Weaknesses And Practical Implications


The critical analysis of the study “Development of the Client-Centred Care Questionnaire” is to be explained in this assignment. The critical analysis of the study is being explained so that its strength and weakness can be identified as well as the facts presented can be thoroughly evaluated to understand the way the information can be used as evidence in practice. The study presented has followed a quantitative research paradigm and details information regarding the way the study is executing is mentioned.


The information is presented in the study in a detailed manner and has followed academic style of writing (De Witte et al. 2006). This acts as strength as it informs that the researchers who are involved with the study are qualified to present information in a scientific manner. The study also has proper title that is mentioned within 13 words which provides clear concept to the reader to understand which topic has been explored by the researcher in the paper (Cathala and Moorely, 2018). The study has a well-defined abstract that mentions study aim, key methods, discussion as well as results and conclusion of the paper (De Witte et al. 2006). A clear abstract act as strength for the article because it assists readers to identify the extent of relevance of the paper with their topic of research (LoBiondo-Wood and Haber, 2017).

The study has presented a well-defined introduction along with key aim of the research (Cathala and Moorely, 2018). This is evident as the study mentioned that the key aim is to develop as well as test the Client Centred care Questionnaire (CCCQ) from a client perspective used for evaluation of the client-centeredness of professional home nursing care (De Witte et al. 2006). The presence of clarified aim is strength of the study as it introduces the reader to effectively develop an overview of the facts that can be learned from the paper. The study has presented a well-defined literature review along with conceptual background related to the topic (De Witte et al. 2006). The clear literature review is the strength of the study as it helped the readers to develop an effective concept related to the research area and the conceptual framework is important as it assisted the researcher to properly summarise the mental images of the themes and patterns which are emerging from the data (Tucker Lima et al. 2017).


The methods section of the paper informs that the study is performed by following the quantitative research paradigm which is evident as the data analysis in the study is done by using SPSS which is statistical tool used for analysing quantitative data (De Witte et al. 2006). The advantage of using quantitative research paradigm is that it allows the researcher to measure data and analyse it as well as allows that to present the findings in an objective nature (Wolgemuth et al. 2015). This helps the readers to easily identify and understand the findings. The other strength of using quantitative research paradigm is that it helps to evaluate the hypothesis because it has the efficiency to measure data in statistical format. The limitation of the quantitative study is that study context may be ignored and the experiment cannot be performed in a natural setting (Brannen, 2017). These limitations may have result the researchers in the study to face hindrance in testing and developing the CCCQ for different people in different settings.

The researcher has performed a pilot study to test and develop the client-centred care questionnaire (De Witte et al. 2006). The use of pilot study acts as strength for the paper as it helped the researchers to establish validity on the pretext of the information of other researchers, in turn, preventing the formulation of falsified work. Moreover, pilot study act as strength of the paper as it provides scope to the researchers to be improvised before final publication (Pomerleau et al. 2016). The limitation that has been experienced by the researcher in the study is that longer time is required for conducting the research (Eastham and Cox, 2017). The study has mentioned properly the number of samples taken and from where they are taken which is evident as 107 clients are mentioned to be surveyed across three care home organisation (De Witte et al. 2006). The strength of the study by using large sample size is that it offers scope to the researchers for better determination of average values of data, in turn, avoiding errors rising while testing smaller samples (Dobson et al. 2017). Thus, using large samples is beneficial for the study as it helps to provide reliable results.

The survey research strategy is being used in the study which acts as its strength as survey research requires less time and money to execute research (Pezold et al. 2016). Thus, it has led the researcher to execute the study quickly without facing any financial burden. The SPSS tool is used in the study which acts as its strength (De Witte et al. 2006). This is because using SPSS tool helps the researcher to ensure data consistency while entering them for analysis and provides the opportunity for an excellent graphical display of data (Mohebifar et al. 2016). However, the limitations may have experienced by the researcher by using SPSS is that the tool requires documentation of complex algorithms that are hard to find for analysis of the data (Hirahara et al. 2018). The ethical considerations are properly abided in the study which is evident as the researchers have taken permission to conduct the research from the Medical Ethics Committee of the Institute for Rehabilitation Research in Hoensbroek, Netherlands (De Witte et al. 2006). This acts as strength for the study because abiding by the ethics helps the researchers to avoid legal complications and ensure the validity of the study.

Results and Discussion

In this study, the results are properly mentioned in details with numeric data received from the survey. This is evident as the facts mentioned are represented with proper standard deviation data and others (De Witte et al. 2006). The discussion section of the paper also mentions in details the data by linking them with the existing information received from the previous studies. Moreover, the discussion section has clearly mentioned with a separate table about what is already known regarding the topic and what the research added to the topic (De Witte et al. 2006). This acts as strength as the reader would be able to understand which new information they are able to gather by going through the study.

