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Impact of European Union (EU) enlargement on the companies: Volkswagen and BMW

Abstract

In the recent era of globalisation, the EU expands their activities and laws across the international borders and it is necessary to critically analyse the impacts of the EU enlargement policies in terms of trade, GDP growth, social development, lifestyle changes, business and SME expansion as well as financial impacts. The study focuses on analysing the effects of EU enlargement on the multinational corporate firms in the automobile industry and the firms are Volkswagen and BMW, which are famous for their innovative designed cars and efficient services worldwide. The first chapter is effective to develop the aim and objectives and understand the significance of the study to conduct it efficiently. The second chapter is literature review which incorporates the review of EU enlargement principles and policies as well as discusses its impacts on the organisation and society in long run. Research methodology is the third chapter of the study which is helpful for the researcher to choose the method of primary and secondary data collection method, as well as qualitative data analysis for in depth evaluation and critical analysis. The fourth chapter is data findings and discussion which explore that there are crucial impacts of EU enlargement on the companies Volkswagen and BMW in terms of international trade, financial performance and social development. The conclusion and recommendation chapter is the last one in this study which helps to draw the conclusion after analysis and discussion and recommend further tactics for the companies to utilise the enlargement policies to expand their business and run their operations globally.

Acknowledgement

This research has been the greatest learning opportunity for me throughout the entire course; and it would have been difficult without the patient valuable and continuous support, and guidance provided by my lecturer. His/her commitment and passion to teach further inspired me at a time when I felt lack of confidence. I feel motivated to complete my course in finance and management with effective support and advice from my peers. I would like to thank various people for their contribution to this research project. I wish to thank my fellow members and colleagues for making each and every day a challenge, as well as their support and encouragement during this study are also fruitful for me to get motivation and also I am blessed with supportive family members. I also get cooperation and support from my peers about increasing understanding about the strategic of EU enlargement which is quiet difficult topic gore m to analyses and evaluate the expansion of the EU across the international borders. It is also difficult for me to analyses the impacts of EU enlargement which covers a variety of field such as international trade, GDP growth of the country, social development as well as financial impacts and without the support and cooperation of the professor, it is not possible for me to conduct this study which economic and financial impacts analysis.

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Introduction

The research topic is to analyse the impacts of European Union (EU) enlargement on the multinational corporate firms in the automobile industry and the firms are Volkswagen and BMW. In the recent era of globalisation, the international trade is flourishing at a rapid rate and it is increasing over the period of time. In the recent digitalisation phase, the brands try to improve market communication and access the international locations for better business opportunities and market scope (Liuhto, 2020). Hence, the study focuses on the analysis of the EU enlargement which has its effects on the economy, market condition, business and multinational firms. The policy makers and government also focus on the restructure of the EU enlargement policies where there are international countries like Albania, Republic of north Macedonia, Serbia, Turkey and Montenegro. Expansion of the EU communities further provides a scope to the multinational corporations to utilise the market condition and run their business in an advanced way. Hence, in the recent digitalisation and globalisation era, the countries try to collaborate with each other and provide a scope to the business firms to access the market (Ruhs, 2017). The study is effective to analyse the research topic and identify its impacts on the automobile industry and organisations mainly Volkswagen and BMW, which are the famous organisations globally.

1.1 Background of the study

In the recent era of globalisation, the international countries focus on managing harmony and inter relationship among the countries and maintain good corporate culture over the international borders for enhancing the practice of international trade (Su et al., 2018). The firms in the recent years also focus on expanding their business activities and operations across the globe, in order to diversify their business and gain competitive advantage over other competitors in the market. The business expansion through international trade is a common strategy of the firms which provide a scope to the organisations to access the international market and gain benefits over the markets through expanding their operations (Asteriou, Pilbeam and Tomuleasa, 2016). For grabbing the market opportunities, accessing international places as well as strengthening the customer’s base in order to sustain in the industry. Hence, the EU enlargement is playing crucial role in enhancing business activities and international trade. The organisations under automobile industry face high competitive threats where there are many competitors in the market such as Hyundai, Volkswagen, BMW, Honda, Suzuki, Mercedes, Tata Motors, Chevrolet and Renault Nissan. The firms are efficient to manage their operations and expand the business efficiently across the international market place. After the EU enlargement process, there is sustainable international trade, where the companies may access the international markets and represent the organisational products in the market for attracting the audiences. Hence, the research is appropriate to analyse the impacts of the EU enlargement activities and evaluating its impacts on the organisations mainly Volkswagen and BMW (Günther et al., 2017). The recent EU enlargement activities further attractive for the business models, where the organisations try to develop strategic planning for better expansion and running the organisational globally. The EU enlargement objectives are such as to foster peace and stability in the regions close to EU borders, help to improve the quality of the people living in the EU, enhance integration and corporation of the activities across the international borders and influence international trade (Dima, Dima and Mahagaonkar, 2018). The EU enlargement activities also focus on increasing prosperity and opportunity for the European businesses and citizens which are also fruitful for the organisations to access the market and run their business efficiently. It also helps to guide, support and monitors the changes in the countries with effective laws and standards. Hence, there are several effects of EU enlargement which needs to be acknowledged in terms of business process and firm expansion strategies (Osmanovic, 2017).

1.2 Background of the organisations

Volkswagen:

Volkswagen is a German automaker, launched in the year of 1937. Global sales of the company in the last years was more than 10.8 million and the current models are such as Ameo, Amarok, Fox, Polo, Vento, Golf, Sharan, Arteon etc., where there are a various model of cars which are luxury and successful ton attract the audiences. The organisational strategy is also efficient to utilise the EU enlargement and expand their business in the EU member countries for international trade and gaining high competitive advantage (Volkswagen, 2020a).

1.2 Background of the organisations

The organisation is successful to launch new models one by one in the market and there are lots of luxury models with high quality engines, creative design of the cars and updated technology for high quality cars. The organisation is also efficient to create values for the customers and retain them for long run. The organisation is also successful to expand their business and operate in the global automobile market. The organisational activities and creativity of the organisation further attract the audiences and international shareholders which are major success factors of the firm. Volkswagen is also reputed for its quality car and brand name which provide luxury products to the customers worldwide (Volkswagen, 2020b).

BMW:

Bayerische Motoren Werke AG, as BMW is a German multinational corporate firm which produces luxury vehicles and motor cycles. The company has been founded in the year of 1916, when the automobile market is under the brands BMW, Mini and Rolls Royce and the motorcycles are marketed under the brand BMW Motorrad. The major products of the company are such as cars and motor cycles which are in good quality and luxury products. The brands under BMW are such as Mini, BMW I, BMW M; Motor cycles, BMW Motorrad and Rolls Royce which are operating across the globe (BMW, 2020a).

BMW

The numbers of employees in the organisation are more than 133778 in the last year and the leader is successful to manage their strong employee base across the international markets. The organisation BMW is also successful to generate revenue and the revenue in the last year was €104.210 billion and the produced output was 2564025 which is also a large volume of production in the market. The organisation is efficient to fulfil the customer’s needs and preferences by delivering high quality cars, innovative designs and latest technology. The company is well known for this innovative and luxury cars which attracts the audiences in the market across the international borders. The organisation is hereby one of the successful brand globally who is efficient to serve the customers and create values for them by delivering unique products (BMW, 2020b).

1.3 Significant of the research

The research is effective to analyse the impacts of the EU enlargement on the business firms, and the corporate firms are Volkswagen and BMW, which are famous organisations in the automobile industry across the globe, the study provides a scope to identify the activities of the EU enlargement and evaluate their benefits of enlargement of the countries under EU rules and legislations. There are strict legislations under the EU practice for which the business firms can operate in the market in a systematic way. It increases the market size and thus further provides a scope to evaluate the impacts of increasing market size on the brand strategic planning, where in the recent years, the companies focus on expanding their business internationally. In the recent years, the firms are also trying to strengthening their customer’s base for generating revenue and maximising profitability through expanding their business. Through this study, it is possible to analyse the effects of EU enlargement on the business activities. The study also provides a scope to the researcher to conduct the research on the business activities under the EU enlargement as well as identify the brands strategy to utilise international trade. There is effective contribution of the EU activities which have its impacts on the firm strategy which can be explored through this study. The research is significant to discuss and analyse the activities of the business firms of Volkswagen and BMW to expand their activities by utilising the EU enlargement. Moreover, the study is effective to recommend some suitable suggestions through which the researcher would be able to provide strategies to Volkswagen and BMW to improve their business tactics in expanding their operations in the EU countries.

1.4 Aim of the research

The aim of the research is to analyse the impacts of EU enlargement on the multinational corporate firms in the automobile industry and the firms are Volkswagen and BMW, which are famous for their innovative designed cars and efficient services worldwide.

1.5 Objectives of the study

  • To acknowledge the EU enlargement activities in the recent globalisation era
  • To analyse the impacts of EU enlargement on the organisations
  • To evaluate the firms strategic planning for business expansion under EU enlargement
  • To recommend some suitable suggestions for the firms to utilise EU enlargement practice for better business activities and expansion

1.6 Research questions

  • What are the EU enlargement activities in the recent globalisation era?
  • What would be the potential impacts of EU enlargement on the organisations?
  • What are the firm’s strategic planning for business expansion under EU enlargement?
  • What would be the suggested recommendations for the automobile organisations to utilise EU enlarge net practice for better business activities and expansion?

1.7 Structure of the research

The structure of the dissertation is necessary to be developed well in order to progress in the research and complete it ion a systematic way. The researcher focuses on structuring the whole dissertation through different chapters. In the introduction, the chapters of the dissertation is effective which further provides a scope to conduct the research and after gathering authentic data and relevant information. The chapter are such as.

Introduction:

Under the introduction chapter, the introduction and background of the study have been discussed. These are effective to start the dissertation, where the researcher is able to introduce the research topic and identify the background of the researcher as well. The background of the organisations is also discussed in the introduction chapter so that there would be clear review and knowledge on the organisations, where the research topic will be analysed efficiently. In addition to this, the introduction chapter includes the research aims and objectives as well as the research questions which may provide a systematic overview to the researcher to conduct the study efficiently.

Literature review

The literature review is the second chapter of the dissertation which includes conceptual framework and review of existing literatures. The conceptual framework is effective for understanding the research and analyse the dependent and independent variables in the above mentioned research topic. Additionally, the review of existing literatures through secondary sources of information such as books, journals, company report, online articles, business reports and newsier are effective for the researcher to collect the theories and concepts on EU enlargement and its impacts on the business organisations.

Research methodology:

The research methodology is also important for the researcher to choose the right method of conducting the study efficiently. The research method includes the selection of philosophy and research approach which are fruitful for the researcher to conduct the study in systematic way. On the other hand, the data collection and analysis technique will also be chosen in this chapter where the researcher would be able conduct the study through gathering the relevant data and data analysis method for further evaluation. The ethical consideration in this dissertation will also be proposed in the third chapter of research methodology, which provides a scope to the researcher to maintain research ethics and complete the study without any ethical issues.

Findings and analysis:

The fourth chapter is findings and analysis which includes data findings and representation as well as data analysis and in-depth evaluation, which show appropriate knowledge development and discussion of the findings. The researcher is able to represent the data findings and information in a suitable manner and evaluate this for in depth analysis. This chapter is the most important for the dissertation to fulfil the objectives and analyse the above mentioned research topic.

Conclusion and recommendations:

The fifth chapter is conclusion and recommendation, where the researcher is able to conclude the whole study after in depth analysis and discuss the objectives for evaluating whether the objectives are met or not through the detailed process of the study. After that, suitable recommendations will be suggested for the organisations after analysis and evaluation, where they would be able to utilise EU enlargement for maximising their organisational values and expanding the business across the EU countries.

Findings and analysis Conclusion and recommendations

2. Literature review

2.1 Introduction

The literature review of the research provide a scope to the researcher to review the existing literatures through gathering the secondary sources of information such as books, journals and articles as well as business news and online published articles. These are the major sources which are revenant and authentic to gather valid information regarding the research topic. The research is about analysing the impacts of EU enlargement on the companies in the recent era of globalisation, where the organisations are trying to expand their business and access the international market place for better business activities management. Through reviewing the literatures, it is possible to analyse the effects of the EU enlargement activities on the business and the organisational leaders to strategise the organisation and utilise the enlargement policies and practice for achieving future success. The literature review is hereby beneficial for the researcher to gain in depth understanding and knowledge about the research topic which further provides a scope to analyse the data findings and fulfil the above mentioned research objectives. The theories of EU enlargement and the concepts including the policies and practices are also effective for analysing the above mentioned research topic and conduct the study efficiently by gathering more in depth information and theories.

2.2 EU enlargement activities

Sjursen and Smith (2018) stated that, it is the process of enlarging the activities across the member countries where the EU currently aspire the countries to join the EU for better economic and trade related activities. Through the accession of new member states, the EU has expanded their system in the history and the states must have effective economic and political condition to join the EU. The process is also called as European integration where cooperation and communication among the EU member states would be developed and enhanced throughout the period of time where the national government allow gradual harmonisation of the national laws. According to, Scott (2016), since the sixth enlargement, the countries like Belgium, France, Germany, Netherlands, Italy and Luxembourg have signed the Treaty of Paris in 1951 and EU has successfully expanded their activities across the international countries. International countries like Albania, Republic of north Macedonia, Serbia, Turkey and Montenegro have responded to the EU policies and practice where the government of the countries are also interested to join the EU. In 2013, Croatia has joined the EU which is also helpful for the organisations who are trying to expand their business across the EU states. In 2020, the negotiation is ongoing with Serbia, Albania, North Macedonia and Montenegro where the enlargement commissioner is playing crucial role in convincing more international states to join the commission and enlarge the EU states across the international markets. There are several criteria of getting membership of the EU where the EU treaties refer that all the states under EU must follow the rules and legislation, and respect the values of each states individually under the ethical construction of the EU (European Commission, 2016). As stated by, Kahanec and Zimmermann (2016), the values under EU commission are such as freedom to act, maintaining human dignity, respect each other, maintaining equality and diversity, democracy, the respect of rights of the person, human rights for the individuals belonging to minority communities. These are the major values which further improve respect and mutual trust among the states under the EU. The EU commission per and the authorities are also successful to manage trust and mutual relationship among all the states where the governments are collaborating with each other for better practice and management. The member countries are bound to respect each country, achieve stability of institutions guaranteeing democracy, rule of law, human rights and protection of minorities. Slootmaeckers, Touquet and Vermeersch (2016) stated that, the existence of functionality and the market economy, as well as the competitive pressure are beneficial for the multinational corporations to access the EU member countries and manage the international trade efficiently. The cavity maximisation and coping with the newly technical advances are also there which further influence the membership countries to act ethically and utilise the EU enlargement policies and practice. The objectives of the EU enlargement policy are such as fostering peach and maintaining stability in regions close to the EU borders. The author aims at helping the improvement of quality of the people’s lives through integration and cooperation across the borders. According to, Elbasani and Šabić (2018), guiding, supporting and monitoring the changes in the countries are also relevant to teach state to maximise EU values, standards and rules. The authority of the EU also factors on increasing the productivity and prosperity for the EU citizenship and the businesses. Hence, EU enlargement practice enhances economic and demographic reform across the international countries under suitable policy documentation. The recent candidate countries are Turkey, Serbia, Albania, Republic of north Macedonia and Montenegro. On the other hand, Bosnia, Herzegovina and Kosovo are also the potential candidates under the EU enlargement policy (European Commission, 2019). As opined by, Caliendo et al. (2017), in the year of 2004 and 2007, there were 12 countries that have joined the EU, ten countries are from central and Eastern Europe as well as Cyprus and Malta have also joined the EU. The countries have found economic growth and democratic transformation by qualifying in the EU as a membership country, in case of Bulgaria and Romania, the accession of treaty provided further safety and security to address the potential difficulties in economies and identifying the functions for international market growth and improving home affairs. These are hereby effective for the countries to access the international market and get the EU membership for better economic and democratic performance. Stable democracy with the rule of law and respect for human being including the monitories are mandatory for the member states to improve their ability to fulfil implement the EU laws and legislations. According to, Sandkamp (2020), the EU has signed the Europe Agreement with Hungary and Poland followed by central and eastern European countries to maintain harmony and freedom to act across the border countries of Europe. The EU integration is hereby effective for the member countries to act with freedom and maximise the quality of their performance in terms of productivity and economic activities. For example, the free trade areas were established during the year of 2001 and 85% are bilateral trade which are beneficial for the countries to develop further strategies of international trade (European Commission, 2009). As opined by, Münch (2018), nowadays, there is greater focus on the quality of enlargement by maximising sate building activities, good governance, rule of law, fight against the organised crime and corruption as well as creating civil society and reconciliation for developing the outset of the member countries. These activities are beneficial for creating the member countries and improve harmony and inter relationship among all the EU member states. The money and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) are invested through effective policies and strategies for the benefits of all the member states under EU. According to, Vachudova (2019), the money has been spent on developing the economies of the new member states creating new business horizon and opportunities for the small and medium sized business firms. The EU has supported the countries of Eastern borders like Ukraine, Georgia and Moldova through EU neighbourhood policy and eastern partnership rules. EU and the Ukraine are also negotiating with each other for the membership agreement with the aim of economic integration and political association with the EU. It would be beneficial for the member states to improve the establishment of the areas of political, economic and sector cooperation with comprehensive free trade area. The eastern partnership is also effective for the EU member countries, where the energy security arrangement, free trade activities and infrastructural development procedure are beneficial for the member countries to measure economic growth and social development. The partner’s countries will also be advantageous under the EU agreements with easier travel facilities, free trade and financial assistance.

2.3 EU enlargement policies

Geddes and Taylor (2016) stated that, the EU policy and practice are effective for the civil society among the member states under EU where trade unions, employers associations and other social group came forward with cooperation and high communication in order to support the citizens to tale active part in the political agenda. There is vibrating civil society’s contribution during the EU enlargement policies and initiatives to promote the citizens participation in the social and political life in the candidate countries and the potential candidates. All the civil associations can take active initiatives in the social and political field to monitor the policies and create civil society bodies for better management. As stated by, Del Rosal (2017), the financial support from the IPA programmes and the Civil Society facility is also effective for the countries to come forward and collaborate with each other for better association and performance. The Civil Society Facility (CSF) has been established in the year of 2008 to support the development of the society financially and it includes both the national and multi beneficiaries which are efficient to take initiatives for the civil society development. The instruments such as Human Rights and the rights of participation are there which protect the human being and influence them to take active part in the activities of the country. On the other hand, Wood (2017) stated that, freedom to expression and media is also another key indicator for EU enlargement where the commitment to democracy, political accountability and Good governance are maximised with effective maintenance of the transparency and accountability in the field of social and political. The expression of basic human rights and providing the legal assistance and guidance are also helpful to managing the freedom to express and media. Continuous monitoring of the policy and practice, financial support and EU Enlargement Strategy 2013-2014 are effective for the EU to welcome more members states and influence them to participate with freedom for achieving economic growth and social development in the countries (European Commission, 2009). On the other hand, as stated by, Liuhto (2020), there is policies and practice to support the small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) through expediting structural adjustment, fostering the environment for the business to set up their firms, attracting domestic and foreign investors to invest in the organisations. Apart from that, there are other policy initiatives which are also beneficial for the SMEs to grow faster under the EU enlargement principles which are promoting entrepreneurship, encouraging inn ovation and creativity, promoting the business set up in the market and giving subsidies to the small sized firms for establishing their business activities. These are also beneficial for the EU member states to participate actively and encourage more business entrepreneurs to establish their business and contribute positively in the economy. The 2019-2020 Economic Reform Programmes (ERP) increases the macro environment of the member states under EU, but due to this pandemic era of Covid-19, the economic reform has been slowed down. Ruhs (2017) opined that, the economic reform program includes the GDP growth, inflation control activities, trade balance and capital flows, where the money supply and demand can be managed by the government. The budgetary plan is also developed efficiently through the economic reform where EU enlargement principles influence the policy makers to increase GDP growth and manage inflation to avoid the inflationary growth and maximise the actual economic growth and social development. Inclusive growth and job creation are possible under the EU enlargement policies and practice which further enhances sector development by creating business environment and reducing the informal economy. Educational and skill, trade related reforms, managing the free trade zone, as well as cooperation with WTO for maintaining international trade would also be beneficial for the organisations to run their business internationally. The employment and labour market is also growing where employment generation further boost the wellbeing of the individuals and maximise their values in the society (European Commission, 2018).

