Clinical Intervention and Prevention Strategies for Bipolar Disorder in Young People

Executive summary:

Bipolar disorder is the mental health condition in which the patient suffers from recurrent mania and depression. In this health condition, patients suffer from emotional; high which is known as mania and emotional low which is known as depression. In the UK, the mid to late adolescent people are highly prevalent to bipolar disorder. Health professionals in the NHS hospital focus on improving the overall mental health care policies and infrastructure of the hospital to deal with an increasing number of bipolar diseases in the young generation. In addition to this, the mental, health practitioners also focus on psychotherapies to improve the overall mental health condition of the patient. Through using the experience of the patient regarding their psychological condition of bipolar disorder and proper clinical intervention, mental health by practitioners in the UK can be able to prevent the severity of this disease. this report will analyse how the clinical intervention for bipolar disorder has impacted on the overall mental as well as the physical condition of young people in the UK who are affected by this mental illness. In addition to this, the report will describe the clinical process and service mechanism that can be taken to prevent the overall, condition of the bipolar disorder in the young population in the UK. Finally, this report will make a critical analysis of service, diagnosis, treatment process, policies and clinical settings that are used in the prevention of the bipolar disorder in young people in the UK. Through using relevant qualitative primary research papers thus report will describe how the bipolar disorder can affect the overall social and economic condition of the young people who are affected by this mental illness.

Introduction:

Bipolar disorder is the mental illness which is also known as manic depression, in which people face recurrent mood swing, that generally causes extreme emotional lows (depression) and highs (mania and hypomania). Recent studies have shown that young people in the UK are highly prevalent in bipolar disorder. It is seen from the clinical researches that, young people who belong to the middle to late adolescent period (15-18 years old) are highly exposed to this mental illness. Conventional clinical studies have shown that bipolar disorder is a chronic condition that goes throughout the life of the patient. This mental illness has several bipolar symptoms mania, depression and hypomania. In addition to this, young adults suffering from bipolar discover have a frequent mood swing, distress and anxiety. There are several reasons such as changes in the flow of neurotransmitter and other chemicals in Brain, environmental factors and genetic factors that are considered to be involved in the occurrence of bipolar disorder in young people in the UK. The recent researches on bipolar disorder have stated that, although the disease is a lifelong process, it can be prevented in young people through using the proper clinical treatment and relevant medicines. There are different types of bipolar disorders such as Bipolar I, bipolar II and cyclothymic disorders. In case of the bipolar I disorder; the patient generally has one manic episode that is followed or preceded by one major depressible and hypomanic episode. In case of a patient suffering from Bipolar II disease, there is at least one depressive episodes and hypomanic episodes. In the case of cyclothymic disorder, the patient has a period of depression and hypomanic symptoms.

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This assignment is going to highlight the impact of bipolar disorder on young people in the UK. With using relevant primary and secondary research evidence, the report will critically discuss prevalence, nature and impact of bipolar disorder in the young people in the UK. Recent researchers have shown that bipolar disorder is found young people under age 30 at the highest rate. In this contest, this report will analyse that how the clinical intervention for bipolar disorder has impacted on the overall mental as well as the physical condition of young people in the UK who are affected by this mental illness. In addition to this, the report will describe the clinical process and service mechanism that can be taken to prevent the overall, condition of the bipolar disorder in the young population in the UK. Finally, this report will make a critical analysis of service, diagnosis, treatment process, policies and clinical settings that are used in the prevention of the bipolar disorder in young people in the UK. Through using relevant qualitative primary research papers thus report will describe how the bipolar disorder can affect the overall social and economic condition of the young people who are affected by this mental illness.

Describing the comprehensive account of how Bipolar disorders impact on young people in the UK:

Bipolar disorder is associated with recurrent mood swing, which generally occurs in the mid to late adolescent period in case of young people. Recent studies have stated that, in the UK, the number of bipolar disorders in young generation increases at a faster rate. According to Inder et al. (2016), the bipolar disorder in the young population cannot be determined easily in young people as the illness can be generally hidden by the different behavioural problems such as aggression, and irritability. Based on the several primary and secondary evidence it can be stated that there is a potential impact of bipolar disorder on the mental as well as the physical condition of the young people which are as follows:

Bipolar disorders impact on young people in the UK

Psychological changes:

As mentioned by Hughes et al. (2016) that, bipolar disorder has a massive impact on the overall mental condition of people, which interfere with their decision-making process, cognitive skill and analytical power. Recent researches show that 1 in 100 people in the UK is suffered from bipolar disorder which is characterised mainly by mood swing, behavioural changes and poor cognitive skill. As mentioned by Inder et al. (2016), in their primary research that young people who are suffered from bipolar disorder are sometimes engaged in suicidal attempts as well as non-suicidal self-injuries. Several mental health practitioners stated that that, in case of young population in the UK, bipolar disorders poise adverse impact on the overall mental condition of the victim, which makes the individuals unable to take right decisions and perform right activities.

