Building Success from Scratch

ASSIGNMENT QUESTIONS

In setting up a small business, the key factors to be considered are the presence of a key idea in setting the business within the target industry, adequate funding arrangement, analysis of existing competitors, positive attitude and enhanced business plan. This is because the idea of the business indicates the way it is to be established in the market and the plan clarifies the actions to be taken at each step in setting the business effectively (Hung et al., 2018). Moreover, even in small business adequate funding is required at the initial stage as immediate profit cannot be expected to run the business. There are many competitors even in the small business industry and developing idea regarding them informs the strategies to be set in setting the small business so that it overcomes others to create a value in the market to achieve more loyal consumers (Tuffour et al., 2018). The positive attitude in small businesses is important as it acts as motivation and inspiration in continuing actions in the small business without fearing the failures to be faced at the initiation of the business (Lim and Teoh, 2021).

In clinical environment, the important health and safety factors to be considered are equipment arrangement and efficiency, physical environment, cleanliness and lighting along with ventilation of the area, temperature and humidity (Leitão et al., 2018). This is because hindered equipment would pose risk on patients and workers to be injured during its use whereas ventilation ensures effective air passage to allow safe breathing of people in the clinical settings (Eren and Tuzkaya, 2019). The clean and safe physical environment in clinical setting ensures no transmission of harmful disease-causing agents to individuals and reduces risk of injury through fall and others (Mihdawi et al., 2020).

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The special measure to be taken in managing a client who is under 16 years or vulnerable is that effective supporting individuals are to be always present near them so that they do not develop fear and loneliness in the new environment for care. The other measure to be taken is that effective risk assessment is to be made to determine which sources may cause harm or abuse to them so that such sources can be avoided to be put or go near them (Bekele et al., 2021).

The analysis of Margaret’s condition mentioned that she may have sprained her ankle meaning she may have stretched her ankle too much which has possibly torn her ligaments in the ankle (Vuurberg et al., 2018). The advice to be given over the phone is that she avoids putting any weight on the ankle as it may worsen the condition and she is to use ice to get over the pain as well as keep the ankle in an elevated position with a compressed bandage to control the swelling (Tittley et al., 2020).

In the post-acute phase of an injury, the benefit of introducing active movements is that it would help the patient to gradually develop efficiency in moving the joint to enhance the function of the body part injured that have been kept mostly sedentary in action during the injury phase. The other benefit is that it helps the patients to gradually cope with pain and develop increased independence in moving around without assistance (Curcio et al., 2020). For example, in case of fracture of the ankle, the limb remains immobilised during the plaster and after removal of the plaster active movement would help the person in overcoming strength and balance of the limbs to walk and execute other action (McKeown et al., 2020).

The resistive movement enhances strength of muscle and range of movement by making the muscles and joints work against the weight or force (Davies et al., 2017). For example, push-ups are a form of resistive exercise that makes the muscles and joints of the upper body to be strengthen by learning to take the weight of the body (Kikuchi and Nakazato, 2017).

In rehabilitating ankle and knee injuries, proprioceptive exercises are essential as it helps the ankle and knee which support movement and weight-bearing of the body to gain coordination and stability. The exercise also helps to stimulate the motor learning of the ankle and knee which assist in maintaining effective balance and posture of the body and controlled movement (Voight et al., 2017). For example, the balancing of the body on a single leg with closed eye is a type of proprioceptive exercise (Voight et al., 2017).

One of the functional rehabilitation exercises to be made to be executed by tennis player overcoming wrist injury is making the individual hold a weight while the palms are faced down and then raise the arm to bend the wrist upwards and in circular motion for 15-30 mins before coming to resting position. The exercise is to be repeated twice in both wrists to gain gradual strength (Herde and Stroia, 2018).

One of the remedial exercise advice to be provided to John is doing a standing calf stretch. This is because the exercise helps to activate the muscles near the ankle while stimulating blood flow to the area leading to increased ability in making short-range motion and flexibility. It is to be executed as a warm-up action before trekking as well as continued exercise before trekking to ease the pain of the ankle while walking or moving (Searle et al., 2019).