2.4 Impacts of EU enlargement

According to, Miree and Fernandez (2020), the EU enlargement policies and practices are positive and fruitful for the economic growth, social development, democratic development and others where the member countries can act with freedom and harmony for success achievement of the future sustainable growth. The enlargement of the EU is beneficial for both the old and new countries where the trade between the countries are increasing over the period of time between the old and new members states. For example, it was € 175 billion in 1999 and it has been growing to approximately € 500 billion in 2007 and hence it can be stated that there is international trade enhancement where the member countries under EU participate efficiently for both productivity and quality maximisation. Kubal (2016) opined that, the international trade borders and free trade areas are developed well, where the member states are participating with their products and services for increasing country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) which is also another important impact on the economy. The economic growth and sustainability in the high GDP would be beneficial for the organisations to support he business activities and cooperate with the government and international trade authority for exporting and importing the management of the international trade as well as economic performance across the member countries under EU are growing at rapid rate where there is maximisation of the quality of products and services as well as improving the productivity of the firms as well in the economy. This contributes efficiently to enhance economic growth and sustainability in the international trade. The trade barriers are also decreasing over time with development of the rules and policies under the EU agreement where the EU authority focuses on developing the free trade agreement and manage the border countries across the Europe so that harmony and freedom to trade can be managed well and the countries can participate in the international trade (European Commission, 2016). As stated by, Kirchner (2019), as per employment generation, there is increase in employment rate after the EU enlargement policies and practice due to country growth and economic establishment. There is economic growth and GDP growth due to increasing trade and other activities under the enlargement rules. The countries are participating efficiently and there is intra country relationship among all the member states under the EU agreement where the employees are migrated from one place to another for better employment opportunities. There are no such barriers and hurdles to work in the international countries under EU and this is effective impacts of the EU enlargement policies and practice, where there is employment generation in the member’s states. According to, Grimm (2019), the EU authority recognise that there is efficient talent pool, from where the economic growth and development further encourage the employees to get high paid jobs for maximising their wellbeing. Hereby, EU enlargement polices and agreement is also beneficial for social development where the educational activities as well as development in the social projects and health and safety are also improving over the period of time. The EU authority also ensures human rights including the minority communities living in the society, there is equality and transparency in the society where each individual is treated fairly and valued in the community. These activities further enhance social development across the member states of the EU. The education activities and transfer of skill and labour forces also enhance social development where the maximisation of the wellbeing of the individuals are possible under effective EU policies and rules, where every individual is valued and they can enhance their standard of living in long run. The economic activities and employment further improve the financial assistance further increasing the purchasing power parity which are effective for the individuals to maximise their needs and preferences and improve their social life efficiently in long run. Hence, there are positive impacts of EU enlargement on employment due to high employment generation and growth in employment rate (European Commission, 2018). In addition to this, the EU is founded on a set of shared values and principles which are applied on each member state under the EU agreement. The enlargement policies and practices are effective for transformational forces, inspiring the democratic change and economic liberalisation among the states. Stability and prosperity as well as soft power to extend of zone of peace are also the advantages of the EU enlargement practice. Peaceful democratic transformation and the economic reform are also good for the economic growth and social development where the EU law and rules maintain harmony and freedom to act during the changed process in the countries. Increasing stability and peaceful development are the major benefits where every country under EU agreement enjoys their power and freedom to act ethically. Finke (2020) stated that, the citizens are also benefitted under the EU enlargement policies, where the environmental and safety standards are maintained efficiently. Food safety and animal health were the key concern of the EU authority where the food processing plants, diaries and abattoirs are managed well with effective quality standard. This is also beneficial for the citizens where their values and wellbeing would be maximised in long run. The implementation of water directives will increase the quality of drinking water as well as surface and river water. Nuclear safety improved the result of EU membership where the country act as a team with high collaboration and communication and the governments of the member states are also collaborating with each other for develop intra country relationship to act ethically. As a result, more countries would like to join the EU membership and agreement for getting safe environment and sustainable growth with peaceful democratic environment. Hence, the member countries would like to contribute more efficiently and productively to enhance their performance and achieve future sustainable growth (European Commission, 2019). In terms of business and FDI, here is growth in FDI where many multinational organisations and investors become interested to invest in the market across the EU members in order to secure future return on investment by utilising the market growth and economic development. There is strong economic growth with high GDP among the EU member countries du ton social development, peaceful activities, ethical rules and principles which enhance international trade and this further influence the investors in foreign countries to make effective investment decision in the EU member countries for better return on their investment in long run. On the other hand, in terms of business, there is strong growth in the organisational activities and multinational corporations, where the government is cooperating to enhance the activities of the small and medium sized firms as well as influence the Multinational corporations to perform better and grab the market opportunities. Due to international trade and free trade areas, the multinational corporations try to access the member state under EU enlargement polices to expand their business strategically and in this regard, there are economic growth and investment activities in long run. The business firms are also able to access a larger market economy, where there are strong customers and it would be helpful for the business organisations to increase their sales volume and performance in the organisation. Thus, the EU enlargement policies and practices are great activities to enhance economic growth and provide a scope to the multinational corporations to access the large market and enhance their operations for successful establishment of the business (European Commission, 2020).

2.5 Business strategic planning of the MNCs for utilising EU enlargement

As stated by, Dima, Dima and Mahagaonkar (2018), during the EU enlargement practice, the multinational corporations try to expand their business across the member states of the EU in order to gain market share and gain high competitive advantage over the competitive firms. The organisations try to focus on strategising their business tactics to expand the firms and operational activities across the international countries. The companies try to restructure their product and services to attract the customers and in this regard the product diversification strategy would be beneficial for the MNCs to establish their business and promote a huge variety of products in the market. On the other hand, Asteriou, Pilbeam and Tomuleasa (2016) opined that, the cost leadership strategy is also adopted by the MNCs in order to manage the activities and improve the business in long run where the companies can reduce the cost of the operations and manufacturing and provide the final goods and services at lower or affordable price. This is also another effective strategic planning to utilise EU enlargement principles and adopt new ways to run their business efficiently. In addition to this, the firms are also able to invest in research and development program as well as utilise FDI as EU enlargement principles are effective to increase FDI volume and promote the business sustainably. These are major benefits and the strategic planning through which the organisations can expand their business successfully across the member states of the EU. In addition to this, as stated by, Günther et al. (2017), the organisations also aim at operating in the peaceful environment and the EU policies and practice of enlargement create harmony and freedom to participate in the economy. This further boosts the interest of the MNCs to access the global market size and attract the customers by working efficiently. The strategic of EU enlargement also encourages the entrepreneurs for increasing their creativity and technological innovation in long run, where the entrepreneurs would be able to adopt new and latest technique to run their business efficiently in the market. On the other hand the organisations are also able to strategise their business operational activities through managing their supply chain and distribution network as well as cooperation with the government. The technological advancement and environmental legislations also provide suitable guidelines to the firms to strategise their business in order to secure future sustainable development. The organisations are also able to improve their investment and expand their business through utilising stable political environment as well as legal structure of the EU where the member states are collaborating with other as well as influence the business activities in the countries. Marketing activities and promotional strategies are also beneficial for the organisations through which the MNCs can attract the customers, create new job in the economy for increasing the employment rate in the economy as well as maximise the GDP of the country in long run. Hereby, the EU enlargement has suitable impacts on the MNCs and the entrepreneurs are also looking forward to grab the future market opportunities for running their business efficiently and ensure sustainable business expansion across the international borders (European Commission, 2009).

