Factors Contributing to the Rising Cases of Type

Question 1 (1.1)

The table below shows the causes of the following diseases and the effect they have on the body.

The table below shows the causes of the following diseases and the effect The table below shows the causes of the following diseases and the effect The table below shows the causes of the following diseases and the effect The table below shows the causes of the following diseases and the effect The table below shows the causes of the following diseases and the effect

Question 2 (2.1)

Since last 20 years the number of cases of Type 2 Diabetes have surged substantially. It has been anticipated within next 5 years the number of type2 diabetes patient may increase up to 5 million in number. Several risk factors are there which make a type 2 diabetes patient very much vulnerable (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2020).

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Before going to the epidemiology of type2 diabetes we must consider what factors contribute to the rising number of diabetes patient across the world. It has been reported that global rise in obesity, unhealthy lifestyle and irregular junk food uptake leads to type2 diabetes. Other causes of diabetes are pancreatitis, PCOS (polycystic-ovary-syndrome) oriented obesity that induce type 2 diabetes, Cushing’s syndrome that increases cortisol hormone production thus linked to increase in level of blood sugar. Glucagonoma is also a cause of diabetes as the equilibrium of insulin and glucagon level gets disturbed. Diabetes induced due to steroid glucocorticoid induced treatments. Type2 diabetes may cause due to the genetic inheritance from the family (McCarthy, 2010; Singh, 2011).

Now coming to the point of epidemiology of type 2 diabetes. In United Kingdom the type 2 diabetes is most prevalent as 90% of whole diabetic population suffers from type2 diabetes whereas 10% suffers from type1 (Holman, et al, 2011). It is generally considered that the genetic susceptibility towards obesity is not good at the time of abundance of food, however it is good when there is a scarcity of food. This process is pursued by natural selection. This is called thrifty genotype and individual who moves from low-prevalence to the countries which are developed have higher risk of type2 diabetes. As for example for South Asians and the African Caribbean’s currently living in UK have a 4-6 fold more prevalence than the Caucasian population in UK (Forouhi, et al, 2010). According to a study of 2017 it has been found that men are more susceptible towards type2 diabetes than women. The temporal variation of type 2 diabetes shows that the risk factor is more in case of rapidly developing countries those are adapting the lifestyle of western population (Forouhi, et al, 2010). Type 2 diabetes is endowed with main pathophysiological problems of resistance of insulin and defect in secretion of insulin. The main risk factors contributes are obesity, age, heredity, ethnic group and dietary nature (Forouhi, et al, 2010). After systematic studies revealed consumption of processed as well as red meat, beverages containing sugar and refined sources of carbs increase the risk of type 2 diabetes. On the other hand there are several food habits that reduces the risk factor of type 2 diabetes. These food habit includes consumption of vegetables, fruits, yogurt, and foods containing fats with poly-unsaturation, whole-grains, nuts and legumes.

To understand the association among the prevalence of diabetes and food few novel approaches are being used where the novel biomarkers are implemented. As mentioned earlier the hereditary factor for type 2 diabetes are higher and now a days up to sixty variants of genetic factors are found to relate with diabetes. To check the genotypic predisposition (Drong, et al, 2012) the phenotypic based models only provide 5-10% addition to the prediction. So it can be concluded that the modest genetic variants only provides the knowledge based epidemiology for biological pathways linked to type 2 diabetes but cannot predict the predisposition among a population.

Essay title: Fat: friend or foe

Obesity is a kind of epidemic that has affected the wellbeing of more than 13% population as per referred by World health organisation in 2016. Body fat; the main reason of obesity in adult is no doubt foe for human race, because they not only makes human life miserable but also through them in the edge of death. Many medical conditions are very mush related and dependent on the obesity, like type 2 diabetes, cancer, heart disease, gastrointestinal disorder, infertility, kidney failure etc. Medical experts relates the rising trend of obesity linked with rising incident of type 2 diabetes (King, 2011; Whitmore, 2010).

In United Kingdom 1 adult among 15 is found to be obese and that makes UK in the top obese countries in Europe. Within next few years this statistics will rise heavily and will cause many more cases of type 2 diabetes in UK (Diabetes.co.uk, 2010).

To address this social and lifestyle disease a campaign was organised in last summer by London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and a group of social workers. Before arranging the campaign the group discussed about the salient features or markers for obesity and which factors lead a man/woman to obesity. It has been pointed out based on these markers how a classification of obesity can be made based on different age, sex and ethnicity. The markers of obesity are high body mass index, higher amount of lipid in blood, body fat percentage and for children the height and growth pattern etc. Proper study of these factors should be done in order to make proper analysis.

To make the campaigning successful a movie show was organized where three films were shown of different time regarding the obesity in UK. In 1960s’ movie it was showed that 1 to 2 % population of UK is obese, whereas this percentage increases a little bit during 1980s’ and a rapid increase is observed in the recent movie. Nowadays in England 62% adults and 28% children population is obese. The cause of this change is due to the British diet that has been changed over time rapidly. Annual report by National food survey showed that average dietary intake 1970s’ was more than these days, which causes the imbalance in calories and ultimately lead towards obesity. Also the mode of transportation was different on that days, most of the people were used to walk or travelled by cycling which burns the calories but nowadays most of them are availing car, which reduces the burning out of calories. From the archived film of 1970s’ it was observed that there was an attitude that “I am just a little bit fatty”, which ultimately leads to the ignorance into such epidemic condition of obesity (Puhl, et al, 2015).

The rules made by the Ministry of Health in 2013, was shown after the movie session. Government introduces a nutritional labelling in the packed food so that the general public get aware on the nutritional content and the percentage of calories from the food packet (Whitton, et al, 2011). From the total calories intake the person can judge how much exercise is needed to be done after the intake of that food (Hawkes, et al, 2013). The food products that are been brought from the supermarket must have sugar level reduces and should also contain less amount of saturated fat and salt content. The marketing for junk food through advertising in television should strictly restricted for children. Healthy food choice must be opt in office and school premises. Also live messages should be promoted to increase public awareness like not to consume alcohol and reduce the habit of smoking of tobacco, thus reduce the risk for obesity and its related disease condition specially type 2 diabetes (Wilson, et al, 2013).

After the movie session an oral presentation was delivered by expert Doctors and Nutritionist (Piggin, et al, 2011). Over the past two decades the attitude towards excessive body fat has changed a lot. The students of nutrition are taught that there are two group of people fat one and thinner one (Cappellano, 2011; Zarcadoolas, et al, 2011). A large number of social working group and different website promotes the healthy eating habits and awareness regarding regular exercise and walking to reduce body fat (Kirby, 2015). It was also stated that people those are acted to be normal they are surrounded by an abnormal environment which is termed as obesogenic environment. So much focus are given to reverse this kind of environment. Then the main focus was concentrated towards changing the overall lifestyle to avoid obesity and obesity induced type 2 diabetes.

At the end of this campaigning an interview session was arranged. Where people can voluntarily have one to one interview with the experts. In this session two important observations were tried to figure out. Firstly the goal of the interview was to judge the depth of concern about obesity among individuals. The interview around 96 people, 49% of total participants were found to ask suggestions and shared their views with the experts. