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The area of interest to be focused in the study is “Bridging the cultural divide, knowing your neighbours”. In the community, the neighbours are extremely supportive of the needs of the family and particularly to the children needs (Afandi, 2017). The presence good neighbours and remaining connected with them while avoiding the cultural gap help in creating a harmonious society where people live collaboratively and assist each other in all phases. In the healthcare context, the presence of effective connection with the neighbours in the community also helps to share enhanced healthcare knowledge, get support for accessing simple and/or emergency services, identify care services required not known to all, resolve isolative living, improve mental health of people and others (reachinghispanics.org, 2017). Thus, to further understand way connectivity with neighbours can improve the overall health condition and delivery in the community, the health promotion initiative taken by me is “Getting to know your neighbours”.
In this assignment, policies relating to my initiative “Getting to know your neighbours” is to be explained and the approaches for the nature of health promotion taken for the initiative is to be discussed. The epidemiological data regarding the initiative of the health promotion “Getting to know your neighbours “is to be explained and evaluation methods to be used in the process is to be mentioned. The way the initiative addresses health inequality and the model of health promotion used for supporting the initiative is to be discussed. The issues to be faced in changing by following the initiative and factors required to be considered in making the change through the initiative of “Getting to know your neighbours” is to be mentioned.
The national policy standards and guidelines which are related to framing the “Getting to know your neighbours” initiative includes the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) for Community Engagement, NHS Five Year Forward View and others. The Community Engagement standards by NICE highlights that collaboration and partnership are required to be formed between local partners and members in the community for meeting local needs and priorities. The collaboration is to be used in encouraging the creation of support alliance between community members in meeting their local, needs and demands (NICE, 2016). Moreover, it mentions that people and their neighbours are to be collaboratively involved in peer and lay roles to present the local needs and create community engagement in develop health and well-being initiative (NICE, 2016). The policy was useful for framing the initiative because it guided the way community engagement is to be made with enhanced participation of all in the society to develop health improvement activities.
The NHS Five Year Forward View mentioned that health services required to be changed and for this purpose, a strong relation between the patients and community members is to be developed through collaboration and partnership approach. This is because it would help in directly communicating with the patient regarding their health issue and ensure direct guidance a well as assistance to be provided and reached required for the patient’s enhanced health and well-being (england.nhs.uk, 2019). The NHS Five Year Forward View was useful in framing the initiative “Getting to know your neighbours” because it provided information about the importance of community engagement through collaboration between neighbours and instruction regarding the way to execute it. The “Looking out for neighbours” is local campaign followed by the NHS West Yorkshire and Harrogate which related with the current initiative of “Getting to know your neighbours”. The campaign highlighted the way through online discussion neighbours in the community can be brought together and made to share information as well as access help from one another to avoid feeling lonely and get assistance regarding healthcare or other things in need (wyhpartnership.co.uk, 2016). It was useful and related with my initiative because it dictated the way neighbours in the community can be brought together to achieve collaboration in sharing their thoughts and assistance for the health and well-being of the people in the community.
One of the international policy that relates to my initiative of “Getting to know your neighbours” include “Check your Neighbours” policy set by the Queensland government. The policy mentioned that knowing neighbours is a major part of the household and it is required because they are the ones that assist in many ways such as while getting caught in emergency, facing hindered health situation, abuse and others. The policy mentions that to know your neighbour frequent communication with them is required, shared tasks are to be performed in the community, help each other in need and identify their demands to be fulfilled (Cheshire, 2015). This policy provided effective help in framing my initiative as it directed how neighbours are to be brought close to one another in the society to ensure they effectively know them and way they are to involve developing food relationship to assist one another in need.
The new approaches to health promotion taken in establishing the initiative of “Getting to know your neighbours” includes development of empowerment along volunteering or active citizenship engagement. As mentioned by Sak et al. (2017), empowerment and enhanced participation matters in health promotion at individual as well as at collective level. This is because empowerment leads the individuals and the group in health promotion gain sense of control in making decision over the actions to be taken to ensure success of the promotion. As argued by Pati et al. (2017), lack of empowerment in people involved in health promotion leads to lower self-efficacy self-esteem and confidence in them to support and develop the change. This leads to create barriers in the health promotion for its successful establishment of positive behaviour and self-care activities. Thus, empowerment approach in the initiative was taken so that people in the communities are educated through information to be empowered in taking decision of the way better knolwdege and relationship with the neighbours are to be built in their community which is the motive of the initiative. The benefit of the empowerment approach in establishing the initiative was that it led to create increased self-efficacy in the people to take decision and make judgement in resolving problem to successfully communicate and develop relationship with the neighbours for knowing them genuinely and helping them in all aspect of healthcare and additional services (assets.publishing.service.gov.uk, 2015).
