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Briefly discuss the key features of Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa

  • 06 Pages
  • Published On: 09-11-2023

Briefly discuss the key features of Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa Anorexia Nervosa is also being referred to as anorexia, and it occurs due to basically significant eating disorder. The pathophysiological condition is characterized by extreme loss in weight that eventually results due to excessive self starvation [1]. The condition is diagnosed when the individual weighs 15% less than their ideal body weight. These people refuse to eat though they are hungry due to the severe fear of becoming fat. They even exercise very strenuously to lose weight fast along with extremely reduced intake of food items. The disorder is commonly observed among females than males mostly who belong to the acting, modelling or sports profession where excess concerns are given towards weight management. Though the exact causes are unknown but the condition is associated with psychological, social and environmental factors. These people show an inherent tendency to be perfectionist [1]. On the other hand Bulimia Nervosa, is another potential fatal disorder where the individuals secretly eats a huge amount of food due to loss of control [2]. However, then they try to shed off their extra kilos by following unfair means like with the intake of laxatives, diuretics, weight loss pills, self stimulating vomiting, and ultimately follow the strict routines that leads to anorexia. The psychological thinking of the individuals in both these disorders is flawed about their body shape and though effective treatment along with healthy eating might provide reliefs but often associated with serious recurrent complications [2].

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2. Discuss the aspects of the diet that encourage a healthy gut.

Healthy gut refers to the maintaining the balance of microorganisms that harbours our digestive tract. The right microflora helps to maintain sound physical and mental health and strong immunity [3]. Therefore, to maintain the healthy microorganisms in our digestive tract our diet should consists probiotics and fermented foods such as yoghurts, consumption of fibre rich foods like plenty of green vegetables, fruits, legumes, dietary regime should consist a diverse variety of food items, consumption of whole grains and polyphenol rich foods such as grapes, onions, broccoli, blueberries, etc., along with reduced consumption of sugars and artificial sweeteners as those may cause gut dysbiosis, and avoiding strong antibiotics often that kills the healthy microorganisms of our digestive tract [3,4].

3. Describe the differences between enteral and parenteral nutrition and the situations where each might be used.

The enteral and parenteral nutrition modes are utilized for the extremely sick patients who cannot consume diet normally. In enteral mode of nutrition, the food is directly transferred to the stomach or small intestine with the aid of a tube whereas in case of parenteral nutrition, the nutrients are provided to the patients via intravenous route [5,6].

When the patient shows satisfactory appetite but unable to take oral feed and the diet remains inadequate then enteral mode of nutrition, i.e., tube feeding is preferred. However, when the condition of the patient is severely malnourished and short span support is required then, parenteral nutrition where the nutrients are provided to the patients via intravenous route is decided [6].

4. Critically evaluate the role of diet in the aetiology of cancer

TNutrition is considered to be in the forefront for the augmentation and maintenance of good health along with the individual genetical factors. Alterations in the nutritional pattern of an individual might be considered as a factor for the development of any chronic non communicable disease like cancer [7]. In present days a diet is considered to be a mixture of protective yet mutagenic or carcinogenic agents and the breakdown of these agents occurs with the aid of biotransformational enzymes during the process. Thus genetic polymorphism can alter expression and function of the enzymes that might result cancer development [8]. Moreover, according to scientific evidence, the naturally occurring constituents within plants referred to as phytochemicals may cause elimination of many carcinogenic toxins from the body by stimulating immunomodulating properties within the host. However, it is also thought a diet that is rich in protective micronutrients, carcinogens and mutagens might promote the risk of malignancies especially among hereditary vulnerable individuals [7, 8].

5. Critically evaluate the role of dietary fats in the progression and manifestation of cardiovascular disease.

The dietary fats have a significant impact upon the risk factors of cardiovascular disease. Several studies have also revealed that the consumption of dietary fat have a direct effect upon the concentration of blood lipid, lipoproteins, and the risk of developing Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) and varied studies have also reported the overall cardiovascular disease (CVD) as the essential endpoint [9]. The low concentration of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), high concentration of total cholesterol and enhanced level of triglycerides are considered as independent risk factors for CVD. Scientific studies revealed that the dietary fatty acids impacts upon the risk with the aid of cardiac and endothelial function markers. However, evidence reveals that inequitable substitute of saturated fatty acids (SAFA) with unsaturated fatty acids improves the concentration of blood lipids and profile of lipoprotein which could potentially diminish the risk for CHD. Therefore, with elevated consumption of saturated and trans-unsaturated dietary fats enhances the risk of CHD and CVD [9].

6. Describe the symptoms of iron deficiency anaemia and potential treatment options

Iron deficiency anaemia is a usual category of anaemia, which occurs due to the deficiency of iron within the body. Individuals who suffer from mild to moderate level of the deficiency do not show any symptomatic manifestations [10]. Severe forms of iron deficiency anaemia demonstrate fatigues or weariness, breathing difficulty, and or pain in chest. When the physician detects any individual with iron deficiency anaemia, the treatment basically depends on the causal factors of the disease. Recommendations for healthy diet regimen, iron supplements or intravenous iron therapy for mild to moderate cases, and red blood cell transfusion for severe cases are prescribed by the doctor. The doctor should also try to figure out the underlying cause like bleeding as undiagnosed condition can lead to delayed development of child, and even heart failure among other patients [11].

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References:

Pugh M, Waller G. Understanding the ‘anorexic voice’in anorexia nervosa. Clinical psychology & psychotherapy. 2017 May;24(3):670-6.

Roberts ME, Tchanturia K, Treasure JL. Is attention to detail a similarly strong candidate endophenotype for anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa?. The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry. 2013 Aug 1;14(6):452-63.

Chassaing B, Vijay-Kumar M, Gewirtz AT. How diet can impact gut microbiota to promote or endanger health. Current opinion in gastroenterology. 2017 Nov;33(6):417.

Dawson SL, Dash SR, Jacka FN. The importance of diet and gut health to the treatment and prevention of mental disorders. InInternational review of neurobiology 2016 Jan 1 (Vol. 131, pp. 325-346). Academic Press.

Al‐Omran M, AlBalawi ZH, Tashkandi MF, Al‐Ansary LA. Enteral versus parenteral nutrition for acute pancreatitis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2010(1).

Verschueren A, Monnier A, Attarian S, Lardillier D, Pouget J. Enteral and parenteral nutrition in the later stages of ALS: an observational study. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. 2009 Jan 1;10(1):42-6.

Donaldson, M.S., 2004. Nutrition and cancer: a review of the evidence for an anti-cancer diet. Nutrition journal, 3(1), p.19.

Patel A, Pathak Y, Patel J, Sutariya V. Role of nutritional factors in pathogenesis of cancer. Food Quality and Safety. 2018 Mar;2(1):27-36.

Zock PL, Blom WA, Nettleton JA, Hornstra G. Progressing insights into the role of dietary fats in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Current cardiology reports. 2016 Nov 1;18(11):111.

Camaschella C. Iron-deficiency anemia. New England journal of medicine. 2015 May 7;372(19):1832-43.

Miller JL. Iron deficiency anemia: a common and curable disease. Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine. 2013 Jul 1;3(7):a011866.


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