ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

  • 08 Pages
  • Published On: 21-11-2023
1.Describe bone anatomy:
  • Bones form the structure of the body. In an adult person, there are 206 bones. These bones include the bones of ribs, spine(vertebrae), leg and arms. Bones are formed of connective tissue that is reinforced with specialised bone cells and calcium (Jamil and Callahan, 2020).
  • Bones are formed of three structures the deeper layers of the spongy bone, compact bone and superficial layer. The layers of spongy bone are replaced by modularity cavity.
  • There are blood cells between the spicules of spongy bones and the medullary cavity in adults.
  • In adult human being. There is three main structure in each bone such as head, neck and shaft or body.
  • There are some formations and markings that provide attachment and passage to different soft tissues such as tendons and ligaments. Some of these markings are as follows:
  • Crest: crest is the raised surface or the ridge in the skeleton of adult human. Example: iliac crest that develops at the top region of the pelvic bone Medial Sacral Crest is developed on t sacrum that is created through fused vertebrae in the sacrum (Jamil and Callahan, 2020).
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  • Condyle: the round articular areas at the terminus of the bone. Example: lateral femoral condyle
  • Epicondyle: it is the round eminence that is situated superior to the condyle
  • Foremen: passage through the bone
  • Facet: flat smooth area that is covered by the cartilage

There are four type bones such as:

  • Long bones: their length is more than their width. There are tabular bones. Example: humerus that is present in the arm (Iyer, 2019).
  • Short bones: they are cube-like or round bones. Example; carpals and tarsals.
  • Flat bones: these are flat, thin and curved bones. Example: skull bones that play important roles in protecting ribs and brains (Açar and Çiçekcibaşı, 2020).
  • Irregular bones: they are irregular in shape and have foramen through them. Example: hip bones.
Bone marrow:

Bone marrow is the gelatinous and soft tissues inside bones. Each bone consists of two types of bone marrow including red marrow and yellow marrow. Each bone consists of different amount of red and yellow marrow.

Yellow marrow is involved in storing fats

Red marrow is involved in producing stem cells and blood cells which is called haematopoiesis.

2. Types and function of joints:
Type

there are three types of joints which are as follows:

Fibrous joints:

Fibrous joints are known as immovable or fixed joints as there is no joint cavity in these joints. These joints are connected through dense fibrous connective tissues [DFCT] (Tanaka, 2019).

Example: Sutures present in the skull bones

Synovial joints:

These joints can perform wide ranges movement due to the presence of a fluid-filled cavity which is known as the synovial cavity. These joints do not have direct attachment between bones through tissues rather these are attached to one other through connective tissues sleeves which are known as joint capsules. Joint capsules are attached to the margins of the joints.

Example: joints between the axis and atlas of the pivot

Cartilaginous joints: these joints are developed from the tissues that are present between the bones (Tanaka, 2019). These joints assist bones to be held firmly. It also allows the movement of bones (Wu et al. 2019).

Example: joints present between the bodies of vertebrae.

Function:
  • Joints play crucial roles in maintaining attachments between two bones.
  • It provides proper shape and structure to the skeleton by holding all the bones together through ligament and tendons.
  • Joints allow contraction and expansion of specific muscles that cross the joints thereby maintaining proper muscle function.
  • Joints protect bones from their collision during movements. The joint cavity consists of a fluid (cavity is absent in fibrous or immovable joints) that enables the bones and muscles in leg and arm to make the necessary movement.
3. Describe musculoskeletal function:

The primary function of the Musculoskeletal system is to support the smooth movement of joints (Schäfer et al. 2016). However, the movement of joints is based on place or location in which muscle is connected to the bones and joints.

