Analysis of COVID-19 and Coronary Arterial Disease

The World Health Organization defined health as that complete state of mental, physical and social wellbeing in which it is not necessary that there must be the complete absence of disease [WHO, 2010]. There are two major types of illness, such as the communicable illness and the non-communicable illness. The WHO (2010) mentioned that communicable disease is the infectious health condition which can be spread due to the close contact of people. On the other hand, the non-communicable diseases are non-infectious health conditions that cannot be spread through contact. Generally, the non-communicable illness is considered as the chronic health condition that lasts for long time in patient’s body and grow slowly. The common example of the communicable heath condition is cholera, chicken pox, malaria, influenza and COVID 19. On the other hand, the common example of non-communicable illness is cardio vascular disease (CVD), pulmonary illness such as COPD, primary lung malignancy, cancer, diabetes and coronary arterial disease.

NICE (2019) mentioned that UK is reported to have huge cases of the both the communicable and non-communicable disease. PHE (2019) mentioned that most common types of non-communicable or chronic health condition in the UK are, type 2 diabetes, lung cancer, cardio vascular disease (CVD) and coronary arterial disease (CAD). While it comes to infectious or communicable illness, UK shows several cases in which people experience poor health outcomes due to the spreading of the communicable disease such as influenza, HIV, hepatitis, acute meningitis, acute poliomyelitis and infectious bloody diarrhea. PHE (2016) mentioned that, more than 5 million people in the UK died from diabetes, 1.1 million from TB and 1.5 million from AIDS. However, effective prevention and management initiatives have been implemented by the UK government to manage these two global health issues. Through providing free vaccine, high standard treatment, health education and healthcare advise on prevention of spreading of the infectious disease and public health awareness program, UK government are able to reduces the prevalence of communicable and non-communicable disease.


This essay has chosen COVID 19 as the communicable disease and coronary arterial disease (CAD), as the non-communicable disease. The essay will criticality analyze the threats of these two-health condition at the local, national and international level. Then this essay will discuss the techniques and health improvement initiatives that are implemented for prevention and management of these two global health issues in terms of promoting the positive health and wellbeing in people. Then the essay will discuss how the effective health promotion, health improvement strategies and positive behavioral changes in these people can empower them to deal with these two global health conditions.

While it comes to make comparative discussion on the threats of the selected non communicable and communicable disease, it is important to first discuss what these selected diseases are and what symptoms they have on people. The World Health Organization mentioned that communicable disease can be cured permanently by following proper medical regimen and healthy lifestyle. Alternatively, the non-communicable health condition are the chronic or long term health condition that can only be prevented or managed but cannot be cured permanently.

COVID 19 or corona virus 19 is a communicable disease which spread through close contact of people. In modern world, COVID 19 has become a serious as well as major health concern for the entre world, COVID 19 pandemic is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SAR-COV-2) which mainly attacks lung thereby causing pulmonary and vascular illness. COVID 19 pose severe threats on the physical, psychological, socio-economic and the emotional wellbeing of people. In the UK, there is an increasing numbers COVID 19 cases which leads to the ever-increasing numbers of morality and morbidity. Till date, more than 4,522,500 COVID 19 cases have registered in the UK which pose high burden of the healthcare cost on NHS. More than 128,000 death cases have registered in the NHS hospital due to COVID 19 [NICE, 2020].

Threats of COVID 19 on the physical heath of people is associated with developing different health condition such as cold, cough, pulmonary failure, severe acute respiratory syndrome [ACRS], lung infection and middle east respiratory syndrome [MERS] (Rothan. And Byrareddy, 2020). Based on the recent report of WHO (2019), the threats that COVID 19 poses on the physical health and wellbeing of people is different based on the biological condition and immunes system of different people [WHO, 2019]. PHE (2019) mentioned that, from different clinical research it has been seen threats of this COVID19 is more deadly and severe in case of people who suffer from complex health conditions or chronic illness [PHE, 2019]. WHO (2019) report shows that people, with COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and primary lung malignancy have high vulnerability to mortality due to COVID 19 attack (, 2020). Recent clinical intervention suggests that, coronavirus mainly interfere with the normal function of lung by resisting the capacity of the alveoli to perform the gaseous exchanges. Therefore, lack of oxygen supply is caused which leads to hypoxia, dyspnoea and severe chest pain in patients. The NICE (2019) mentioned that people with strong immune system have better strength to deal with the health outcomes of corona virus as compered to the people who suffer from the different chronic illness such as CVD, coronary arterial illness and cancer. Common symptoms that are associated with COVID 19 are fever, cough, cold, exhaustion, lack of smell and taste. The less common symptoms of COVID 19 are diarrhoea, core, aches, conjunctivitis, headache, skin rash and discoloration of finger and toes. Based on the recent updates 220 countries are affected by the severe threats of COVID 19. PHE (2020) mentioned that, out of total 4,522,500 COVID 19 cases in the UK more than 127, 841 deaths have been registered till December, 2020 (, 2020). The WHO (2020) repots shows the major threats that COVID 19 poses on people is reduction of their immunity as well as resistance capacity against different communicable and non-communicable illness that leads them to death. NHS (2019) mentioned that, majority of the people who recovered from this COVID 19, have poor immune system which enhance their susceptibility to be affected by other infectious or communicable heath condition [NHS, 2019]. The recent WHO (2021) report stated that, people who recovered from the coronavirus still have the chances of developing this communicable health condition in the future (WHO, 2021). This is because the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SAR-COV-2) undergoes rapid mutation. Therefore, while the mutated virus attacks the person who already recovered from this communicable heath condition the body can not identify the the new strain of this virus thereby the infection occurs again (Aminian et al. 2020). The most serious threats that COVID 19 poses on the physical health is interfering with the function of the Central Nervous System [CNS] by reducing the supply of oxygen to brain thereby causing multi organ failure which is the major cause of death in many cases. Across the world more than 42% of people experienced the premature death due to the COVID 19 because they have complex as well as chronic heath condition in them such as diabetes, cancer, pulmonary illness and mung infection which enhance their susceptibility to morbidity [PHE, 2020].

COVID 19 also pose severe threats on the psychological and emotional heath of people. This COVID 19 pandemic poses adverse impacts on the mental strength, positive thoughts, good feelings, right decision making and positive problem solving skill of people (Lu et al. 2020) . Who (2020) reports that during this COVID 19 pandemic people are scared and nervous by experiencing the premature deaths of their relatives, family members and friends. This pandemic situation poises threats on the self-confidence and the self-esteem of people (Baldi et al. 2020). On the contrary Wilder-Smith et al. (2020) mentioned that although COVID 19 pandemic poses adverse impacts on the mental and physical heath of people, there are also positive changes that occur in people’s lives. The recent clinical intervention shows that, people during the pandemic become more concern regarding their health and well-being. There is high rates of smoking abstinence, quitting of alcohol and reduction in the cases of drug misuse in this pandemic which show the increasing rate of health awareness as well as health concern in people. On the contrary Chen et al. (2020) argued that, the severe threats of COVID 19 pandemic on the psychology as well as on mental stability of people leads them to develop different deadly habits. The WHO (2020) mentioned that during this COVID 19 pandemic majority of the people experiences severe depression, lack of confidence and self-esteem that lead them to smoke, consume alcohol, insufficient sleep, skipping of meals and drug misuse [WHO, 2020]. People who suffer from complex health conditions and are affected by COVID 19 are scared of their death which not only impacts on their healthy lifestyle and but also reduce their mental strength to cope up with this communicable disease which leads them to have poor physical health.

The socioeconomic threats that COVID 19 poses on people across the world not only interfere with the quality of living of people but also pose overburden of the healthcare cost on thte national and international government (Qiu et al. 2020). PHE (2020) mentioned that overall healthcare cost has been increased by more than 12% after COVID 19 pandemic [PHE, 2020]. NICE (2020) mentioned that, the numbers of COVID 19 patients have been increasing at faster rate which make it difficult for NHS hospitals to deal with them effectively due to insufficient numbers of the health and social care staffs and lack of availability of beds. Therefore, many of the people in the UK have experiences premature death due to lack of immediate health care support.

