Enhancing Healthcare Through Technology

Critically analyse the potential for developments in technology to benefit the registered nurse and patient experience

Technology is instrumental in improving the overall healthcare framework not only by improving skills, professional abilities and knowledge of registered nurses but also by improving patient experience in getting high-quality care service. Through using relevant theoretical approaches as well as literature this essay will make a critical analysis of the benefits of proper implementation of technology-based care process in improving patient’s experiences. In addition to this, through using relevant literature, this essay will critically evaluate how technology assists registered nurses in terms of providing high-quality care service by improving their professional and personal knowledge.

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As mentioned by Clavelle (2018), in today's' highly modern digital era, technology is associated in every aspect of healthcare. With advancement of new technologies, healthcare authority can modify and modernise the entire service delivery process in terms of improving patient experiences.

As argued by Penny et al. (2018), technology is not only associated with improving care process and patient experiences in healthcare but also it is instrumental in developing professional as well as personal skills of registered nurses. While it comes to analyse critically the overall importance of technology to benefit registered nurse and improve patient experiences, it is important to understand that how the technological advancement has brought about positive changes in healthcare (Penny et al. 2018). Evidence-based medical reports have suggested that technology assists registered nurses to use digital information management process that assists them to make electronic document on medical records, patient case study, details of medications and reports on entire care process for each patient. In this context, Glasgow et al. (2018) argued that, although technologies are associated with developing online information management system it has also raised the chances of data hacking that interfere with privacy a well as confidentiality of personal database of patients (Clavelle, 2018). The evidence-based report has also suggested that Artificial Intelligence (AI) has assisted health professionals to improve patient experiences by conducting innovative treatment processes such as robotic surgery, EHR (Electronic Health report), automated IV pumps, portable monitor and electronic beds (Whitt et al. 2017). Technology has also assisted the patient to make them self-dependent by providing them with wearable healthcare devices that assist them to make self-check-up of their BP, blood volume, BMR, blood glucose and sleeping pattern. For example, in the majority of NHS hospitals, patients are provided with self-managed wearable devices such as, biometric optical sensor and wearable sweat sensor, that assist patients, to have positive experiences in tracking their current health condition.

EHR is one of the major benefits of Health Artificial Intelligence (HAI), that has not only fastened the information delivery system in healthcare but also make it easier for registered nurses as well as health professionals to store patient-related information in a systematic manner through using highly-secured software and password (Kaipio et al. 2020). Health’s Artificial Intelligence (AI) has assisted registered nurse to make positive utilisation of EHR. Through using HER the registered nurse, as well as health professionals, can be benefited in several ways such as improve the overall information management process in healthcare. Through using HER, registered nurses are able to use online tracker to track the overall duty schedule, patient’s health updates and information regarding treatment and medication process on regular basis (Whitt et al. 2017). In addition to this, HER assist resisted nurses to make softcopy of patients’ case study, pre-medical history and information regarding the ongoing treatment and therapeutic process, instead of making manual document, that not only safe times of nurses but also save their efforts. On supporting this viewpoint many evidences-based studies have suggested that EHR also assist registered nurse to track overall health condition of patient easily through analysing the electronic medical database on patient health (Moon et al. 2018). However, There are many old registered nurses in hospitals are to provide with proper training on the handling of technical medical instrument which interferes with quality of service delivery process. Here NHS nurses are reported to have poor assistance from their senior health professions and health care authorities in using EHR to avoid risk associated with this process such as data hacking and phishing (Yabut and Rosenblum, 2017). Despite these criticisms, it is acknowledged that introduction, as well as active implementation of technologies in healthcare, has changed the way registered nurses deals with the health issues of patient and improves their care experiences care. As mentioned by Clavelle (2018), through using technologies in healthcare registered nurses are not only able to set professions skills to meet the care standard set by NICE but also help them to use the innovative nurturing process and high-quality compassionate care to patients with critical needs.

Through using EHR, registered nurses are benefited in term of keeping proper track of proper electronic record of patient health-related information such as the current health condition of patients, current BP and BM of the patient, the medication process and the therapeutic process that are used for patients (Yabut and Rosenblum, 2017). In addition to this, EHR into healthcare assists registered nurse to improve patient experiences by involving them in sharing their health-related database with nurses and health professional that enhance the clarity of medical information received by the nurses and doctors from m the patients (Soriano et al. 2019). In current medical context, a senior registered nurse and health professional are engaged in providing proper training to patients in using wearable healthcare devices such as sweat sensor and optical sensor. In this context, Archibald and Barnard (2018) argued that, unlike the manual care process in which nurses and healthcare professionals are physically connected with patients and their family members to make empathetic environment, in technology-based service delivery process, it is difficult for nurse and health professional to make emotional attachment with patients as well as with family members due to lack of proper face-to-face communication (Penny et al. 2018).

