haigh, in his analysis, the research question is easily answered.

The thesis maintains that Corporate Manslaughter Act 2007 has provided a gloss upon the establishment doctrine, and that we currently have an “Identification-plus” precept in a kind of the “senior management test”. The study interrogates the appropriateness of the Act in relation to maintaining a state of balance between prosecutions and practicing that which is good and healthy for life.

The book is a construct of important insights that are instrumental in answering the research question. For instance, the book gives a critical overview of techniques for safety management techniques and risk assessment, all which are geared to combat direct confrontations with the Act. Avoidance of such risks alleviates possible negative impacts associated with the breaking of the rule. The book thus is essential especially in the provision of recommendations to companies involved in production activities; to guide them with important practices that are friendly and adaptable with the 2007 Act.

The article commences with a critical overview of main elements of the Act. In the subsequent sections, issues regarding to the impacts of the Act that are likely to arise are presented. The article concludes by giving the primary rationale of the Act. The article is of an immediacy of application in the developing of a paper answering the research question, because it is characterized with the basics principles and precepts of the Act.

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  • Griffin, S. and Moran, J., 2010. Accountability for deaths attributable to the gross negligent act or omission of a police force: The impact of the corporate manslaughter and corporate homicide act 2007. The Journal of Criminal Law, 74(4), pp.358-381.
  • Haigh, B., 2012. An analysis of the Corporate Manslaughter and Corporate Homicide Act (2007): A Badly Flawed Reform? (Doctoral dissertation, Durham University).
  • Hassan, S., 2016. Intake Interview Procedure for the Selection of Undergraduate Students in Malaysian Medical Schools: Inter-Ratter Reliability of Quality Assessment. Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine, 16(3), pp.1-7.
  • Holt, A.S.J. and Allen, J., 2015. Principles of health and safety at work. Routledge.
  • Hopwood, A.D., Edum-Fotwe, F.T. and Adams, F.K., The Impact of the Corporate Manslaughter and Corporate Homicide Act 2007 on the Construction Industry in the UK.
  • Kallio, H., Pietilä, A.M., Johnson, M. and Kangasniemi, M., 2016. Systematic methodological review: developing a framework for a qualitative semi‐structured interview guide. Journal of advanced nursing, 72(12), pp.2954-2965.
  • King, N., Horrocks, C. and Brooks, J., 2018. Interviews in qualitative research. SAGE Publications Limited.
  • Percy, W.H., Kostere, K. and Kostere, S., 2015. Generic qualitative research in psychology. The Qualitative Report, 20(2), pp.76-85.
  • Tombs, S., 2013. Still killing with impunity: corporate criminal law reform in the UK. Policy and Practice in Health and Safety, 11(2), pp.63-80.
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  • Walliman, N., 2017. Research methods: The basics. Routledge.
  • Wolgemuth, J.R., Erdil-Moody, Z., Opsal, T., Cross, J.E., Kaanta, T., Dickmann, E.M. and Colomer, S., 2015. Participants’ experiences of the qualitative interview: Considering the importance of research paradigms. Qualitative Research, 15(3), pp.351-372.

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