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Diabetes is basically a chronic disease or a body condition where the human body pancreas is unable to produce enough insulin which keeps the glucose level in normal state. This condition occurs when either the natural body insulin is not produced or the body is unable to use the created insulin effectively. Insulin is that hormone which regulates the blood sugar level in body and prevents increase in that. The type II diabetes which can be also known as non-insulin-dependent or an adult-onset complication, results due to the ineffectiveness of the insulin usage (bmj.com, 2020). This type II diabetes usually is a result if an inactive physical life, bad eating habits and excessive body weight. In some cases the disease is diagnosed earlier but there are so many cases where there were no symptoms to identify the disease in people. Recently the type II diabetes is seen to be occurring is a large amount in kids and teenagers too, earlier it was just seen in adults only.
Type 2 Diabetes for teenagers and kids
In past few years the surveys and researches have shown that not only in adults but in kids and teenagers also the risk of developing type II diabetes has risen. To have a better knowledge about the effects, symptoms, complications, treatments and risk factors a specific region can be taken like kids and teenagers of UK. According to Del Prato (2019), the main reason found for the increasing cases of type II diabetes in kids and teenagers are lessen outdoor physical activities such as playing outdoor games rather than video games in laptops and tablets, unhealthy eating habits such as junk and processed food items from markets instead of a healthy diet full of vegetables and fruits, minimisation of exercise included in their daily routine and many such factors leads to this bad health condition. All these things are not just the fault of the children’s habits but their parents are also equally responsible for this condition
Factors of health inequalities
There are so many factors that cause the risk of type II diabetes in teenagers and kids. According to the health organisational surveys, some of hen factors are highlighted here which includes-
Pre-mature borne babies sometimes develop type II diabetes who takes born from 39th week to 42nd week of gestation.
Inactivity in kids and teenagers restricts the best use of the bod glucose and turns the body cells unresponsive to the natural insulin produced and that glucose freezes around the stomach areas resulting in a fat belly.
Another factor is being born to a gestational diabetic mother or having lower birth weight also causes to develop the type II diabetes in kids and teenagers.
As argued by Goff (2019), there is a reason that is unclear and unproven still exists and the reason is development of type II diabetes in Asian American people, Black people, American Indian people and Hispanic races or ethnicities
A major factor of having type II diabetes is having a long run and constant over weight most of which the fat is stored around the abdome
It has been seen that the girl children are more prone to type II diabetes at a very early stage of their age as compared with boys (onlinelibrary.wiley.com, 2019)
The most common factor is the family heredity of having diabetes in parents, siblings or grandparents.
Stakeholders involved in the policy making
The policies which were developed in the policy making process includes all types of people which includes the people who agrees with the policies, the opponents who restricts the policy procedures, the managing people who keeps an eye on how the process is going and the people who measures if the policies were successfully implemented and people got benefitted or not (Chadda et al. 2020). The four main stages of health related policy implications involves-
Being keeping people satisfied with implications, Having a close look on the managing, Monitoring functions, and Keeping updated about the process.
Some of the factors that need to be considered are:
Factors that increases the interest of the stakeholders in the issue Potential benefits achieved from the policies Negative impacts of those policies How much the stakeholders have influence on the policies Limitations of the influencing power of the stakeholders How strong are the opponents
Laws and decision makers of the health issues
According to the report revealed by the World Health Organisation (WHO), diabetes has been seen as the sixth most common cause of deaths in adults as well as in kids & teenagers also. The program which is developed by the collaboration of Diabetes UK, PHE and NHS England is a joint commission named as NHS Diabetes Prevention Programme with the goal to protect and aware people of the diabetes adverse effects and also facilitates the patients with many facilities (Candler et al. 2018). There are many laws and organisations also present despite all these the cases of type II diabetes in mostly kids and teenagers are increasing. So it can be advised that there needs to be created more heath awareness programs are needed to be executed. More healthcare protection acts and regulations are needed to give healthcare facilities to the patients. The continuous efforts of the common people, healthcare organisations and the parents of the children can bring change in the health condition of the diabetic patients leading to a healthy lifestyle with reduced cases of Type II Diabetes in UK.
bmj.com, 2020. Takeaway meal consumption and risk markers for coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes and obesity in children aged 9–10 years: a cross-sectional study, available at: https://adc.bmj.com/content/103/5/431.abstract [Accessed on: 10th February, 2021]
Candler, T.P., Mahmoud, O., Lynn, R.M., Majbar, A.A., Barrett, T.G. and Shield, J.P., 2018. Treatment adherence and BMI reduction are key predictors of HbA1c 1 year after diagnosis of childhood type 2 diabetes in the United Kingdom. Pediatric diabetes, 19(8), pp.1393-1399.
Chadda, K.R., Cheng, T.S. and Ong, K.K., 2020. GLP‐1 agonists for obesity and type 2 diabetes in children: Systematic review and meta‐analysis. Obesity Reviews.
Del Prato, S., 2019. Heterogeneity of diabetes: heralding the era of precision medicine. The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, 7(9), pp.659-661.
Goff, L.M., 2019. Ethnicity and Type 2 diabetes in the UK. Diabetic Medicine, 36(8), pp.927-938.
onlinelibrary.wiley.com, 2019. Rapid progression of type 2 diabetes and related complications in children and young people—A literature review, available at: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/pedi.12953 [Accessed on: 15th February, 2021]
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