2.6 Potential benefits of EU enlargement on the automotive business

Finke (2020) stated that, the EU enlargement policies and practice have its crucial impacts on the multinational organisation mainly in the automotive industry, where the countries under EU are collaborating with each other for economic growth and social development. The organisations under the automotive industry are beneficial for expanding their business and enhancing their performance in long run. The multinational corporations can engage with the countries under EU and run their business activities strategically. According to, Grimm (2019), across the globe, the growth in the automotive industry is increasing at a rapid rate due to increasing activities, productivity and efficiency where the automotive industry secure future sustainable development through strategic planning and tactics if managing business operations. Hereby, there is great impacts of the EU enlargement activities on the global automotive industry where the brands under automotive industry can access the member countries and ensure high growth in the market, there is accessibility of the international market where the international trade agreement and cooperation of World Trade Organisation (WTO) are beneficial for the automotive companies to manage their export and import volumes and activities. Osmanovic, 2017) opined that, the organisations under the automotive industry can access the strong customer’s base where they can operate across the EU members where there is strong customer’s base. The organisations can target the customer’s base and attract the audiences across the EU members. Hence, the EU enlargement strategy is good and effective for the organisations under automotive industry, where the organisations can strengthen their customer’s base and access the internal market for better business management (European Commission, 2016). On the other hand, as stated by, Kirchner (2019), the sales volume and the organisational profitability can also be maximised of the automotive organisations, where the companies can enhance their sales volume successfully. It is beneficial for the organisations to expand their business activities and grab the market share across the international markets. The organisations care also beneficial under the EU enlargement activities to gain high competitive advantage through increasing creativity and innovation. Due to large consumer’s base and the large market, there is intense competition where large numbers of multinational companies as well as SMEs are operating in the market. As stated by, Liuhto (2020), it is mandatory for the organisations under the automotive industry to gain high competitive advantage in the EU member’s countries through creativity and technological innovation so that they can secure future development and manage the competitive threats as well. The companies are also beneficial to improve their creativity to design the vehicles and provide the best quality automotive products and efficient services to the customers through continuous innovation. Hereby, the market structure and the competitive market are influencing the automotive companies to show their creativity and improve their branding in the market for strengthening their customer’s base and operating efficiently in the market. On the other hand, community of stability, democracy, security and prosperity are other advantages of EU enlargement where the communities are collaborating as well as the government of the member states are also cooperative where they can participate in the international trade and invest more for improving business activities. On the other hand, the EU enlargement practice is considered as stimulus to GDP growth, increasing job opportunities, higher wages and pensions which are also beneficial for the automotive industry to grow faster and increase productivity (European Commission, 2018). In addition to this, according to, Miree and Fernandez (2020), there is infrastructural development in the country, where the money is invested for the benefits of all the member countries under the EU enlargement policy. In this regard, the automotive companies can access the infrastructure to produce the products and improve the service efficiency for the customers to create values for them. The organisations under the automotive industry can improve the technological creativity by utilising latest technology which are also beneficial for the companies to expand their business across the international markets. Growing internal market and domestic demand are also other benefits of EU enlargement in terms of auto motivate industry. The market growth and the increasing demand are also the advantages which further boost the organisational activities where the automotive companies can gain high competitive advantage and expand the brands successfully. On the other hand, as stated by, Dima, Dima and Mahagaonkar (2018), the free movement of labour, goods, services and capital are also the other benefits of the EU enlargement principles, where it is possible to enhance the transfer of skill, technology and labour force from one country to another. This further enhances the business activities of the automotive companies in long run, where the skill and efficient of the staff will be maximised and they can perform with creativity and technological innovation to make the business successful. Greater access of raw materials, technology and labour further boosts the productivity and efficiency of the organisations under the automotive industry which is also advantageous for the organisations to perform better and maximise the organisational goal. Lower administrative cost, free trade activities and access to the EU government contacts are also the benefits of the EU enlargement where the automotive manufacturing companies can establish their business efficiently and access the large market size for strengthening their customer’s base and securing future sustainable development (European Commission, 2020).

2.7 Summary

The literature review is effective to gather in depth information and data related to the above mentioned research topic, where the researcher is able to improve own understanding about the EU enlargement policies and its impacts on the automotive industry mainly on the companies. The literature review chapter is one of the important chapters in this study which provide a wide range of theories and concept related to the research topic and it is beneficial for the researcher to collect authentic data and information for further analysis and evaluation. In this regard, as per the literature review findings, the EU enlargement principle aims at fostering peace and stability across the borders of the EU. This is effective for the international states and the members of EU to participate in the country and improve their trade and economic performance in long run by maintaining harmony and freedom to participate. The member states are also able to improve intra country relationship with other countries under the EU enlargement principle, where the governments can collaborate with each other and improve their participation in the economic growth and social development. As per the secondary sources of information, there are great impacts of EU enlargement policies and principles on the organisations that are operating across the international border and this further provides a scope to the multinational corporations to access a large market space for better business activities. This is also beneficial for the companies to orate in the EU member countries and gain high competitive advantage in near future. As per the literature review, the EU enlargement polices and principles are also fruitful for enhancing integration and collaboration which in turn helps to improve the quality of life of the individuals where the wellbeing of the people would be maximised under the economic growth and social development. The human being can participate efficiently in the society and contribute successfully in business growth. On the other hand, the EU enlargement principles are also beneficial for the business and citizens to increase prosperity and opportunity in near future to operate in the international markets and increase their market share. The EU values, standards and laws are also fruitful for the organisations and government to maximise economic growth and social development. The study also reveals that, there are strong principles and rules which should be maintained by the member states under the EU and this further creates harmony and freedom to participate in the social an economic activities. International trade and GDP are also growing at an increasing rate which is also beneficial for the individuals or the multinational corrections to achieve future sustainable development. Hereby, there would be sustainable economic growth and social development where the EU authority is successful to create good collaboration among the government and enhance the rules for better management of the intra country relationship. Hence, the study is effective to gain in-depth knowledge and data related to EU enlargement policy as well as understand the impacts of the EU enlargement principles on the companies mainly in the automotive industry, which is also growing at a rapid rate through creativity and technological innovation.

