Calcium Metabolism in Maintaining Bone Health

Question 31

Calcium metabolism is the mechanism by which the body maintain the level of calcium. The high and low level of calcium is having a significant impact on the health of the individual. The derangement of the mechanism leads to hypertension that influences the body structure and approach of the individual. The flow of calcium to and from the bones is neutral and playing a vital role in the strengths of the bones. Bones are a major storage point of calcium and content 99% of total body calcium. The low calcium level is increasing the risk of development of osteoporosis and lowers the level of vitamin D. The remodelling of bones, the role of calcium is important as bone formation activities fix the circulation of calcium and improve the flow of the minerals by removing it from the bloodstreams, resorption activities. This kind of process is beneficial for the improvement in the level of calcium and improves the remodelling of bones. Blood calcium is also helpful for managing the level of bone structure and strengths. The parathyroid glands reduce hormone secretion into the blood and it resulting in a high level of calcitonin in the blood stimulates the bone to remove calcium from the blood plasma and deposit it as bones.


There are various factors that influence the approach of living and managing the work-life balance among people and increasing the risks of having a low calcium diet. The lack of calcium is having a negative impact on the bones of the individual. The use of different supplements and Vitamin D content can help minimize the loss of bone and fracture reduction in young older people. According to studies, vitamin D supplementation alone is unlikely to reduce fracture risk in young adults and improve the strength of bones by increasing the level of calcium. The combination of vitamin D and calcium is beneficial for the individual to avoid the risks of fracture. The major cause of fracture in older adults is osteoporosis which contributes to an increase the morbidity and mortality in this age group. Apart from this, the risk of fracture among the women of this age group is high as lack of calcium in bones and blood affect the strength of bones and lead to fracture. The involvement of calcium in diet and improvement in the level of vitamin D is helpful for older adults for improving the strengths of the bones and minimizing the risk of fracture. For example, older adults who are doing proper exercises and having good nutrition in their diet are having a good level of calcium and that is helping to reduce the chances of fracture. Calcium supplementation is good for old adults for increasing the strengths of the bones and maintaining a good lifestyle.

Question 32

The nutrition status is having a significant impact on the period of pregnancy and support in the health management of an individual. The requirements of macronutrients such as protein and energy are increases during the pregnancy that support the foetal growth. Energy rustication can limit the gestational weight gain in women with obesity. However, the use of supplementation in the pregnancy period is increased as women needed more energy that provides the strength in managing the metabolism and foetal growth. According to the analysis, pregnancy is a time of rapid and profound physiological changes from the time of conception until birth. During this period the nutrition level of the women increased as they needed more healthy food in their diet. The micronutrient is only needed in very small quantities but plays a significant role in maintaining the normal physiological functions among pregnant women. This is essential for the growth and development of the child. There are different types of supplements are used for maintaining the level of micronutrient during pregnancy and provide essential nutrition. It has also considered that diet and lifestyle change during the pregnancy and requires an intake of supplements to maintain the level of protein and energy.

The proper involvement of micronutrition in the diet of women during pregnancy is beneficial for improving body strength and breastfeeding. The proper diet and intake of nutrition are essential for managing these functions and minimizing the risk of bearing the painful process. The proper understanding and use of folic acid, iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin c and D is having a positive impact on the body strength of the woman and provides the required support to the system. In addition to this, the micronutrition requirement during the pregnancy is involving the hormonal changes that are influencing the approach of diet and the needs for additional supplements. The early diagnosis and approach of offering the proper diet are having a significant impact on the recovery of women during and after the pregnancy. The effective intake of calcium, magnesium and zinc can be helpful for maintaining weight during the pregnancy and maintaining good standards for birth. Therefore, it can be considered that effective knowledge and understanding of the diet during the pregnancy is having a significant impact on the health of women and provides the strength to their body to bear the pain and offer to breastfeed to the child. The consideration of the advice of care professionals is also essential for providing the supplements during the pregnancy and offering the required nutrition to women. The major elements of micronutrition involve DHA, iron, iodine, calcium and vitamin D.

Question 33

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Fructose is absorbed by an active transport system but at a slower rate of glucose. The improvement in the level of glucose is having an impact on the level of sugar and increases the chances of diabetes. In the current scenario, the consumption of fructose is increasing and increasing the incidents of obesity and its associated disease. The incidents of fructose are involving the carbohydrate and other sugar. The changes in the level of glucose are increasing obesity and leading to diabetes issues. Fructose is promoting complications in glucose metabolism, accumulation of triacylglycerol in the hepatocytes. However, the treatment of such disease is available but lack of intervention and knowledge related to issues is having a significant impact on the health of the people. The changes in lifestyle like lack of physical exercise and dieting habits are increasing the level of sugar in the body and fructose is playing a vital role in leading to diabetes. In addition to this, the improvement in consumption of alcohol and fast food is also increasing the level of fructose and glucose in the body that affecting the level of metabolism and caused obesity. Young people are getting affected by this type of diabetes issues and facing several issues in managing the health. Apart from this, high consumption of sugary beverages that are rich in fructose is directly related to the development of obesity and its consequences such as metabolic syndrome. According to the analysis, the consumption of fructose is increased up to 40% in the last decade and having a serious impact on the health of people and increasing the level of obesity.

The alteration in metabolism and glucose is having a significant impact on the lipids and carbohydrate that influence the level of sugar and increasing the risk of diabetes. As per the study of health-related problem it has been considered that improvement in the level of fructose is causing different issues in the metabolism changes and affecting the level of sugar in the body. The high consumption of rich fructose food is causing weight gain in people especially in pregnant women. The improvement in carbohydrate and glucose level is leading to obesity and increasing the changes in diabetes. The changes in lifestyle like lack of physical exercise and dieting habits are increasing the level of sugar in the body and fructose is playing a vital role in leading to diabetes. The issues related to diabetes are increasing in middle age people but due to high consumption of fast food and beverages is increasing the weight and leading to obesity which is one of the major reason for diabetes. In addition to this, consumption of sweets is increasing and this is one of the major elements for increasing the level of fructose. The heavy consumption of fast food and rich beverages without physical workout is causing obesity and affecting the level of sugar in the body. However, fructose is bonded with glucose molecules that good for digesting the food but the high consumption of fructose and fast food is affecting the weight and carbohydrate level. Therefore, it can be considered that fructose is causing diabetes and obesity in people. The potential for dietary fructose to raise serum LDL-cholesterol in diabetic participants created concern about the potential effects of fructose in the general population because, in the UK and many other countries, fructose is an important source of dietary energy.

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