As compered to the COVID 19, the Cardio vascular illness poses severe threats on people’s physical health by affecting the normal function of the coronary artery. Coronary artery disease is also known as coronary heart disease (CHD) which is the chronic health condition n that occurred when there is severe obstruction in the coronary artery by the cholesterol deposition which reduces the supply of the nutrients as well as oxygen the heart muscles (Sarvestani and Sienko, 2018). NICE (2019) mentioned that, despite developing several treatment d health promotion intervention programs in the UK, there is still increasing numbers of cases of CHD which poses severe adverse impacts on the physical, emotional and the social wellbeing of people. The major physical threats that CHD poses is interfering with the ability of the coronary artery to supply the sufficient oxygen ad nutrient to the cardiac muscles which is associated with maintaining the normal function of heart. Cardiac muscles are attached to the outer layers of heart and perform the necessary contraction and relaxation which are necessary to maintain the continuous pumping function of heart (Mohan et al. 2019). In case of people with CHD plaque (the cholesterol deposits) is deposited in the inner wall of the coronary artery which cause narrowing of the inner passage thereby reducing blood flow through this artery. The presence of CHD increases the risk of different health condition in people such as ischemic heart stroke, cardiac arrest, chronic angina, poor brain functioning (due to the lack of oxygen supply to CNS and poor functioning of the different organ system CHD also pose the emotional and psychological threats on people such as people who this chronic health condition suffers from severe depression, anxiety, loneliness, low self-confidence and lack of self-esteem (Jakovljevic et al. 2019). Clinical intervention suggests that people who suffer from CHD have high threats to d develop negative and impractical thoughts that not only impacts on the physical health but also impacts adversely on the quality of living.

CHD also pose threats on the socio-economic wellbeing of people, by impacting on their economic wellbeing and social lives. People who experienced different deadly health outcomes of CHD such as heart stroke, cardiac arrest and chronic angina, are more likely to avoid any social gathering, party or celebration which interfere with their image (Nyberg et al. 2018). PHE (2018) mentioned that more than 900,000 women and 1.5 million men live with chronic angina in the UK [PHE, 2018]. The WHO (2019) reported that, in every 7 minutes someone suffers from heart stroke in the UK [WHO, 2019]. Although the healthcare facilities are free in the UK, people who suffer from CHD have to deal with additional cost for following a systematic lifestyle and heathy clinical regimen which pose adverse impacts on their economic stability and living standard (Jan et al. 2018). NICE (2019) mentioned that, majority of the CHD cases that are found in the deprived communities have severe vulnerability toward mortality and morbidity due to their lack of economic ability to maintain a healthy diet and lifestyle. This is why CHD poses severe threats both physically, socially and emotionally on deprived and lower-class people as compared to their richer peers.

While it comes to improve the health and wellbeing in people UK as well as across the world, effective health improvement strategies need to be developed and implemented (Gowshall and Taylor-Robinson, 2018). The WHO (2020) mentioned that, for coping up with the COVID 19 pandemic heath and social care professional needs to improve not only the physical health of people, but also the emotional, spiritual and psychological wellbeing of people. PHE (2019) the psychological and emotional distress that people experience during this pandemic are strongly associated with their poor physical health and poor immunes system {PHE, 2019]. Different health improvement strategies have been developed and implemented in the UK for improving the holistic health of the people thereby improving the physical, psychological and emotional well-being of people.

One of the effective health improvements stratifies and techniques that is implemented in the UK is conducting evidence base approach in the care framework thereby providing the high quality and compassionate care to the COVID 19 patients (Marmot and Bell, 2019). Under this initiative not only the COVID 19 patients but also other people are provided with healthcare advise, nutritional and dietary advise and the health education to improve their knowledges on how to develop good immunity to combat the health outcomes of COVID 19 [Finlay and Humans, 2020]. Several effective health improvement techniques are implemented in the UK such as timely collection, testing and reporting of the relevant database regarding COVID 19 attack in the country. UK government build on effective action plan on collecting all the COVID 19 related database from all the areas, thereby registering the number of cases of COVID 19 (Stein et al. 2019). Automated recording system, used by the health and social care staffs in maintaining electronic record of registered cases of COVID 19, so a proper Electronic Health Record can be maintained which will assist the future health professionals regarding how to deal with his COVID 19 situation in the future.

Another health improvement strategies that are implemented in the UK as well as in the world is raising public awareness regarding health eating, exercise, systematic lifestyle and social distance (Martinez et al. 2020). Different health promotional and health awareness program have been on the social media under the instruction of the PHE and doh with an intention to assist people regarding heath eating, systematic and healthy lifestyle, healthy habits, quitting the unhealthy habits and maintaining activeness (Byndloss and Bäumler, 2018). PHE (2020) have implemented the health improvement initiative under which the Health Service Executives (HSE) visit different deprived and interior areas of England and Wales and provide effective health information regarding how to improve mental and physical health to cope up with tis COVID 19 attack.

PHE (2020) mentioned that different techniques have been used in the UK to prevent COVID 19, thereby improving the health of people such as increasing the number of testing and health check-up, isolation tracing, nationwide administration and distribution of vaccination, disease management, isolation option and preventives care (Niessen et al. 2018). NICE (20020) mentioned that people residing in the interior and deprived communities are provided with the nutritional foods and medicine that will not only assist them to stay at homes and maintain social distancing but also boost their physical and mental health by promoting healthy eating.

As compared to COVID 19, in case of improving health and wellbeing of people with CHD, the priority factors of the health improvement are the lifestyle, eating habits and the dietary intake [PHE, 2019]. As CHD is strongly associated with unhealthy and irregular lifestyle and unhealthy eating, UK government prioritise the public awareness regarding developing the healthy lifestyle behaviour and healthy habits in people thereby reducing their vulnerability to CHD. PHE (2019) mentioned that different types of health improvement strategies have been set and implemented in the UK for improving the health and wellbeing in people with CHD. Out of these strategies, most important health improvement strategy is regular exercise and eating non-fat and protein base foods. People in the UK are encouraged to use the online calorie checker which will help them to understand how much calorie they actually need for performing their body functions and how much calories they have intake over the day. In UK, digital nutritional balance, and the calorie checker are two commonly used techniques that are used by people to reduces the chance of excessive calorie intake.

NICE (2019) mentioned that while it comes to improves the health condition in people who are at the higher risk of CHD, it is important to cut down the unnecessary consumption of fats and perform regular exercise [NICE, 2019]. In this context one of the most effective health improvement strategy is undertaking the weight management program which will not only assist people to maintain their normal BMI and normal weigh but also assists them to improve the digestion and metabolic activates thereby improve their health and wellbeing, weight management program is highly effective in case of people who suffer from CHD as they can perform the regular exercise under the instruction of experienced trainers. Weight management training will improve their circulation as well as oxygen supply to the heart. On the other hand, following a systemic and regular lifestyle are important for improving the pumping capacity of heart (Martinez et al. 2020). PHE (2019) mentioned that there are many cases of CHD that have been registered in NHS, in which people live a sedentary life style which only impacts on their wight, BMI but also impacts adversely on their mental and psychological wellbeing.

Another important health improvement strategies that are taken in both the case of the COVID 19 and CHD, is the early response and recognition of the health decline in people. PHE (2019) mentioned that many cases of COVID and the chronic diseases such as CVD and CHD have been registered in the NHS hospitals in which patients died due to delayed recognition and response to their heath condition. The WHO (2019) mentioned that while it comes to health improvement of the inpatients suffering from different infectious and chronic illness, an instant recognition and response system needs to be implemented to improve the health condition (WHO, 2019). Under this health improvement, different techniques are used such as smart, digital screen, and smart watch the are fit to the wrist of the patients. These automated systems are used to tract patient’s current health condition (Gowshall and Taylor-Robinson, 2018.). In case of COVID 19 patients if there is any changes in the physical and biological paraments then the alarm gets started which call for the MET team for providing the immediate clinical support to the patients thereby improving the health condition. In case of CHD patients, health staff need to be always with the patients throughout day and night to check whether there is any changes in facial expression or behaviour of patients. Early detection of the heath declines and quick response to these declines are highly effective heath improvement strategy in the pandemic that save several lives in the UK as well as in the other countries thereby improving heath and well-being of people.