3. Research methodology

Research methodology provides a scope to the researcher to choose the correct method of progressing in the study and ensure to meet the aim and objective of the research. The research onion is hereby beneficial for the researcher to follow the steps to conduct the study. The research philosophy, approach, strategy as well as data collection and analysis method will be chosen by the researcher for better evaluation of the research.

3. Research methodology

3.1 Research philosophies

There are different types of research philosophies which are realism, interpretivism and positivism, in this particular study, the researcher will choose the positivism research philosophy to collect the authentic data and include the human knowledge and feedback to analyse the study critically.

3.2 Research approaches

Deductive and inductive approaches are the two types of research approach and under the inductive approach, the researcher tries to gather the data and analyse it for developing theories and concept of the research (Brannen, 2017). The deductive approach is different from the inductive one, where under the deductive approach, the research is going to review the existing theories and concepts of the research topic and then gather data for further analysis and evaluation. In this study, the researcher will choose deductive approach for better analysis sand evaluation of the research topic after gathering the authentic data sources and reviewing the existing theories and concepts on the EU enlargement polices and its impacts on the organisations mainly in the automotive industry.

3.3 Data collection

There are two types of data collection method, which are primary and secondary method (Brannen, 2017). Through the primary data collection method, the researcher tries to find the first hand information directly from the participants and on the other hand, the secondary data collection method is related to gathering the secondary information through the secondary sources such as books, journals, business letters, articles and annual report of the organisations. In this particular research, the researcher selects the secondary data collection method by reviewing the existing literatures, books and journals on the EU enlargement policies and principles. On the other hand, the researcher also reviews the articles, online journals and business report, newspapers and annual report of the automotive industry and the organisations to gather the authentic data and information.

3.4 Data analysis

Quantitative and qualitative data analysis is the two ways of analysing the gathered information. In this particular research, the researcher selects the qualitative data analysis technique, where thematic analysis will be developed by developing effective themes on the research topic and the above mentioned objectives to analyse the data and findings.

3.5 Research strategy

The researcher strategy includes action research, experiment, survey, case study analysis and interview and in this particular research, the researcher selects the case study analysis for reviewing the annual report and the organisational website of the companies Volkswagen and BMW to gather the relevant and valid information for further in depth analysis and evaluation.

3.6 Ethical consideration

As per the ethical consideration, the researcher focuses on gathering the relevant data and valid information which helps the researcher to complete the research ethically. Additionally, integrity and accountability of the information are maintained in this study. The researcher also ensures that the information and collected data are utilised only for this research purpose, and additionally, the researcher also cite the information with the authentic sources to maintain the authenticity of the data and information.

4. Data findings and discussion

4.1 Introduction

The data findings is the crucial chapter of the research, where the it is possible to identify and represent the findings and analyse the data and information for in depth research, where it is possible to fulfil the above mentioned research aim and objectives. The researcher chooses the research strategy of case study analysis which is effective for gathering in-depth knowledge and information about the brands in the research. The researcher considered two organisations, which are BMW and Volkswagen and these, are famous firms operating in the automotive industry across the globe. The organisations are originated from Germany and through this research; the researcher focuses on analysing the impacts of the EU enlargement activities and policies on the organisations. Hence, the case study analysis and collecting the secondary data through reviewing the organisational website, income statement and annual report are effective to conduct this study efficiently. On the other hand, the thematic analysis is selected by the researcher to conduct qualitative data analysis in this study, where it is possible for the researcher to develop different themes and analyse the research topic by in depth critical evaluation.

4.2 Findings and thematic analysis

The data findings can be possible through the secondary data collection process, where the researcher has chosen the brands Volkswagen and BMW and review the annual report and the organisational webpage for analysing the research critically. Additionally, the secondary data are reviewed to develop arguments and evaluation for understanding the effects of EU enlargement, which is the main objective of the study. The case study analysis strategy and the thematic data analysis process are hereby chosen for developing the evaluation critically and fulfil the above mentioned research aim and objectives.

Thematic analysis:

EU enlargement policies and activities are effective for the organisations where the firms are trying to expand their business and secure future sustainable development. The organisations such as Volkswagen and BMW are famous firms in the automotive industry and both the firms are operating across the international markets. EU enlargement has important impacts on both of the automotive firms, where they focus on expanding their business efficiently (European Commission, 2019). Through the EU enlargement policies and principles, there are more international states which are collaborating with the EU nations and it further boost the interest of the multinational corporations to work efficiently and maximise their productivity. In order to sustain in the market, Volkswagen focuses on investing cultural projects for educational activities and social development and hence it can be stated that, EU enlargement ensures social development where the company Volkswagen took initiatives to enhance the educational activities and secure future sustainable development. Additionally, engagement with the stakeholders and the policy of maximising Human Rights are also crucial factors under the EU enlargement, where Volkswagen has the potential to manage their stakeholders and it leads to maximising the organisational efficacy in long run, where all the stakeholders across the EU nations try to cooperate and enhance communication for contributing in the organisation. In addition to this helping the refugee through providing emergency aid, language learning and training and development programs, comprehensive information and education are fruitful for Volkswagen to sustain in the market under the EU activities. Moreover, the company is also efficient to maintain more than 500 projects worldwide which are related to health and safety, sport and environment, education and structural development (Volkswagen, 2020c). On the other hand, BMW also focuses on managing their productivity and sustainability in the market through enhancing efficiency. The latest car models of BMW are such as 1 to 8 series, Rolls Royce, x series and i models where the productivity is also enhancing over the EU nations. Both the firms have been established in Germany which is under the EU activities, and the recent EU enlargement policies further boosts the performance of the companies and influence the organisational entrepreneurs to enhance their operations across the EU nations. The group deliverables in the last year 2019 was 538612 which are increasing over the period of time (BMW, 2020a). The latest models and innovation are the major success factors, where the brand is successful to enhance their productivity and efficiency to serve the customers in a better and unique way. Hence, both the firms are influenced by the EU enlargement principles and policies to enhance their operations and secure future sustainable development in long run.