On the other hand, there is also another function that is performed musculoskeletal system:

  • Protects the skeleton, joints, bones and other vital structures
  • Provides stability
  • Form proper body structure
  • Production as well as the supply of blood cells
  • Salt storage
4. Function and subdivision of the nervous system:

The nervous system is divided into two major subdivision such as the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS)

Central nervous system [CNS]
  • The central nervous system is formed of two structures such as spinal cord, and brain (Allen and Lyons, 2018).
  • Brain: Brain is called 'head office' of the nervus system. It is the control centres of the nervous system.
  • Spinal cord: the thin, long and tube-like structure that is formed of nerves and tissues that extend from brain stem to vertebral column.
Function:

The central nervous system is associated with controlling emotion, thoughts, body movements, decision making and desires.

The brain is involved in receiving, interpreting and transferring signals inside as well as outside the body.

The spinal cord acts as the important mediator of between CNS and PNS through which signals are received by the brain from different organs and response are then transfer from brain to the different organs.

Peripheral nervous system:

The peripheral nervous system consists of two subdivision such as sensory division and mortar division (Lee and Lee, 2018). The sensory division is formed of visceral sensory and somatic sensory nervus system. The motor nervous system is formed of visceral motor and somatic motor nervous system. The visceral motor nervous system is again subdivided into sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves.

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Functions:

PNS carry and transfer impose from and to the central nervous system.

5. Communication between nerves:
  • Due to the external stimuli, a coded signal (called nerve impulse) is received by the sensory receptor present on the skin
  • Then the impulse travels through neurons. In this process, while the impulse reaches the tail of a neuron which is called axon it stimulates the neurotransmitter inside the vesicle present in the synapse (Drukarch et al. 2018).
  • The vesicle then gets attached to the terminal membrane and then release the entire neurotransmitter. The neurotransmitter then binds to the receptors present on the membrane of neighbouring neurons.
  • Through this process, the electrical impulse travels from one neuron and another neuron thereby transferring signals from the brain to the different muscle cells and organs.
  • The mechanism of triggering neurotransmitter is mediated through Ca+ ions. The action potential is generated during the transmission of signals, which instigates ca2+ ions to cause the attachment of synaptic vesicle to released site and then release the neurotransmitter.
Reference list:
  • Açar, G. and Çiçekcibaşı, A.E., 2020. Surgical Anatomy of the Temporal Bone. In Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. IntechOpen.
  • Allen, N.J. and Lyons, D.A., 2018. Glia as architects of central nervous system formation and function. Science, 362(6411), pp.181-185.
  • Chidi-Ogbolu, N. and Baar, K., 2019. Effect of estrogen on musculoskeletal performance and injury risk. Frontiers in physiology, 9, p.1834.
  • Drukarch, B., Holland, H.A., Velichkov, M., Geurts, J.J., Voorn, P., Glas, G. and de Regt, H.W., 2018. Thinking about the nerve impulse: a critical analysis of the electricity-centred conception of nerve excitability. Progress in Neurobiology, 169, pp.172-185.
  • Iyer, K.M., 2019. Anatomy of Bone, Fracture, and Fracture Healing. In General Principles of Orthopedics and Trauma (pp. 1-17). Springer, Cham.
  • Jamil, R.T. and Callahan, A.L., 2020. Anatomy, sphenoid bone. StatPearls [Internet].
  • Lee, S. and Lee, C., 2018. Toward advanced neural interfaces for the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and their future applications. Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering, 6, pp.130-137.
  • Schäfer, G.S., Valderramas, S., Gomes, A.R., Budib, M.B., Wolff, Á.L. and Ramos, A.A.T., 2016. Physical exercise, pain and musculoskeletal function in patients with haemophilia: a systematic review. Haemophilia, 22(3), pp.e119-e129.
  • Tanaka, Y., 2019. Clinical immunity in bone and joints. Journal of bone and mineral metabolism, 37(1), pp.2-8.
  • Wu, H., Zhang, G., Shi, L., Li, X., Chen, M., Huang, X., Cao, X., Tan, S., Cui, Y. and Liang, C., 2019. Axial spondyloarthritis: dual-energy virtual noncalcium CT in the detection of bone marrow edema in the sacroiliac joints. Radiology, 290(1), pp.157-164.

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