The volunteering is another nature of health promotion approach used in framing the current initiatives. It is mainly followed in many parts of England and is important part of social fabrication of actions in the field of health and welfare. This is evident from the Citizenship Survey report where it was mentioned that 49% of the people in England volunteered informally or formally through organisation and community club and others to assist neighbours and friends in availing healthcare and develop better cordial relationship with them (yougov.co.uk, 2015). The volunteering is important part of promotion of any initiative in any field as it acts as healthy boost for the self-confidence among people to participate in a cause in the community on own to develop a better place (assets.publishing.service.gov.uk, 2015). The benefit of volunteering approach in the current initiative was that people personally willed to dedicate their time to create new friends and making relationship with neighbours. It helped to meet the aim of expanding relationship in the community and boost social skills for assisting and delivering healthcare for all. This is because personal involvement of volunteers let them to explore and identify the health and additional needs of the neighbours based on which they communicated and assisted the neighbour to promote their health which resulted in knowing them better (assets.publishing.service.gov.uk, 2015).
The epidemiological research and population data regarding the initiative of “Getting to know your neighbours” informs that it is one of the key requirements in the society. This is evident from the report of Age UK which informs that in 2020, nearly 1 million of the elderly people in the UK mentioned that during the COVID-19 lockdown period in the country mentioned they have gone without speaking to any friend or family friend. This has adversely affected them by making them feel lonely and develop stress regarding the way to act if emergency health situation arises (ageuk.org.uk, 2020). The situation has mainly raised due to lack of knolwdege regarding neighbours in the community by people which led people to remain disconnected with one another as there was no social connection among them (Zhang et al., 2020). In this condition, knowing of the neighbour initiative is important to develop effective social connection with one another in the community where the people interact with one another and avoid being in isolation due to lack of connection with others.
The reports by Age UK in 2019 mentioned that 3.4 million of people over 65 years mainly rely on chatting with neighbour to brighten their day and avoid being in isolation. It further mentioned that at the present 1.7 million people in England are not well-connected with their neighbours and foes without talking to any people in months that adversely affects their mental health out of being in isolation (ONS, 2019). Thus, the statistics highlight need of getting to know neighbour better is important initiative in the UK because many of elderly are seen to be dependent on it to remain positive in life and those who are unable to relate or communicate with their neighbours are seen to face adverse health consequences.
A survey made by YouGov mentioned that in Britain only 27% consider their neighbours to be good friend and 33% mention to invite their neighbour into the house for socialisation and better knowing them. However, 71% of them mentioned they do talk with their neighbours each week or day (yougov.co.uk, 2015). It indicates that thought there is communication between neighbours in the UK, but effective relationship between them is not established. This is because maybe they have limited interaction and knolwdege regarding one another due to which the neighbours even after knowing them are avoid overcoming the differences to remain socially related (reachinghispanics.org, 2017). In this connection of less interaction with neighbours, the “Getting to know your neighbours” is an important initiative. This is because it would help in making neighbours develop more close connection with one another and consider one another as good friend (which they currently avoid) to help each in need of any health emergency or additional assistance.
The health inequalities are referred to unjustified and avoidable differences present regarding health in people between specific population groups (McCartney et al., 2019). One of the reasons of health inequality is hindered social cohesion present between groups in the society which mean presence of hindered connectedness and solidarity among population groups and people (Marmot, 2017). The negative social cohesion causes health inequality due to lack of information about helpfulness to be delivered, understanding of needs, collaborative membership and lack of trust between people in the society (van der Wel et al., 2018). However, the initiative “Getting to know your neighbours” address specially resolve lack of social cohesion or social support that raises health inequality. This is because allowing to knowing neighbours in the society assist in creating harmonious and friendly interaction between people where individual understand each other’s needs and requirements of assistance regarding health. It supports to frame helpfulness attitude among the people for healthcare towards others because knowing regarding neighbours leads the people to understand what help and assistance are to be provided to them for enhanced health and well-being (Salvo et al., 2018).