Central nervous system:

Bipolar disorder has a strong impact on the overall central nervous system through impacting on the flow of neurotransmitter from the nerve cells. According to Kendall et al. (2016), there is a strong connection between brain functioning and bipolar disorder. This study has stated that, while patients suffer from this disorder, they have poor brain activities which lead to a poor connection between the body and mind. On supporting this viewpoint, Giridharan et al. (2019) mentioned in their primary research that, by using the brain inflammatory markers to detect the bipolar disorder in young people, it can be stated that, bipolar disorder impact on the overall function of neurotransmitter in the brain. Recent healthcare report by NICE has stated that, in the NHS hospitals, most of the young patients who suffer from bipolar disorder have reduced flow of the major neurotransmitter Serotonin in their brain (Hughes et al. 2016). From the conventional research studies, it can be stated that young population in the UK who suffer from bipolar disorder have common symptoms of mood swing and depression which is associated with the poor brain functioning and lack of proper connection between the minds and body.

Cardiovascular system:

Bipolar disorder has an adverse impact on the overall cardiovascular system of patient who suffers from this mental illness. In the UK, most of the cases of cardiovascular illness are seen in young population. In this context Kendall et al. (2016) have stated that bipolar disorder is not only associated with mental illness, rather the illness affects the proper functions of the heart. Recent studies conducted on bipolar disorder in the young people in the UK have shown than, thus mental illness increases heart rates and blood pressure, which leads to the devolvement of anxiety, hypotension and hypertension.

Endocrine system:

The entire endocrine system in the human being is controlled as well as operated mainly by the brain. The endocrine gland of the brain secretes several hormones and enzymes that are associated with operating different body functions such as metabolism, respiration, circulation and neuronal response (Giridharan et al. 2019). In the case of the young population in the UK, people who are affected by bipolar disorder have poor endocrine system due to reduced flow of neurotransmitter and enzymes that are secreted from the brain cells. In this context a Perlick et al. (2018) mentioned that, in case of young people who are affected by the bipolar disorder, the signal that the brain cells receive the signal from the brain through the file of the neurotransmitter, is disrupted which leads to poor reasoning, analysing and judgemental skill in the people.

Decision-making process:

Bipolar disorder poses a negative impact on overall decisions making ad problem-solving skills of the patient. In the UK, young people how to suffer from this mental illness generally reported having poor analysing and decision-making skill, which makes them unable to take right decisions in their professional as well as in their personal life. in this context, Kendall et al. (2016) have mentioned in their primary research paper that, bipolar disorder poses adverse impact on the overall thinking and decision-making process by affecting the brain functioning and psychological processes. In this context, several studies on bipolar disorder in the UK have stated that in case of young population in the UK residing in the deprived community are highly prevalent to poor mental condition with lack of proper decision making and problem-solving skill. In the UK, the majority of the young population suffer from depression, mood swing and mania, which can be due to the bipolar disorder as they have poor decision-making and thinking skill.

Demonstrating the main theoretical approaches to understand the prevalence, nature and impact of bipolar disorders:

While it comes to analyse the impact on the bipolar disorder it is important to understand the nature and prevalence of this mental illness. from the recent report of NHS, it can be stated that mid to late adolescent people in the UK are more prevalent to bipolar disorder (Bennion et al. 2017). From WHO report it is seen that, there are nearly 60,000 young people in the UK based community who have lifetime prevalence for bipolar disorder. In this context Hughes et al. (2016) mentioned that young people residing in the rural areas are mainly affected by the bipolar disorder in as compared to the young people who are residing in the urban areas. The reason behind this, the medications as well as clinical techniques that are relevant in dealing with bipolar disorders in the right manner are available in the high-profile hospitals that are situated ion the city ad metro locality in the urban areas. Based on this theoretical approach, Giridharan et al. (2019) mentioned that bipolar disorder is a psychological condition that impacts on the brain function as well as on the cognitive ability of the people. On the other hand, it can be stated that young population are highly prevalent the bipolar disorder, nearly 0.6 % people are prevalent to the bipolar I and 0.4% individuals are prevalent towards bipolar II disorder. In addition to this UK has been reported to have 4 million cases of a mood swing, depression and mania. Based on analysing the nature of the bipolar disorder, Behaviourism theory is used many mental health practitioners in the UK. Based on this theoretical approach, mental human behaviour is the result of instruction if the individual with it n society. In this context, bipolar disorder sometimes are thoughts to have a relation with the poor social support and lack of strong relationships with the society which pose adverse impact in the mental condition of the individuals in the UK majority of the young people suffers from the poor connection to the society, poor social support and bias which pose harmful impact n their psychology and decision-making skill, that can be the main reason behind their mood swing and recurrent depression. From the recent statistical report in bipolar disorder in the UK it is seen that, in recent days, young community are more prevalent to bipolar disorder than that older people. For example, WHO report shows that, in 2014, nearly 3-4% young people (16-24 years old) are affected by the bipolar disorder as compared to the relevance of older people to this disease in which only 0-3% older people are prevented to this mental illness. in this context, several theoretical approaches can be used in this aspect to discuss the nature and impact of bipolar disorder. Social cognitive theory can be applied in understanding the nature of the bipolar disorder.

Demonstrating how the experience and the intervention impact on the overall selected mental illness (bipolar disorders) on the people who are affected by the disorders:

According to Bennion et al. (2017), clinical intervention process for the bipolar disorder can be improved through using the experience of affected people. From the WHO report on the young people in the UK suffering from the bipolar disorder, it is seen that by evacuating the experience of affected people mental health practitioners can understand the root cause of this illness, which will assist them to implement medication and treatment process that are highly relevant to the nature and prevalence of the disease. On the contrary Soh et al. (2020) mentioned in their secondary research that, sometimes analysis of the experience of the affected people is not enough in treating acute mania, rather the mental health practitioner needs to have proper healthcare planning as well as innovative treatment process that will meet the health needs of the patient.

Treatment issues of bipolar disorder in the UK

In the UK, NHS hospitals train the mental health staffs to evaluate the experience of the patient suffering from bipolar disorder while treating them. According to Kendall et al. (2016), though using the innovative clinic intervention process, mental health practitioners can determine the overall health needs patient through using this experience, the health care professional can make proper research on the bipolar disorder in young population in term of determining the nature, prevalence, nature of working and mortality.

Analysing the qualitative data of primary research conducted on the selected social group:

Research method:

Qualitative primary research has been conducted on young people in the UK suffered from the bipolar disorder in the UK.

Data collection method:

Here the qualitative data are collected directly from the young people in the UK who suffer from bipolar disorder and their family members to get authentic information regarding their experience of mental illness (bipolar disorder) and the usefulness of healthcare services that they received from the health workers in the UIK.

Following are the open-ended questions that are asked to the selected social group and their answers given by them:

1. Tell me about the mental health byssus that you suffer due to the mental illness:

In response to tis questions, majority of the young people in the UK, have answered that, the bipolar disorder has affected not only physical health but also their psychological and emotional well-being. According to Fountoulakis et al. (2017) bipolar disorder affects the brain activities adversely which impact on connection between mind and body. Majority of the respondents and their family members has answered ta the overall experience of the bipolar disorder is pathetic which pose adverse impact on cognitive skill, decision making ability and analysing skill of the victims (Bennion et al. 2017). In addition to this there are some respondents who confess that, although they have experienced adverse impact of bipolar disorder on physical, emotional and mental stability, they recovered from thus disease by proper medication, psychotherapies and regular counselling. On the other hand, some young people who ar admitted into NHS hospitals have stated that, although they receive regular medicines and popper counselling, they sometime are unable to take proper decision regarding professional and personal matter. In addition to this, the family members of the victims have stated that, the overdose of antipsychotic medicines sometimes pose adverse impact on memory, soft feelings and biological condition of patients.