Through the EU enlargement polices and principles, the organisations under the EU, can access the international markets and the enlargement process is also beneficial where the companies can have free aces and free trade zone across the borders of EU nations. Hence, this is one of the major impacts on the brand in automobile industry, where the organisation BMW and Volkswagen can enhance their trade volume in long run (European Commission, 2018). As per the findings, the production output of the organisation BMW in the year of 2019 was 2,564,025 vehicles, which is one of the success factors of BMW where the brand is successful to enhance their production units and improve deliverables over the period of time. The EU enlargement is hereby beneficial for the brand to enhance their operations and maximise international trade. Under the EU enlargement principles, the organisations can access the international markets and enjoy the free trade areas under EU nations where the WTO and the government structure of EU are collaborative and cooperative to enhance the international trade volume. Hereby, there is economic growth where the international trade contributes positively for enhancing the economic performance of the EU nations. On the other hand, Volkswagen is also another famous organisation from Germany and it is also efficient to improve their sales volume over the period of time where enlargement polices influence the leader of Volkswagen to improve their international trade and deliver high quality and innovative products to the customers across the globe. The Volkswagen Group has delivered more than 10,974,636 vehicles to the customers worldwide in 2019 (Volkswagen, 2020c). It can be stated that, there is international trade enhancement with the effective coordination of WTO where both the organisations BMW and Volkswagen can operate across the international countries, where the EU enlargement principles are also fruitful for them to follow the trade structure and policies for running their operations efficiently in long run. Hence, the EU enlargement policies are fruitful for the automotive brands BMW and Volkswagen to enhance their international trade and ensure economic growth in long run (BMW, 2020b).

The financial impacts of EU enlargement are one of the major factors that need to be discussed through reviewing the performance of the organisation in the automotive industry. As per the findings, Volkswagen is one of the famous organisations, established in Germany which is also under the EU nations (European Commission, 2019). Hence, the EU activities and enlargement policies are effective for the firm to expand their business across the nations and enhance their sales volume and profitability. There is financial increment with profit maximisation and sales volume enhancement. As per the findings from the annual report of Volkswagen, between January and December 2019, the Volkswagen Group has generated sales revenue of €252.6 billion, which was exceeding the prior-year figure by 7.1%. Hence, there is strong growth in the financial account of the organisation which further ensures financial stability of the firm. On the other hand, BMW is also a successful company in the automotive industry where the revenue in the last years was €104.210 billion. Hence it can be stated that, due to EU enlargement policies and principles, both the firms are operating efficiently and the organisations are able to maximise their profitability and enhance economic growth in long run. Additionally, the Volkswagen Group also has generated an operating profit of €19.3 billion in fiscal year of 2019 and on the contrary, the operating profit was €7.3 billion in BMW which are effective to stabilise their position in the EU market. Both the firms are financially stable and they are efficient to utilise the EU enlargement policies and principles to operate across the EU nations (BMW, 2020c). Hence, there is a great impact of the enlargement policies by EU which provide access of the international markets and enhance their sales volume and profitability in long run (Volkswagen, 2020d). Through the innovation and creativity, the organisations are able to improve their sales volume and enhance their performance in the market for sustainable development and the brands are also successful to fulfil the economic responsibility by making the brands profitable in long run.

EU enlargement polices and activities are effective a fruitful or the organisations to expand their business across the international countries as well as run their operations in the EU nations (European Commission, 2019). There are increasing numbers of international countries to engage with EU commission and collaborate for better performance. this further influence the organisational leaders and the management focuses on business expansion and in this regard, Volkswagen is one of the famous organisation operating in the Automotive industry, which operates in Hungary, France, Germany, Finland, Poland, Portugal and other EU nations, hence, it can be stated that, organisation Volkswagen is efficient to expand their business across the international markets and in this regard the policies and collaborative practice of EU is beneficial for the organisation to garb the market share and secure future sustainable development (Volkswagen, 2020e). The major strategy of the organisation is to maximise their quality of the products and efficiency of their services to gain high competitive advantage. On the other hand, beside Volkswagen, BMW is also growing at a rapid rate, where the company is also efficient to support international trade and enhance their operations through EU enlargement policies and principles. Hence, it can be stated that, both the organisations are able to expand their business and manage their sustainable outcomes for securing their growth and development of the brand in long run (BMW, 2020c). The market share for both the firms is increasing over the period of times, due to increasing sales volume and maximisation of their profitability. As per the data findings above, the profitability of both the firms is increasing and there is growth in the profitability and thus it can be stated that, EU enlargement principles provide an opportunity to both the firms to garb the market share in the global automotive industry and run their business efficiently in long run.

The EU enlargement policies and principles enhance the business activities and it further influence the organisational leaders to improve their strategy of branding and increasing visibility in the market for successful retention of the customers. In this context, the organisation BMW is efficient to utilise their logo to expand their business, where the visibility of the firm in the EU nations has crucial role in retaining the customers for the quality and innovative products. On the other hand, the enlargement principles provide a scope to BMW to grab the market share and improve branding through promoting their organisational products in the market, the variety of products and efficient services are effective to attract the audiences and help them to make effective purchase decision for their quality cars with latest innovation. On the other hand, the organisation Volkswagen is also another successful organisation to retain the customers through their operational activities and innovation and hence, it can be explored that, there is crucial impacts of the EU enlargement policies to enhance the operational activities of the automotive organisations and grab the market opportunities to enhance their performance in the market (Volkswagen, 2020f). The automotive firms are also efficient to attract the segment customers and target them for the quality products and services. Hence, Volkswagen and BMW focus on their marketing strategic and branding in the market, the strategic planning such as promotional activities through social media, organisational webpage promotion, sending personal email as well as social campaigning are effective tactics to promote the organisational products and attract the audiences successfully. on the other hand, the Volkswagen also invest in market expansion strategy through designing their brand logo, creation good vision of serving the customers with latest innovative products are the major practice to perform in the market and strengthen their customers base in long run (European Commission, 2019).

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The EU enlargement practice is effective for the organisations in the automotive industry in order to stimulate the country GDP, job and wage rate and performance. The economic growth and social development are the benefits of EU enlargement where the firms Volkswagen and BMW perform efficiently in the EU nations with increasing numbers of deliverables in the countries. This further provides a scope to the organisation to enhance the GDP of the country and invest in social developmental project where the company is efficient to invest in education, health and safety and environmental project across the international borders. On the other hand, BMW is also efficient to enhance their profitability and sales volume and this further contributes in generating the country’s GDP in long run. This is also beneficial to improve country’s position in global ranking and lead the nations efficiently towards social development and economic growth. Additionally, both the firms try to utilise the EU enlargement policies and principles for creating jobs across the international nations and it is also another important factors for economic growth and development of the society where the employment generation and skill enhancement can be possible. The EU principles and rules are fruitful to enhance collaborative practice and improve social development, where structured wage and salary can improve the social development. Hence, the organisations are also trying to be efficient to maintain the structured salary and retain the experienced staff members for producing high quality cars for the benefits of the customers. Hereby, there are positive impacts of EU enlargement policies on the organisations (European Commission, 2018).