However, there are many criticisms regarding statement in which many evidence-based reports have suggested that technology has assisted registered nurse to understand the proper psychology and critical needs by using innovating care process. For example, by using electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) registered nurse as well as mental health professions can determine the current mental health condition of patients (Mundt and Zakletskaia, 2018). On the contrary, Clavelle (2018), argued that in the majority of cases patients’ family are disagreed with using ECT as there are some presumptions regarding use of ECT which says that ECT is used in the treatment of psychologically imbalanced people.

As mentioned by Bagherian et al. (2017), technology is not only associated with providing satisfactory care service to patients that improve their care experiences but also associated with modernising the perception, knowledge and decision of registered nurses as well as of the health professionals which bring about innovation in contemporary care framework. Through using social media, registered nurses in any hospital can easily communicate with other senior health professionals as well as healthcare bodies globally, which is highly effective to these nurses to develop their understanding, perception and assumption regarding the health needs of patients. In addition to this, through using technologies into care process of critical patients, registered nurses can get proper advice and assistance from healthcare officials of other countries and states that will assists nurse to gather knowledge about innovative care process and modern treatment that are operated globally. On the contrary Soriano et al. (2019) argued that, although technology plays important roles in assisting registered nurse and health professionals to have effective communication with global healthcare bodies, integration of different healthcare approaches and advice can interfere with the originality as well as the uniqueness of care process of particular healthcare organisation.

As mentioned by Bagherian et al. (2017), Health Information Technology (HIT) is an instrument in introducing electronic data management and data handling process in healthcare. Electronic Health Record (EHR) is a highly preferred automated data management system in which registered nurses can record the medical data of patients with maintaining confidentiality and ethical norms. As opined by Archibald and Barnard (2018), EHR assists registered nurse to record the health-related database of patients such as their medical history, current health condition, medication process, ongoing treatment process and health improvement. On supporting this view, many researchers have stated that EHR system help registered nurses to get faster access to patients’ health record that assists nurses to get an accurate picture of patient’s current health condition. In this context, Archibald and Barnard (2018) argued that, although there are several benefits of EHR system for registered nurse as well as for the patients, there are many limitations associated with this system. Evidence-based reports have suggested that many nurses found this EHR system not much effective in healthcare as they think it can interfere with proper communication and interaction among patients and nurse. In addition to this, many researches have stated that sometimes EHR system is unable to keep pace with fast work process, which makes it obligatory for registered nurses to make necessary adjustment in the EHR sheet to resolve the problems.

Along with the benefits of EHR, there is some limitation that is associated with using this process in healthcare (Yabut and Rosenblum, 2017). The major drawback or adverse outcome of EHR is the breaking of confidentiality of data management of healthcare database. in many cases, although using the secured software and confidential password patient’s health database are hacked by unauthorised person. Another adverse outcome of EHR is in online entry of database any single error can make the serious changes in the entire process, which sometimes can not be resolved due to poor network support. On supporting this statement Clavelle (2018) mentioned that sometimes registered nurses are obstinate about switching to HER to manage electronic database due to frequent network error, risk of losing important database due to technical problem and lack of proper technical backup to retrieve lost database. On the contrary Penny et al. (2018) argued that the conflict regarding using EHR process can easily be resolved by providing proper training to a registered nurse about easy process handling electronic health records. Evidences suggest that, despite the help and assistance that nurses and health professionals can get through using EHR, it has been reported that when technical problems occur there is insufficient IT support as well as lack of proper manpower backup that lead to sudden damages in health records and loss of much important healthcare database.

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It is interesting to analyse them based on the four principles of biomedical ethics (Beauchamp and Childress, 2013) include autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, and justice. The privacy of patients and the security of their information is the most imperative barrier to entry when considering the adoption of electronic health records in the health industry. Electronic health record acquisition is one of the most important decisions for healthcare organizations (Ahlstrom, 2010) because, despite the financial and other incentives provided by the government, the adoption of EHR's remain problematic; one of the most important reasons for such a thing is the lack of a clear understanding of all the factors that are likely to affect EHR adoption (Nambisan, Kreps, and Polit, 2013).

Fragidis and Chatzoglou (2018), identified the best practices applied during the implementation process of a national electronic health records (EHR) system. Furthermore, they explored the knowledge gained by experts from leading countries such as the US, UK and Australia in the field of nationwide EHR system implementation, focussing on some of the main success factors and difficulties, or failures of various implementation approaches (Fragidis and Chatzoglou, 2018). Sheikh et al., (2011 cited on Fragidis and Chatzoglou, 2018) highlights that the main obstacles for the integration and development of the national EHR system are lack of specification of common system characteristics and the politically oriented relationship of healthcare providers. Fragidis and Chatzoglou, (2018), further argue that the development rate of EHR systems globally has been much slower than it was originally anticipated, US been on the lead ahead of the UK and Australia.

In the United States (US), the Ministry of Health Meaningful Use Incentive Program in which the interoperability level among health care providers and between health care providers and insurance providers is still low, with no universal patient identifier (Fragidis and Chatzoglou, 2017). Here, The Meaningful Use Incentive Program is designed to raise EHR functionality and the current focus is on the information exchange. Whereas, in the UK, NHS has a summary care record system which includes current medication, adverse reactions, and allergies are kept for all patients apart for those who choose not to have one. Finally, NHS organisations implemented universal digital care records paperless use in primary urgent and emergency care services in 2018 and 2020 (Fragidis and Chatzoglou, 2017).

The Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) (2018), the UK regulator for education programmes, issued revised competencies for pre-registration nurse education in 2018 and states that nurses should understand and explain the contribution of social influences, health literacy, individual circumstances, behaviours and lifestyle choices to mental, physical and behavioural health outcomes. Lasater, Atherton, and Kyle, (2019) further argue that the imperative to meaningfully integrate population health in nurse education is not unique to the UK, however, the UK may be the first to legislate that population health knowledge and skills be part of the curricula. Furthermore, the need for competencies must be integrated by 2020 and offer an opportunity for nurse educators everywhere to learn from the challenges of the UK experience.

Although the UK competencies were new in 2018, the need for a stronger population focus was evident in the UK initiatives and documents from the recent past. According to the NHS England, (2019) the Chief Nursing Officer (CNO) in England highlighted that a workforce fit for the future needs to tackle inequality and break down the barriers that are preventing too many from reaching their potential. The Royal College of Nursing (RCN), (2016) argued that the professional body for all nurses in the UK also emphasised the crucial role that nurses play in public health, health promotion, and encouraged nurses to seize opportunities to support people with more than their presenting condition to make every contact count.

In conclusion, this assignment has critically analysed the potential for developments in technology such as EHR and genetics to benefits nurses and patients’ experience about the 21st century for adult nursing. Nurses still believe that machines cannot replace humans for various reasons and involving nurses is imperative for better outcomes. Furthermore, the impact of technology on nurses and patients’ experience has been highlighted and critically discussed personal development, responsibility and professional skills in nursing, health political influences on both national and globally. Finally, policy, research, and information on technology between different countries been explored.

Reference list:

Al-Amin, M. and Makarem, S.C., 2016. The effects of hospital-level factors on patients' ratings of physician communication. Journal of Healthcare Management, 61(1), pp.28-41.

Archibald, M.M. and Barnard, A., 2018. Futurism in nursing: technology, robotics and the fundamentals of care. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 27(11-12), pp.2473-2480.

Bagherian, B., Sabzevari, S., Mirzaei, T. and Ravari, A., 2017. Effects of technology on nursing care and caring attributes of a sample of Iranian critical care nurses. Intensive and Critical Care Nursing, 39, pp.18-27.

Clavelle, J.T., 2018. Leveraging Technology to Increase Patient and Family Engagement and Improve Outcomes. Nursing administration quarterly, 42(3), pp.246-253.

Glasgow, M.E.S., Colbert, A., Viator, J. and Cavanagh, S., 2018. The Nurse‐Engineer: A New Role to Improve Nurse Technology Interface and Patient Care Device Innovations. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 50(6), pp.601-611.

Kaipio, J., Kuusisto, A., Hyppönen, H., Heponiemi, T. and Lääveri, T., 2020. Physicians’ and nurses’ experiences on EHR usability: Comparison between the professional groups by employment sector and system brand. International Journal of Medical Informatics, 134, p.104018.

Katsanis, S.H., Huang, E., Young, A., Grant, V., Warner, E., Larson, S. and Wagner, J.K., 2019. Caring for trafficked and unidentified patients in the EHR shadows: Shining a light by sharing the data. PLoS one, 14(3).

Merchant, S., O'Connor, M. and Halkett, G., 2017. Time, space and technology in radiotherapy departments: how do these factors impact on patients' experiences of radiotherapy?. European journal of cancer care, 26(2), p.e12354.

Moon, M.C., Hills, R. and Demiris, G., 2018. Understanding optimisation processes of electronic health records (EHRs) in select leading hospitals: a qualitative study. BMJ Health & Care Informatics, 25(2), pp.109-125.

Mundt, M.P. and Zakletskaia, L.I., 2018. Putting the pieces together: EHR communication and diabetes patient outcomes. The American journal of managed care, 24(10), p.462.

Penny, R.A., Bradford, N.K. and Langbecker, D., 2018. Registered nurse and midwife experiences of using videoconferencing in practice: A systematic review of qualitative studies. Journal of clinical nursing, 27(5-6), pp.e739-e752.

Soriano, R., Siegel, E.O., Kim, T.Y. and Catz, S., 2019. Nurse Managers' Experiences With Electronic Health Records in Quality Monitoring. Nursing administration quarterly, 43(3), pp.222-229.

Whitt, K.J., Eden, L., Merrill, K.C. and Hughes, M., 2017. Nursing student experiences regarding safe use of electronic health records: a pilot study of the Safety and Assurance Factors for EHR Resilience guides. CIN: Computers, Informatics, Nursing, 35(1), pp.45-53.

Yabut, L. and Rosenblum, R., 2017. An Integrative Review of the Use of EHR in Childhood Obesity Identification and Management. On-Line Journal of Nursing Informatics, 21(3).

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