Conclusion and Limitation

The study presents a clear conclusion with all the facts and data derived from research in the paper. The limitations encountered in the study is thoroughly mentioned which act as strength for the study as the reader would be able to understand the gaps encounter and would be able to understand what aspects they are to fulfil to further develop the study in future.

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  • Brannen, J., 2017. Mixing methods: Qualitative and quantitative research. London: Routledge.
  • De Witte, L., Schoot, T. and Proot, I., 2006. Development of the client‐centred care questionnaire. Journal of advanced nursing, 56(1), pp.62-68.
  • Dobson, C., Woller-Skar, M.M. and Green, J., 2017. An inquiry-based activity to show the importance of sample size and random sampling. Science Scope, 40(8), p.76.
  • Eastham, A.J. and Cox, D., 2017. Dementia-friendly wards: a review of the literature and pilot study of patient interaction and daily activity engagement. International Journal of Health Governance, 22(1), pp.25-36.
  • Hirahara, N., Matsubara, T., Hayashi, H., Takai, K., Nakada, S. and Tajima, Y., 2018. Prognostic importance of controlling nutritional status in patients undergoing curative thoracoscopic esophagectomy for esophageal cancer. American journal of therapeutics, 25(5), p.e524.
  • LoBiondo-Wood, G. and Haber, J., 2017. Nursing research: Methods and critical appraisal for evidence-based practice. UK: Elsevier Health Sciences.
  • Moorley, C. and Cathala, X., 2019. How to appraise qualitative research.pp.10-13.
  • Pezold, M.L., Pusic, A.L., Cohen, W.A., Hollenberg, J.P., Butt, Z., Flum, D.R. and Temple, L.K., 2016. Defining a research agenda for patient-reported outcomes in surgery: using a Delphi survey of stakeholders. JAMA surgery, 151(10), pp.930-936.
  • Pomerleau, A.C., Schrager, J.D. and Morgan, B.W., 2016. Pilot study of the importance of factors affecting emergency department opioid analgesic prescribing decisions. Journal of Medical Toxicology, 12(3), pp.282-288.
  • Tucker Lima, J.M., Vittor, A., Rifai, S. and Valle, D., 2017. Does deforestation promote or inhibit malaria transmission in the Amazon? A systematic literature review and critical appraisal of current evidence. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 372(1722), p.20160125.
  • Wolgemuth, J.R., Erdil-Moody, Z., Opsal, T., Cross, J.E., Kaanta, T., Dickmann, E.M. and Colomer, S., 2015. Participants’ experiences of the qualitative interview: Considering the importance of research paradigms. Qualitative research, 15(3), pp.351-372.

Reflective Journal

At the present, my personal physical health and well-being are considerably been maintained which is evident as I have not been detected with any nature of disease or illness that has reduced my physical efficiency to execute my daily activities. The management of proper physical health is essential so that the person does not become burden of care on others to execute their daily activities (Lubans et al. 2016). However, I still face issues with fatigue and presently experiencing issues with my mental health as I have been facing stress and depression due to studies. As asserted by Toussaint et al. (2016), stress creates negative impact on the thoughts and feelings of individuals. This leads individuals to show changes in their behaviour. It is evident as due to stress I have experienced certain changes in my behaviour such as I have reduced my socialisation with my friends and remain more at home to study.

My recent stress regarding studies has made me experienced fear of failure and made me remain anxious about my academic performance more often than before. This has impacted me to face problem in sleeping and be insomniac at times. As commented by Hegberg and Tone (2015), poor mental health is able to contribute to raising the risk of developing physical diseases. This is because without emotional well-being that occurs with good mental health the individual cannot maintain proper physical health. This is evident in my case as though I do not require any physical health assistance but stress has interfered to reduce my physical activities and lower sleeping hours that have led me to develop an increase in weight than before and fatigue. As argued by Simpson et al. (2017), good sleeping patterns lead individuals to develop improved concentration along with energy to execute tasks. However, I experience issues with sleeping that has created concern with my concentration in studies as well as made me face lower emotional well-being at the present.

As per my learning till date, I have developed the knowledge that proper mental, social and physical health and well-being of the individuals are required to keep them healthy and live a happier life. I have also learned that the care to be provided to individuals for their health living are to be offered by consulting with them. In order to accomplish this, effective communication skills are required. I have learned that timely care is to be provided to patients to ensure better recovery and management of disease. This is because early and timely care to the individuals suffering from any nature of illness helps them to be treated before complicated and deteriorated effect of the illness on their health (Robinson et al. 2015).