The presence of effective social cohesion also helps to resolve inequality in health outcomes of the people thorough promotion of enhanced behavioural and psychological pathway information (Huang et al., 2019). This is because social cohesion or support leads to create holistic reach of information to the people regarding the way to achieve any alerted actions for health and develop supportive attitude between one another to stick together in achieving the healthier behaviours (Hou et al., 2020). The current initiative of “Getting to know your neighbours” helps in creating enhanced connectedness and communication with neighbours to share thoughts and provide motivation to one another along with information in achieving the altered health care actions without failure (ourneighbours.org.uk, 2020). For example, social connectedness developed through knowing of neighbours leads people to stick with one another and deliver information in person to each other regarding the healthier diets to be followed in resolving obesity (Alonso et al., 2019). However, the lack of connectedness created out of lack of knowing the neighbours leads people to act individually in trying to follow healthier diets. This leads many individuals avoid sticking to the actions as they lack supportive motivation to abide by them, in turn, leading to create inequalities in health outcomes (Cueva et al., 2020). The inequalities in health outcome is important to be resolved so that equal prevention and tackling of healthy complication in among all culture and communities (Donkin et al., 2018).
The social support resolves health inequality by fighting cultural marginalisation and exclusion of people from accessing healthcare due to discrimination. It is evident as social support assist to create better understanding of different culture and their dimensions which gradually lower the unequal power of relationship developed between different cultural groups. This leads to resolve the differences and promote equal thinking which avoid discrimination in healthcare to be established, in turn, promoting delivering of enhanced health support (Starlard-Davenport et al., 2016). The solution for discrimination and marginalisation which promotes health inequality is created through “Getting to know your neighbours” initiative. This is because in the initiative of knowing neighbours the public develop effective communication with the neighbours who belong to other culture or social class to understand the reason of their cultural condition and norms. The communication developed through connectedness with the neighbours also lead to develop knolwdege among the public regarding the way the exclusion is hindering their health situation and reason to be avoided. It gradually leads them to respect the culture and avoid racial differences to be created (Tufte, 2017).
The initiative addressing the health inequalities raised due to discrimination and marginalisation is important to be resolved because it ensure equal reach of the healthcare services to people of the minority communities and classes like the upper classes and individuals (Lynch, 2017). It is also important because addressing health inequality allow better access to healthcare information and resources to all which helps in better control of the prevalence of any disease in the overall population (Marmot, 2017). The initiative addressing health inequality is also important because it assists in creating a safe healthcare neighbourhood for all and promote effective sharing or healthcare support in all communities to holistically create an enhanced healthcare environment in any location (Marmot, 2017).
The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion is one of the healthcare models that is followed in supporting the initiative of “Getting to know your neighbours”. According to the model, the improvement in health requires effective management and advocacy of the key factors of good health which are political, social, personal, cultural, economic behavioural and environmental (WHO, 2019). In the current initiative, all these factors are considered regarding the way they may influence knowing neighbours by the public in regard to health context and way they are to be managed to reach health advocacy. This is evident as policy support, political commitment, social acceptance and system support present and required for the success of the initiative is evaluated and according plans are made to influence the change or initiative. The Ottawa Charter mentions that for effective health promotion health equality in all aspect of healthcare is to be created (Thompson et al., 2018). The current initiative of “Getting to know your neighbours” is based on creating health equality in the society by developing harmony and respect for different culture and classes among people through connectedness and communication between public. Thus, it follows the aspect of health promotion mentioned in the Ottawa Charter effectively.
The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion mentions that for effective health promotion mediation between different professional, social groups and families are to be created. Moreover, the activities of health promotion are required to be adapted according to the needs and possibilities of individual locations (Wilberg et al., 2019). This aspect of the model is followed in framing the “Getting to know your neighbours” initiative which is evident as different promotion strategies based in places are determined and mediation between communities and families are created for the success of the health promotion. The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion is effectively useful in framing health promotion as it provides indication about the three basic strategies to be followed to promote health and way to achieve them (WHO, 2019).