Jane to overcome chronic neck pain from the job can perform turning the neck slowly from one side to another while holding the pressure for 5-7 seconds. The exercise should be repeated 5 times in one session. The other self-help exercise is tilting the neck downwards towards the chin to rest it on the chest and hold the position for 5 sec while returning to original position. The side tilt is another self-exercise that would need Jane to tilt the neck sideways towards any of the shoulder and return to centre after 5 seconds (Yildiz et al., 2018). The following exercise helps in easing the neck and stimulating blood to the muscles around the neck to avoid feeling pain (Yildiz et al., 2018).

One of the remedial exercise advice for David is neck release exercise in which he is lower his chin towards the chest while feeling a stretch along the back-side of the neck and gently tilting the head towards left of the right shoulder. The position is to be hold for 1mnin after which is to be repeated on the opposite side. A set of 3-5 times the exercise is to be performed on each side of the shoulder (NHS, 2021). Another exercise to ease his shoulder stress is performing across-the-chest stretch in which David is bring one of his arms to the other side across the chest while holding the position for 1 minute and then repeating the exercise for 3-5 times on each side (NHS, 2021). The exercise helps to promote blood flow to the neck and shoulder muscles along with reduce spam in the neck and shoulder muscles caused out of stress (NHS, 2021).

The remedial exercise to be performed by Kelly is Runner’s stretch to overcome the pain in the Achilles Tendon. In the exercise, Kelly is required to place her hands against the wall or chair with one leg that is to be stretched kept behind the other leg which is to remain in a bent position from the knee. The toes of the legs are to be pointed towards the wall in straight manner and not sideways as well as the heels of both the legs are to be attached to the ground and not to be lifted. Thereafter, while leaning to the wall, the waist is to be moved in stretching the calf muscles of the leg and the position is to be held for 10 sec after which it is to be relaxed. The exercise is to be repeated 20 times on each foot (NHS, 2021a). The exercise is effective in stretching the Achilles tendon and calf muscles leading to make them flexible and stay in fullest motion without feeling muscle spasms (NHS, 2021a).

Biological Support: One of the treatments for Mary to overcome pain down the back of her right leg is taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like aspirin, naproxen and ibuprofen (Xie et al., 2019). The medications are to be used because they assist in blocking the prostaglandin production in the body which is the on-off switch in cells responsible for regulating inflammation and pain (Jordan et al., 2020). However, the side-effect of medication is that it causes nausea, vomiting heartburn and others (Xie et al., 2019). Thus, the exercise to be performed for physical activity without pain by Mary to avoid taking medication is knee to chest stretch. In knee to chest stretching, Mary is to lie on her back and start to lift her right knee towards her chest with the help of her hands which is to be kept for 10 seconds. This is later to be followed in either side. The exercise assists in reducing compression of the nerve of the low back and eases the lower back pain (versusarthritis.org, 2021).

Psychological Support: The mental support for Kelly to improve her low back pain is that she to develop positive attitude of overcoming the pain through exercise and consider to avoid sitting for long time. She also needs to develop emotional strength to continue her exercise and practice good posture (Heyward et al., 2018).

Sociological Support: The sociological support for Mary is that she is involved in group exercise activity in the morning at the park. This is because she can socialise with similar people while performing the exercise as it would make her develop increased zeal to perform physical activity as well as avoid loneliness (Heyward et al., 2018).

Biological Support: The Hold-Stretch exercise is to be performed by Janet in gaining physical activity as per the hip condition. The exercise is to be performed by remaining in sitting positing with one leg extended. The individual is to hold breath while in pain to extent the hip forward while trying to reach the end of the leg with hands. It is to be performed for 102 seconds and is to be repeated on each set of leg for 10-15 times (NHS, 2021b).

Psychological Support: Janet’s son initiating to leave abroad may cause her stress which may worsen the hip pain as emotion stress leads to cause muscle tightening (Zeppieri et al., 2019). Thus, the psychological support required for Janet to overcome hip pain is to make her feel free of stress and negative emotion through emotional boosting. It is to be executed by making her think regarding positive aspects of life and the way she would still remain in contact with her son even if he is abroad.

Sociological Support: The sociological support for Janet is that her friends in the Health club are to be made to interact with her and involve with her in exercising while she visits the place to make her feel active and free of stress through communication (Zeppieri et al., 2019).

Biological Support: In order to make John healthy and reduce weight while coping with osteoarthritis, the simple exercise to be executed are aerobic activity such as walking, swimming or cycling. The doctor mentioned that he is stable and has he may need knee replacement later indicating no complication to be seen as intense in the present condition. Thus, the aerobic exercise is to performed in which minimum joint movement is required to gain stamina and energy while shedding body weight to remain healthy (Foucher et al., 2021).

Psychological Support: The psychological support required by John to perform physical activity is effective information from the doctor regarding the probable exercise to be executed by him without hindering his health as a result of presence of osteoarthritis (Ryu et al., 2020).

Sociological Support: The sociological support in making John perform physical activity is making him interact with other osteoarthritis patients in the community where he can communicate with them to understand the need of exercise in the situation and way it would help him to be healthy. It would also help him access real-life experience from the already suffering individuals and avoid fear of considering exercise in osteoarthritis situation is harmful (Bavardi Moghadam et al., 2018).

Biological Support: The treatment for Alice is to make her intake more nutrient-rich foods as a part of healthy diet while performing daily exercise. This is because nutrient-rich food helps in building muscles and exercise in the same time helps in avoiding fat to be added to the body (Hartley, 2021).

Psychological Support: The psychological support to be provided to Alice is that she is to be referred to a psychologist to talk regarding her current anxious state and manage her grief regarding her sister. This is because the anxious and sad state is found to make Alice perform increased aerobic exercise than normal which is contributing towards making her lose weight in such a way that it is making her underweight (Hartley, 2021).

Sociological Support: The sociological support for Alice is that she is to be recommended to a fitness group that also have the goal to participate in marathon. This is to allow her find like-minded people to share her thoughts regarding the activity and gain guidance through socialisation with the group regarding the way to prepare for the marathon (Hartley, 2021).

Pregnancy

Soft tissue therapy is helpful for pregnant women by making them feel relieved of backpain, headache and pelvic pain. It also contributes towards lowering stress and anxiety level in pregnancy which helps in promoting quality sleep among the individuals. Moreover, the therapy helps in reducing risk of premature birth and alleviates cramps in the muscles (Pachtman Shetty and Fogarty, 2021).

Multiple Sclerosis

In multiple sclerosis, the soft tissue therapy helps in relaxing muscles and enhances the ability of the individuals in making better motion exercise. This is because the therapy helps in manipulating the stress on the muscles leading to easing the cramps and spams. The therapy also helps in reducing swelling and pain caused as result of the disease (Salarvand et al., 2021).

Parkinson’s Disease

The soft tissue therapy assists individuals with Parkinson’s disease to feel relieved of stiffness of muscles and rigidity. This assist in improving the patient’s ability to move with strength and gain muscle flexibility. It helps in lowering stress on the muscles and promotes relaxation along with allow the body to become tension free (Angelopoulou et al., 2020).

Fibromyalgia

In Fibromyalgia, the soft tissue therapy benefits by eliminating the peripheral myofascial trigger points which may assist in reducing central sensation of pain and sensitivity as a result of change in the central nervous system. It also helps in lowering pain and swelling as through the massage, increased natural endorphins in the body is released leading individual to overcome the symptoms of the disease. The soft tissue therapy in fibromyalgia patients helps them to have quality sleep which assist them to avoid being tired and fatigue due to the health condition (de Pernambuco and Schulze, 2020).

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Cancer

The benefit of using soft tissue therapy in cancer patients is that it helps in lowering the pain received from chemotherapy and resolve stress as the therapy promotes natural endorphin release in the body. It also improves the quality of life and emotional mood of the cancer patients as prolonged massage therapy acts in improving the mood out of feeling released. The relive from pain as a result of the therapy helps cancer patients to have improved sleep which contributes towards them enhanced health and well-being while coping with the disease (Deng, 2019).

References

Angelopoulou, E., Anagnostouli, M., Chrousos, G.P. and Bougea, A., 2020. Massage therapy as a complementary treatment for Parkinson’s disease: A Systematic Literature Review. Complementary therapies in medicine, 49, p.102340.