During my learning, I identified that to offer satisfying care to patients the care intervention required to be client-centred. This is because each of the patients has different health complication and client-centred care planning helps in planning care that meet specific needs of patients based on their specific health condition rather than holistically using single care plan for all. My learning till date also informed me that proper feedback is to be received from the patients on a regular basis based on the care provided. This is because feedback allows the patients to inform about their satisfaction regarding care and what specific aspects are needed to be fulfilled by the nurses to ensure quality care and improved the well-being of the patients (Etkind et al. 2015).

As per my assumptions regarding my academic skills, I am sure that I have strong written and verbal communication skills as one of my academic quality because during studies I have been able to successfully communicate with my mentor and teachers in written and verbal manner to resolve my queries. However, I do at times experience issues with making non-verbal communication which is evident as I experience issues with maintaining eye contact with my teacher while listening or maintain proper facial expression while communicating with others in the class. This indicates that I have weak non-verbal communication skill. The presence of effective communication skill ion academics is required to communicate information and develop interaction for better understanding of studies and facts (Merga and Hu, 2016). In relation to time, I have found that I lack properly ability to manage time in my academic field. This is because I often face hardship in managing my activities as per set time which has made me experience stress and fear regarding my academic performances. Time management is required to ensure deadlines are met in the academic field (Adams and Kanaroglou, 2016).

I have identified that I have effective analytical and critical thinking as strong academic skill. This is evident as while making judgement regarding any aspect in the academic field I have been able to look both at negative as well as positive aspect regarding the situation to reach effective decision. Moreover, I have found that I have strength of problem-solving skill as one of academic quality. This is because whenever I faced problem in developing understanding regarding any aspect I somehow develop a solution to cope with it. I also have the strength of effective research ability in my academics. This is evident as whenever any information regarding any topic is required I have been able to gather sufficient and valid information regarding it by researching wide areas.

I have weakness of organisation skill in my academics which is evident I often face issues with making organised effort in presenting information. Moreover, this lack of organisation skills has also lead to my stress as I found reports from the lecturer that though I have presented all information in answering questions in my academics but due to lack of proper organised presentation of facts it has lead them to offer me poor grades. I also understood my weakness regarding organisation skill from the situation that I never find my notes to be studied in a proper manner whenever required for studying. Thus, the organisation skill in academic field is required so that proper management and flow of data is maintained (Holmes et al. 2017). This indicates that I have to work on improving my organisation, time management and communication skill for better academic performance.


  • Adams, M.D. and Kanaroglou, P.S., 2016. Mapping real-time air pollution health risk for environmental management: Combining mobile and stationary air pollution monitoring with neural network models. Journal of environmental management, 168, pp.133-141.
  • Etkind, S.N., Daveson, B.A., Kwok, W., Witt, J., Bausewein, C., Higginson, I.J. and Murtagh, F.E., 2015. Capture, transfer, and feedback of patient-centered outcomes data in palliative care populations: does it make a difference? A systematic review. Journal of pain and symptom management, 49(3), pp.611-624.
  • Hegberg, N.J. and Tone, E.B., 2015. Physical activity and stress resilience: Considering those at-risk for developing mental health problems. Mental Health and Physical Activity, 8, pp.1-7.
  • Holmes, B.J., Best, A., Davies, H., Hunter, D., Kelly, M.P., Marshall, M. and Rycroft-Malone, J., 2017. Mobilising knowledge in complex health systems: a call to action. Evidence & Policy: A Journal of Research, Debate and Practice, 13(3), pp.539-560.
  • Lubans, D., Richards, J., Hillman, C., Faulkner, G., Beauchamp, M., Nilsson, M., Kelly, P., Smith, J., Raine, L. and Biddle, S., 2016. Physical activity for cognitive and mental health in youth: a systematic review of mechanisms. Pediatrics, 138(3), p.e20161642.
  • Merga, M.K. and Hu, Q.M., 2016. Health education beyond the school gates: Use of school newsletters to communicate health messages to parents and their families. Australian Journal of Education, 60(1), pp.73-85.
  • Robinson, L., Tang, E. and Taylor, J.P., 2015. Dementia: timely diagnosis and early intervention. Bmj, 350, p.h3029.
  • Simpson, N.S., Gibbs, E.L. and Matheson, G.O., 2017. Optimizing sleep to maximize performance: implications and recommendations for elite athletes. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports, 27(3), pp.266-274.
  • Toussaint, L., Shields, G.S., Dorn, G. and Slavich, G.M., 2016. Effects of lifetime stress exposure on mental and physical health in young adulthood: How stress degrades and forgiveness protects health. Journal of health psychology, 21(6), pp.1004-1014.

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