The other model which could be used in supporting the initiative “Getting to know your neighbours” is Tannahill Health Promotion Model. The model mentions that to reach effective health promotion prevention of risk of disease, positive health education and health protection is to be created (Marotta and Mazzucco, 2017). According to the model, the risk factors which could create barrier in collaboration and connectedness among neighbours for healthcare support are to be identified and preventive actions are to be taken to avoid their influence during support. Moreover, as per the model, positive education regarding importance of the “Getting to know your neighbours” among the public is to be created so that more people volunteer to participate in the initiative and establish it. The legislative action along with social measures influencing the initiative are to be determined and followed for effective establishment of health promotion.
The issues which may impact the person taking positive action according to the aim of the initiative “Getting to know your neighbours” includes lack of trust and participation of the neighbours, cultural barriers and language barriers. The lack of participation of the neighbour in communication out of lack of trust with whom the person wishes to communicate and known regarding their needs to support their health demands and requirements would impact them to fail in accomplishing the initiative. This is because without communication and trust from the neighbours, the person would be unable to reach and interact with the neighbours to understand their needs and know them better to develop friendly relationship (McVeigh et al., 2021). The language barrier is another issue which impact the person trying to make positive change through “Getting to know your neighbours”. This is because the person without being multi-lingual or lack of understanding of different language may not be able to develop meaningful communication with all neighbours of different origin in the locality who do not have knolwdege regarding English. It could create barrier in trying to know them which would led in failure of achieving aim of the initiative (Topmiller et al., 2017).
The cultural barrier may impact as an issue on the person trying to make positive healthcare choices according to the initiative of “Getting to know your neighbours”. This is because the person trying to make the change may not be aware of the different cultural norms and customs followed by all their neighbours to open up themselves to others. It would make the person execute actions that may not be supported by the neighbours while making communication. This in turn may make the neighbours feel being undervalued and disrespected which would lead them to avoid interaction with the person to share health and social needs ideas or other demands to develop friendly relation creating failure to meet the aim of the initiative (Li, 2017).
The two major factors to be considered in the process of change regarding “Getting to know your neighbours” are environmental factors and social condition. The environmental factors such as physical distance to reach neighbours, building type in which neighbours live, transportation availability and quality of public services present in the area influence change of getting to known neighbours. This is because less physical distance between neighbours would ensure frequent communication and detailed getting to knowing of the individuals out of being in the same locality and less requirement of time and energy. However, longer distance between neighbours and unavailability of easy transportation leads to act as barrier in getting to known neighbours. This is because it creates physical barrier in reaching the neighbours to get to known them and assist them in their health choices (Afandi, 2017). Moreover, the inaccessible building types where restricted entry are allowed leads to create barrier in getting to know neighbours as different systematic barriers are faced by people trying to reach their neighbours which leads to avoid them in taking the initiative (reachinghispanics.org, 2017).
The social condition such as being in friendly terms, sharing similar language pattern and having less age gap influences the process of change regarding “Getting to know your neighbours”. This is because being in friendly terms helps to create positive interaction between neighbours out of trust and value towards one another (Afandi, 2017). However, the lack of presence of friendly terms creates negative influence and barrier in interaction between neighbours out of lack of value and positive intention to help each other (reachinghispanics.org, 2017). The presence of similar language pattern and ideas of its use is required factor in establishing the initiative of getting to know neighbours. This is because without the similar language speaking and understanding ability, no effective interaction between neighbours can be established to get to know them and provide them assistance (Afandi, 2017).
The above discussion mentions that in framing the regarding "Getting to know your neighbours" initiative the policies that influenced its framing are National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) for Community Engagement, NHS Five Year Forward View and others. The new approaches of health promotion focused on regarding "Getting to know your neighbours" initiative are empowerment, volunteering and community engagement. The initiative is important as many adults in the UK are reported to be living alone which is making them face mental stress and depression along with facing hindrance in living a better life by arranging adequate healthcare facility. This initiative addresses inequality by promoting information sharing, lowering marginalisation of people and others. The Ottawa Charter of Health promotion is been followed in framing the initiative and the Tannahill Health promotion model can also be followed in better framing of the initiative. The social and environmental factors are the key aspects that influence the process of change in the initiative.
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