Bavardi Moghadam, E., Shojaedin, S.S., Ghanizadeh Hesar, N. and Akbarnejad, A., 2018. Evaluation of knee Proprioception Changes in Older men with knee Osteoarthritis Following a period of controlled Aerobic activity. Journal of Exercise Science and Medicine, 9(2), pp.153-167.

Bekele, F., Bereda, G., Tamirat, L., Geleta, B.A. and Jabessa, D., 2021. “Childrens are not just “little adults”. The rate of medication related problems and its predictors among patients admitted to pediatric ward of southwestern Ethiopian hospital: A prospective observational study. Annals of Medicine and Surgery, 70, p.102827.

Curcio, A., Temperoni, G., Tramontano, M., De Angelis, S., Iosa, M., Mommo, F., Cochi, G. and Formisano, R., 2020. The effects of aquatic therapy during post-acute neurorehabilitation in patients with severe traumatic brain injury: a preliminary randomized controlled trial. Brain Injury, 34(12), pp.1630-1635.

Davies, T.B., Kuang, K., Orr, R., Halaki, M. and Hackett, D., 2017. Effect of movement velocity during resistance training on dynamic muscular strength: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Medicine, 47(8), pp.1603-1617.

de Pernambuco, R.P. and Schulze, N., 2020. Efficacy of Manual Therapy on Pain, Impact of Disease, and Quality of Life in the Treatment of Fibromyalgia: A Systematic Review. Pain Physician, 23, pp.461-475.

Deng, G., 2019. Integrative medicine therapies for pain management in cancer patients. Cancer Journal (Sudbury, Mass.), 25(5), p.343.

Eren, E. and Tuzkaya, U.R., 2019. Occupational health and safety-oriented medical waste management: A case study of Istanbul. Waste Management & Research, 37(9), pp.876-884.

Foucher, K.C., Aydemir, B., Huang, C.H., Horras, M. and Chmell, S.J., 2021. Aerobic capacity and fatigability are associated with activity levels in women with hip osteoarthritis. Journal of Orthopaedic Research®, 39(6), pp.1236-1244.

Hartley, R., 2021. Gentle Nutrition: A Non-Diet Approach to Healthy Eating. Victory Belt Publishing.

Herde, B. and Stroia, K.A., 2018. Wrist and hand rehabilitation. In Tennis Medicine (pp. 327-357). Springer, Cham.

Heyward, J., Jones, C.M., Compton, W.M., Lin, D.H., Losby, J.L., Murimi, I.B., Baldwin, G.T., Ballreich, J.M., Thomas, D.A., Bicket, M.C. and Porter, L., 2018. Coverage of nonpharmacologic treatments for low back pain among US public and private insurers. JAMA network open, 1(6), pp.e183044-e183044.

Hung, S.Y., Yu, A.P.I. and Chiu, Y.C., 2018. Investigating the factors influencing small online vendors’ intention to continue engaging in social commerce. Journal of Organizational Computing and Electronic Commerce, 28(1), pp.9-30.

Jordan, F., Quinn, T.J., McGuinness, B., Passmore, P., Kelly, J.P., Smith, C.T., Murphy, K. and Devane, D., 2020. Aspirin and other non‐steroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs for the prevention of dementia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (4).pp.56-89.

Kikuchi, N. and Nakazato, K., 2017. Low-load bench press and push-up induce similar muscle hypertrophy and strength gain. Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness, 15(1), pp.37-42.

Leitão, S., Mc Carthy, V.J. and Greiner, B.A., 2018. Health and safety practitioners’ health and wellbeing—The link with safety climate and job demand-control-support. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 119, pp.131-137.

Lim, C.H. and Teoh, K.B., 2021. Factors influencing the SME business success in Malaysia. Annals of Human Resource Management Research, 1(1), pp.41-54.

McKeown, R., Kearney, R.S., Liew, Z.H. and Ellard, D.R., 2020. Patient experiences of an ankle fracture and the most important factors in their recovery: a qualitative interview study. BMJ open, 10(2), p.e033539.

Mihdawi, M., Al-Amer, R., Darwish, R., Randall, S. and Afaneh, T., 2020. The influence of nursing work environment on patient safety. Workplace health & safety, 68(8), pp.384-390.

NHS 2021, Neck exercise, Available at: https://www.oxfordhealth.nhs.uk/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/OP-153.15-Neck-exercises.pdf [Accessed on: 16 December 2021]

NHS 2021a, Knee exercises for runner, Available at: https://www.nhs.uk/live-well/exercise/knee-exercises-for-runners/ [Accessed on: 16 December 2021]

NHS 2021b, How to stretch after a run, Available at: https://www.nhs.uk/live-well/exercise/how-to-stretch-after-a-run/ [Accessed on: 16 December 2021]

Pachtman Shetty, S.L. and Fogarty, S., 2021. Massage During Pregnancy and Postpartum. Clinical obstetrics and gynecology, 64(3), pp.648-660.

Ryu, M., Lee, S., Kim, H., Baek, W.C. and Kimm, H., 2020. Effect of Aerobic Physical Activity on Health-Related Quality of Life in Middle Aged Women with Osteoarthritis: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2016–2017). International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(2), p.527.

Salarvand, S., Heidari, M.E., Farahi, K., Teymuri, E., Almasian, M. and Bitaraf, S., 2021. Effectiveness of massage therapy on fatigue and pain in patients with multiple sclerosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Multiple Sclerosis Journal–Experimental, Translational and Clinical, 7(2), p.20552173211022779.

Searle, A., Spink, M.J., Oldmeadow, C., Chiu, S. and Chuter, V.H., 2019. Calf muscle stretching is ineffective in increasing ankle range of motion or reducing plantar pressures in people with diabetes and ankle equinus: a randomised controlled trial. Clinical biomechanics, 69, pp.52-57.

Tittley, J., Hébert, L.J. and Roy, J.S., 2020. Should ice application be replaced with neurocryostimulation for the treatment of acute lateral ankle sprains? A randomized clinical trial. Journal of Foot and Ankle Research, 13(1), pp.1-11.

Tuffour, J.K., Akuffo, D., Kofi, A.A., Frimpong, P.A. and Sasu, T., 2018. Adoption of Mobile Commerce and Service in Adentan Municipality of Ghana: An Examination of Factors Influencing Small Scale Enterprises. International Business Research, 11(11), pp.109-118.

versusarthritis.org 2021, Exercise for Back, Available at: https://www.versusarthritis.org/about-arthritis/exercising-with-arthritis/exercises-for-healthy-joints/exercises-for-the-back/ [Accessed on: 16 December 2021]

Voight, M., Page, P., Chidester, M., Hardiek, L., Macko, S., Sexton, Z. and Sells, P., 2017. The impact of hip abduction elastic-resisted neuromuscular feedback on frontal plane knee kinematics in female volleyball athletes. Journal of Performance Health Research, 1(2), pp.23-30.

Vuurberg, G., Hoorntje, A., Wink, L.M., Van Der Doelen, B.F., Van Den Bekerom, M.P., Dekker, R., Van Dijk, C.N., Krips, R., Loogman, M.C., Ridderikhof, M.L. and Smithuis, F.F., 2018. Diagnosis, treatment and prevention of ankle sprains: update of an evidence-based clinical guideline. British journal of sports medicine, 52(15), pp.956-956.

Xie, Y., Pan, M., Gao, Y., Zhang, L., Ge, W. and Tang, P., 2019. Dose-dependent roles of aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in abnormal bone remodeling and skeletal regeneration. Cell & bioscience, 9(1), pp.1-11.

Yildiz, T.I., Turgut, E. and Duzgun, I., 2018. Neck and scapula-focused exercise training on patients with nonspecific neck pain: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of sport rehabilitation, 27(5), pp.403-412.

Zeppieri, K.E., Butera, K.A., Iams, D., Parvataneni, H.K. and George, S.Z., 2019. The role of social support and psychological distress in predicting discharge: a pilot study for hip and knee arthroplasty patients. The Journal of arthroplasty, 34(11), pp.2555-2560.

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