While it comes to health promotion and effectives behavioural changes in people, health and social care professionals need to prioritise the positives transformation of lifestyle, mental and physical health behaviour and their habits. Although COVID 19 and CHD are two completely different heath conditions, but health promotion in retain to prevent the health outcomes of these illnesses are more or less similar (Jan et al. 2018). PHE (2020) mentioned that the health promotion initiatives taken against the COVID 19 pandemic consists of healthy dietary routine that will boost the immune system of body, the regular exercise, sufficient sleep, consumption of seasonal foods, intake of water and juice. Under the health promotion intervention against COVID 19, weight management training, healthcare education, health advise and evidence base care approach are included. Under this health promotion initiative people across the UK are encouraged to have healthy and positive thoughts, active and heathy mind which assist them to take right decision during emergency situation (Gowshall and Taylor-Robinson, 2018). Under this health promotion intervention, the online stress management and self-management program are also conducted in the England and Wales that are proved to be highly effective in terms of providing health information to people regarding which to manage their health and wellbeing and reduces excessive stress (Stein et al. 2019). Online exercise and weight management training program are conducted which are useful in motivating people in the UK to perform regular exercise and follow healthy dietary habit that will boost their immune system and develop a heathy mind.

In case of CHD effective health promotion intervention programs are developed in UK, under which people are provided with proper health education regarding informing them about the CHD and its adverse health outcomes (Byndloss and Bäumler, 2018). Under the CHD Prevention: Action Plan, NHS, PHE, doh and NICE work together to raise the public awareness regarding the threats that CHD have on the health and wellbeing of patients. Under this action plan effective health promotion intervention are done which educate and empower people regrading maintaining healthy body and mind by following the systematic clinical regimen (Martinez et al. 2020). Under this health promotion intervention, people need to cut down excessive fats such as trans-fat and saturated fats in their diet, instead they need to take a protein and carbs-based foods. PHE (2019) people with obesity and overweight must go for monthly health check-up that will provide them the updates regarding their current physical health condition under this health promotion people are also encouraged to get the consultation from dieticians regarding the foods they needs to choose and consume regular wise for reducing the chances of plaque formation inside the coronary artery [PHE, 2019]. For behavioural and psychological wellbeing, people in the UK are provided with the facility of the cognitive behavioural therapy, psychotherapy and counselling that would make positives behavioural and psychologic changes in people. Through these psychotherapies it is possible to develop positive thoughts, good feelings, optimistic behaviour in people which are associated in empowering them by developing good self-management and stress management skill in them.

In the recommendation it can be stated that health and social care professionals should use the evidence based and innovative care approach for dealing with both COVID 19 and CHD, on the other hand, UK government must focus on providing effective training to health and social care staffs and health professionals in terms of improving their skill in in dealing with public health issues by providing high quality and compassionate care to patients. National and international governments need to work cooperatively to provide the economic assistance to each other which will enable national healthcare agencies to install the healthcare devices and techniques the are necessary to deal with the adverse health outcomes of COVID 19 and CHD.

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From the above-mentioned discussion it can be concluded that, communication and non-communicable diseases are two types of illness that pose adverse impacts on the mental and physical health of people. Communicable disease is the health condition which can spread from person to person due to the close contact. This is also called as the infectious heath condition. Alternatively, the non-communicable disease is the health condition that lasts for long time in patients and slowly progress. This condition is also known as the chronic condition. Both these conditions need proper treatment, effective health improvement strategies and the health promotion intervention to be deal with them property thereby improving health and wellbeing of people.

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