Variations Clinical Scores Immune Cell Infiltration

This figure indicates that as age increases in individuals, the clinical decreases proportionately. (B) There is more staining in young than in old. In the young, there is more acidic stain or basophilic structures that turns in purplish blue. It can be concluded that there is more staining of cytoplasm into pink among the young compared to the old. (C) Mean number of CD4 + T cells/PV infiltrate, where the average number of CD4+ T cell has shown a bell shaped progression. This means that up to day 3, the average number of CD4+ T cells have grown and then dropping to the level of day 1 by day 7. (D) Among the young participants, the mean number of CD4 + T cells/PV infiltrates show a upward movement as the clinical scores increases. However, this trend among the young continues till about reaching the clinical score of 6. Among the old participants, the mean number of CD4 + T cells/PV infiltrates starting around the clinical score of 6 show a bell shaped progression. Thus, at the level of the clinical score, where the mean number of CD4 + T cells/PV infiltrates of the young stops, the mean number of CD4 + T cells/PV infiltrates of the old starts. (E) Mean number of CD11c+ cell number per field among young is much more than old as the days progresses post VZV injection. (F) Mean number of CD4 + T cells/PV infiltrate among young is much more than old as the days progresses post VZV injection.

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Mean number of cells per field is more for old with exception of CD11c. (H) The percentage of Tetramer CD4 is equal between young and old in PBMC and more for old in skin. 2. The other factors would be the Z score between young and old. The additional data required are data needed for additional factors of r or the regression analysis and all significance are not given. 3. (A) Z score is given for NS between young and old. This proves that it is a normal distribution. Z score indicates the number of SDs above or below the population mean. (B) A comparative chart is given between old and young in terms of saline 6 hours versus normal. In most counts, the ratio is more for old genes barring a few exceptions. (C) The following are the expression of the most relevant pathways (FDR0.05) in saline-injected skin versus normal skin between young and old: Type 1 Inferon production T cell activation Response to wounding Response to IFN Response to cytokine stimulus Regulation of leukocyte activation and so on.

In all expressions, ratio is higher for old than in the young. (D) As the clinical score increases, the inflammatory index decreases proportionately. The r of 0.75006 indicate that clinical score is largely explained by the inflammatory index. This result is statistically significant as p < 0.05. 4. (A) This figure shows transcriptomic analysis with the use of genes’ tool Biolayout Express3D in the old humans’ genes after the injection of saline. There are 22 different monocyte/macrophage-related genes shown having high level of correlation between them. (B) Among the young, cells per mm2 in the paired analysis have shown higher cells in normal skin than saline skin in young humans and lower cells in normal skin than saline skin in old humans. (C) The inhibitory ligand genes are more concentrated in normal skin than in saline injected skin. (D) The % of CD14+ mononuclear phagocytes is generally less in normal skin than in saline injected skin. 5. (A)

R = 0.6367 Therefore, percentage of senescent cells in fibroblasts in the old skin is explained by their age to the tune of 63 percent. This result is statistically significant as p < 0.05 (B) R = 0.6902 Therefore, percentage of senescent cells is explained by their clinical score to the tune of 69 percent. This result is statistically significant as p < 0.05 (C) Generally, senescent cells have lower pg/ml compared to non senescent cells. (D) % of monocytes secreting TNFɑ has been more in the presence senescent than non senescent cells. 6. (A) The clinical scores raise more from pre to post-Pamapimod, although fair number of clinical scores has decreased moving from pre to post-Pamapimod. (B) Serum CRP levels decreased more from pre to post-Pamapimod (C) In the post-Pamapimod, the clinical scores are the highest for the Improvers (I), next level of clinical scores in the post-Pamapimod are for the Mild Improvers (MI), and least clinical scores in the post-Pamapimod are for the No Improvers (NI). D In the pre Pamapimod treatment, there are more unregulated genes in saline injected skin compared to the post-Pamapimod treatment. The number of unregulated genes in normal skin are roughly the same in both pre and post-Pamapimod treatment.

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In both pre and post-Pamapimod treatment, the saline injected skin has more mRNA than normal skin. 7. (F) Serum CRP is highest among the Improvers (I), followed by the No Improvers (NI), and then the Mild Improvers (MI). To the I, Serum CRP can be reduced and for the NI, it can be increased. (G) In the post-Pamapimod treatment, the percentage change of clinical score is highest among MIs, followed by Nis, and then Is. This information will measure the success pattern of post-Pamapimod treatment among the 3 groups. 8. The other experiment that can be conducted on experiments would you propose to investigate the effects of Pamapimod on the TST and saline induced response in old individuals include administering methotrexate (MTX) and protein kinase inhibitor in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. 9. The chemotactic factors are served by complement proteins activated for neutrophils, which augments vascular permeability and the stimulation of the histamine from the mast cells. They do adherence to the bacteria surface that for phagocytes makes them easier targets.


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