2. Do you think that anti-psychotic drug is effective in treatment of bipolar disorders?

Majority of the respondents have stated that they do not think than anti-psychotic drug is the sole solution in n getting rid of bipolar disorders. According to Giridharan et al. (2019), during treatment of young people suffering from bipolar disorder using anti-psychotic drug in massive amount can have adverse impact on function of heart, mind and lung. Many of the young patient admitted in the NHS, UK, have been reported to show adverse impact of heavy dose if snit-psychotic drug on their normal body functioning. Rest respondent have informed that, they found the application of anti-psychotic drugs is highly useful as well as relevant to their health condition. in this context Fountoulakis et al. (2017) stated that, using anti-psychotic drug at necessary amount do not have an adverse impact on physical and mental health of people suffering from bipolar disorder rather the application of needed amount of antipsychotic drug bipolar patient can reduce the adverse mental condition.

By analysing that above discussion, it can be stated that, health professional needs to focus on applying the right dose and anti-psycho drug that will be relevant to the mental condition of the patient suffering from bipolar disorder.

3. What type of healthcare services you get from the local healthcare centre and hospitals?

Based on the answers given by most respondents it can be started local government in the UK provides optimum healthcare services to the young people suffering from bipolar disorders. according to Goldstein et al. (2017), through proper medication counselling iota is possible to reduce the impact on bipolar disorder on the overall mental and physical condition of patients. Majority of the respondent shave stated that, victims are provided with proper medication, regular health check-up, weekly counselling and psycho therapies. In addition to this the young people who resides in deprived community and suffer from bipolar disorder are provided with free health check-up in each week with supplying free anti-psychotic drugs and counselling.

4. Was the health care service provided to victims of bipolar disorder relevant to the overall mental health insertion old patient”?

In order to answer this question, majority of the respondents have stated that eh health car service that are provided o them is not sufficient as well as relevant to the mental health condition. According to Kendall et al. (2016), it is important for combating with the impact of bipolar disorder to provides relevant treatment process and healthcare services to victims. The UK based young population who suffered from bipolar disorder have stated that mots of the healthcare staffs have not time to listen to the health issues and its impact on their biological condition properly. Some of the respondent have infirmed that, in most of the times they face no healthcare staffs present in their cabin when they need them desperately. In addition to this they infirmed that, sometimes they have to take the medicines by their own as most of the healthcare staffs nurses are unavailable in that time. on the other hand, most of the hospital do n have proper infrastructure for psychotherapies and countering which makes it difficult for health care professional to treat bipolar disorders.

Critically analyse the support as well as service mechanism involved in supporting the recovery of individuals to meet their basic needs:

In terms of promoting the sooner recovery of the young population from bipolar disorder in t UK, majority of the NHS staffs and mental health practitioner used different important approaches such as lifestyles changes, mood stabilisers, anti-depressants, anti-psychotic drugs and psychotherapy. In this context, Goldstein et al. (2019) mention their while dealing with the anxiety and mania in the adolescent and children, it is important for the health practitioner to go for the lifestyles changes and psycho-therapies, rather than go for the anti-depressant and anti-psychotic drugs as they can have an adverse impact in heart and lung. From the WHO report, it can be stated that in the UK the majority of the young population who suffer from bipolar disorder are treated with anti-psychotic drug and psychotherapies (Hughes et al. 2016). In the UK majority of the NHS, health practitioner thinks that only psychotherapies or the lifestyles changes are not the sole resolutions for recovery of this mental illness, rather the patient needs some anti-depressant medicines which will assist them to redeem their normal mental condition. on the contrary Inder et al. (2016) argued that, sometimes mental health professional face difficulties in treating the young people with anti-depressant drugs, the patient are unable to communicate properly with the doctors due to drowsiness as a result of the drugs. In this aspect, the mental health practitioner in the UK, need to determine the overall health condition of young people while trying to a bipolar disorder which will assist them to set relevant medication and clinical intervention process to promote the easy recovery.

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Critically evaluate the overall services, policies, diagnosis, support and treatment of Bipolar disorders:

Mental health practitioners work under relevant mental health policies such as the Mental Health Act 1983 in the UK (Bennion et al. 2017). The mental health policies set by UK government have posed obligation of the mental health practitioners to provide the equal and better care to all the patient suffering from bipolar disorder irrespective of their caste, religion, gender and race. On the contrary Tsapekos et al. (2019) argued that, in term of dealing with bipolar disorder, mental health practitioners cannot provide equal care and support to the patent suffering from bipolar disorder, rather in case of the disabled patient the more intense care is needed to reduce the severity of the mental illness. Under the Mental Health Act 2007, the mental health practitioner focuses on implementing proper treatment processes such as medication psychotherapies and counselling in terms of prevention of the disease (Cerimele, and Lostutter, 2020). To deal with a young patient suffering from bipolar disorders, the mental health practitioners need to use anti-psychotic and anti-depressant drug, which assists these patents to improve the overall mental condition of the patient. In addition to this, the NHS staffs in the UK will focus on complying with the mental health policies and guidelines set by the UK government to maintain the well-organised health care framework to provide better care and support to the patient.

Conclusion:

From the overall discussion, it can be concluded that bipolar disorder is the mental health condition in which the patient suffers from recurrent mania and depression. In this health condition, patients suffer from emotional; high which is known as mania and emotional low which is known as depression. In the UK, the mid to late adolescent people are highly prevalent to bipolar disorder. Health professionals in the NHS hospital focus on improving the overall mental health care policies and infrastructure of the hospital to deal with an increasing number of bipolar disease in the young generation. In addition to this, the mental, health practitioners also focus on psychotherapies to improve the overall mental health condition of the patient. Through using the experience of the patient regarding their psychological condition of bipolar disorder and proper clinical intervention, mental health by practitioners in the UK can be able to prevent the severity of this disease.

Reference list:

Bennion, M.R., Hardy, G., Moore, R.K. and Millings, A., 2017. E-therapies in England for stress, anxiety or depression: what is being used in the NHS? A survey of mental health services. BMJ open, 7(1).

Cerimele, J.M. and Lostutter, T.W., 2020. Bipolar disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder in rural primary care: Extending specialty care reach. Bipolar disorders, 22(1), pp.97-100.

Fountoulakis, K.N., Grunze, H., Vieta, E., Young, A., Yatham, L., Blier, P., Kasper, S. and Moeller, H.J., 2017. The International College of Neuro-Psychopharmacology (CINP) treatment guidelines for Bipolar disorder in adults (CINP-BD-2017), part 3: the clinical guidelines. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, 20(2), pp.180-195.

Giridharan, V.V., Sayana, P., Pinjari, O.F., Ahmad, N., da Rosa, M.I., Quevedo, J. and Barichello, T., 2019. Postmortem evidence of brain inflammatory markers in bipolar disorder: a systematic review. Molecular psychiatry, pp.1-20.

Goldstein, B.I., Birmaher, B., Carlson, G.A., DelBello, M.P., Findling, R.L., Fristad, M., Kowatch, R.A., Miklowitz, D.J., Nery, F.G., Perez‐Algorta, G. and Van Meter, A., 2017. The International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force report on pediatric bipolar disorder: Knowledge to date and directions for future research. Bipolar disorders, 19(7), pp.524-543.

Hughes, T., Cardno, A., West, R., Marino-Francis, F., Featherstone, I., Rolling, K., Locker, A., McLintock, K. and House, A., 2016. Unrecognised bipolar disorder among UK primary care patients prescribed antidepressants: an observational study. Br J Gen Pract, 66(643), pp.e71-e77.

Inder, M.L., Crowe, M.T., Luty, S.E., Carter, J.D., Moor, S., Frampton, C.M. and Joyce, P.R., 2016. Prospective rates of suicide attempts and nonsuicidal self-injury by young people with bipolar disorder participating in a psychotherapy study. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 50(2), pp.167-173.

Kendall, T., Morriss, R., Mayo-Wilson, E., Meyer, T.D., Jones, S.H., Oud, M. and Baker, M.R., 2016. NICE guidance on psychological treatments for bipolar disorder. The Lancet Psychiatry, 3(4), pp.317-320.

Perlick, D.A., Jackson, C., Grier, S., Huntington, B., Aronson, A., Luo, X. and Miklowitz, D.J., 2018. Randomized trial comparing caregiver‐only family‐focused treatment to standard health education on the 6‐month outcome of bipolar disorder. Bipolar disorders, 20(7), pp.622-633.

Tsapekos, D., Seccomandi, B., Mantingh, T., Cella, M., Wykes, T. and Young, A.H., 2019. Cognitive enhancement interventions for people with bipolar disorder: A systematic review of methodological quality, treatment approaches, and outcomes. Bipolar disorders.

Appendices:

Appendix 1:
Symptoms of bipolar disorder:
Symptoms of bipolar disorder
Appendix 2:
Treatment of bipolar disorder:
Treatment of bipolar disorder
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