The EU enlargement polices enhance the skill and expertise of the staff members and it boosts the talent pool across the nations. Under the EU principles, there is easy migration of the employees, and job creation further boosts the performance of the staff members in the organisation. In addition to this, the organisations Volkswagen and BMW, both are efficient to manage their performance and improve innovation in long run (Volkswagen, 2020f). There are a huge variety of cars available in the market and the firm are updating their car models as per the market trend and the personal needs and preferences of the customers. the models of the BMW are such as 1 to 8 series, Rolls Royce, x series and i models and on the other hand, the models of Volkswagen are such as Vento, Polo, Virtus, Passat, Jetta, Golf, Shran, Nivus which are efficient to meet the customer’s needs and preferences. The technological advancement and the creativity of the organisations are the major strategy through which both the organisations try to improve their uniqueness to deliver high quality cars to the customers according to the latest market trend and upgraded technology (BMW, 2020c). Hence, it can be stated that, EU enlargement policies are beneficial for BMW and Volkswagen to enhance their creativity and performance to gain high competitive advantage and satisfy the customers in the market.

Greater access of the raw materials, technology and labour force are the major functions of the automotive organisations, and due to EU enlargement policies, there are many international nations which are collaborating and enhancing their performance. Hence, the organisations are successful to access the raw materials across the international nations, where transfer of raw materials through stretching their supply chain and operational network and accessing the advantages of international trade are fruitful for the brand to operate in the market. In the other hand, the large numbers of efficient labourers are there across the international nations which are another success factors for the organisations Volkswagen and BMW to improve their operational activities and manufacture the latest product efficiently (European Commission, 2019). This further enhances the efficacy and brand performance in long run where EU enlargement policies are advantages for both the organisation for better operations of the business activities. Due to enlargement of EU, there are high competitive threats for the automotive companies, and hence, the organisations, BMW and Volkswagen try to improve their creativity and enhance their organisational performance for better management and satisfying the customers in long run. Hence, the EU enlargement strategies are beneficial for the automotive companies for better operation and grabbing the market opportunities to expand their business and secure future sustainable development.

4.3 Summary

Through this chapter, it is possible to acknowledge the activities of the EU enlargement policies and analyse the impacts of the enlargement policies on the automotive companies, the researcher is able to critically evaluate the impacts of EU enlargement on the multinational corporate firms in the automobile industry and the firms are Volkswagen and BMW, which are famous for their innovative designed cars and efficient services worldwide. The organisations are able to manage their operations and activities under the enlargement policies, where it ensures economic growth and social development. As per the findings and discussion, it has been explored that, there is positive impacts of EU enlargement in terms of financial performance of the organisations where both the firms are operating efficiently and they are successful to raise their sales volume and maximise their profitability in long run, as per the findings, both the firms are also proficient to enhance their innovation and technological creativity to design the cars with latest technique to serve the customers uniquely and this further improves customers retention activities, where the brands can manage the customers and strengthen their customers base in long run, the activities of international trade, cooperation of the EU authority, WTO and organisations of the nations are also beneficial for the organisations BMW and Volkswagen to enhance their performance, grab the market scope and improve business performance in long run. This further provides a scope to the brands to have marketing promotional activities and ensure successful branding in the market in order to manage their operations internationally. The inclusion of the international nations under the EU is hereby advantageous for the companies to manage their operations and access large market for retaining the customers and manage international trade in systematic process.

5. Conclusion and recommendations

5.1 Conclusion

The research is effective where the researcher is able to develop systematic approach to progress in the study and analyse the findings to fulfil the aim of the research. The aim of the research is to analyse the impacts of EU enlargement on the multinational corporate firms in the automobile industry and the firms are Volkswagen and BMW, which are famous for their innovative designed cars and efficient services worldwide. The literature review is effective for improving the understanding about the research topic which is related to EU enlargement. In the recent era of globalisation, there are more international countries which are collaborating with the EU authority and the government are cooperating for developing integrated system to operate globally. This is hereby one of the effective research topic to understand the impacts of EU enlargement policies on the organisations mainly in the automotive industry. The methods of secondary data collection method and qualitative data analysis approach are effective for the research to conduct this study and gather authentic data and information for fulfilling its aim. Additionally, as per the discussion, both the firms BMW and Volkswagen are efficient to utilise the EU enlargement policies and organise their business efficiently in the market. this further provides a scope to the firms to maximise their profitability and sales volume in the market and on the other hand, as per the discussion, there is economic growth and social development in the EU nations due to automotive industry growth and hence, there is positive impacts of the EU enlargement on the financial performance and stability of the organisations.

5.2 Meeting objectives

Through in depth evaluation and analysis, it is possible for the researcher to fulfil the above mentioned research objectives and the objectives are such as,

  • To acknowledge the EU enlargement activities in the recent globalisation era

    Through the literature review and discussion, the researcher is able to fulfil the first objective where the major activities of EU enlargement policies are such as expanding their rules and ethics across the international markets and improving market performance in long run.

  • To analyse the impacts of EU enlargement on the organisations

    The second objective of the research has also been met through the data findings and analysis, where there are crucial impacts of the EU enlargement policies and practice such as GDP growth and social development. Apart from that, the multinational corporations as well as SMEs to perform better and gain market share. On the other hand, employment generation, stabilising financial position of the organisations, enhancement of the society, education and health care management, maximising the wellbeing of the individuals and improving the purchasing owe rarity of the people are the other effects of EU enlargement policies and principles across the EU nations.

  • To evaluate the firms strategic planning for business expansion under EU enlargement

    The third objective is to analyse the firms strategic planning for business expansion under EU enlargement, and it has been seen that, the organisations BMW and Volkswagen are efficient to maximise their productivity and performance. They try to utilise the organisational financial resources, raw materials, and the activities of international trade peacefully. The smooth pace f business activities across the EU nations, transparency laws and legislations are also beneficial for the organisations to utilise enlargement policies and run their operations in a systematic way.

  • To recommend some suitable suggestions for the firms to utilise EU enlargement practice for better business activities and expansion

    The fourth objective is about providing suggested recommendation to the organisations to improve their activities and utilise the enlargement pace of EU to secure future sustainable development and the recommendation will be proposed further, which meets the fourth objective of the research.

5.3 Suggested recommendations

  • Volkswagen and BMW must focus on strengthening the supply chain and distribution network across the EU nations to place their brand successfully and manage their operations internationally.
  • For promotional activities and grabbing the market opportunities, the organisations need to improve branding strategy through arranging social campaigning, providing test drive and promoting through social media and company website for launching new models of the cars and attract the audiences for maximising the organisational profitability.
  • For utilising the pace of EU enlargement, it is mandatory for the organisations to improve creativity through technological innovation and hire the experienced staff members across the EU nations in order to manage their operations successfully.
  • Volkswagen must focus on economic growth and social development and for maximising the impacts of the EU enlargement, it needs to focus on international trade activities and utilise free trade zone for smooth transaction of their products.
  • BMW also needs to strategise their business through managing employees so that it is possible to strengthen their employee base and improve productivity and organisational performance in long run.
  • For grabbing the market share and retaining the customers, it is necessary or both the organisations to invest more in the research and development programme and provide the best quality products and efficient services to the customers for securing future sustainable development and maximising the firm’s financial performance.

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