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The calculation is based on the entire ECG being 10 seconds. The number of beats or the heart rate per minute is calculated by counting the number of QRS complexes the multiply them by six since 10 seconds (for an entire ECG )multiplied by 6 equals to 60 seconds which is 1 minute.
During an exercise, body muscles become active, and therefore they respire fast causing various changes to the blood. Some of these changes are reduced the oxygen concentration in the blood, elevated carbon dioxide and decreased pH and also increased temperatures. Carbon dioxide in high amount is produced which dissolves in the blood to form carbonic acid thus increase the acidity in the blood lowering the pH. The changes are detected by different receptor cells all over the body (Manfredi, 2014). The most sensitive change is the pH variations and hence it is the most important. The major receptor cells (chemoreceptors) that detect chemical changes are located in the following areas:
Circulation of blood is from the heart through the arteries and then to the capillaries. The blood in the arteries and arterioles is at high pressure, and it enters the capillaries still at high pressure. Hydrostatic pressure forces blood fluid through the thin capillary walls to the surrounding tissues, and this leads to filtration of the fluid (Melenovsky & Hwang, 2014). This plasma is known as the tissue fluid. This movement of water dissolved solutes apart from proteins through the thin wall of the capillaries occurs through the process of diffusion and filtration. Only dissolved solutes and small molecules move through the capillary walls. Substances like blood cells do not pass through since they are large and they remain in the blood fluid.
Dissolved substances that are small enough and water make up the tissue fluid since they are small enough to pass through the capillaries. It’s not only the hydrostatic pressure of the blood that enables this process, but there are still other forces. The fluid also has its hydrostatic pressure that pushes it back to the blood and hence it cannot accumulate in the tissue spaces. Osmosis is involved in the movement of water from the fluid to blood. This is the process through which fluids and dissolved substances in them pass through a membrane till a balance in all substances involved is reached a balance. The tissue and the blood fluids have dissolved substances, and that gives them a negative water potential. However, the tissue fluid has less water potential as compared to the blood fluid, and therefore water from the tissue fluid flows back to the blood through osmosis. The excess fluid that is not absorbed back to the blood capillaries drains into the lymphatic system via the lymphatic vessels where it later combines with blood (Melenovsky & Hwang, 2014).
The lymphatic system consists of a network of vessels, and it takes nutrients to cells and takes waste products from them. It has lymph vessels and lymph capillaries which are somehow similar to the blood capillaries and blood vessels. It also has lymph ducts and lymph nodes. Lymph ducts are tube-like structures that carry fluid from the secreting glands. Lymph nodes filter out toxins and bacteria that may be present in the lymph passing through them. The lymph is similar in composition with the tissue fluid, but it has less oxygen concentration and very few nutrients and some fatty acids absorbed from the intestines.
Edema is the accumulation of fluids in the body tissues. The conditions below are just some of the conditions that may cause edema as they disrupt the normal flow of tissue fluid.
After blood has circulated through out the body it goes to the right side of the heart through the veins which pumps it to the lungs. A failure on the right side of the heart leads to reduced output from the right ventricles and blood flows back into the veins in the lower body and also the legs. This may result to pitting edema which a swelling that occurs in the tissues under the skin in the lower legs and feet. If the right side fails and loses pumping power blood accumulates in the body veins. This causes swellings in the legs and ankles and also swelling of the abdomen.
Elephantiasis is a disease which is caused by filarial worms which are parasitic worms. This disease is transmitted by female mosquito. Elephantiasis causes extreme swelling of the legs and arms. When the Anopheles mosquito carrying the disease bites a human being, it injects the larvae into the body. Then the small larvae move to the lymph glands and then to the lymphatic system where it develops into an adult worm. This worm restricts the normal flow of lymphatic fluid leading to swelling, discoloration, and thickening of the skin. That is what can lead to an elephant’s leg appearance.
Abbas, A. K., Lichtman, A. H., & Pillai, S. (2014). Cellular and molecular immunology. Elsevier Health Sciences.
Dabaghyan, M., Zhang, S. H., Ward, J., Kwong, R. Y., Stevenson, W. G., Watkins, R. D., ... & Schmidt, E. J. (2016). Automated removal of gradient-induced voltages from 12-lead ECG traces during high-gradient duty-cycle MRI sequences. Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonancem.
Lee, R. G., Chen, K. C., Hsiao, C. C., & Tseng, C. L. (2007). A mobile care system with alert mechanism. IEEE Transactions on Information Technology in Biomedicine.
Manfredi, S. (2014). Congestion control for differentiated healthcare service delivery in emerging heterogeneous wireless body area networks. IEEE Wireless Communications, 21(2), 81-90.
Melenovsky, V., Hwang, S. J., Lin, G., Redfield, M. M., & Borlaug, B. A. (2014). Right heart dysfunction in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. European heart journal, 35(48), 3452-3462.
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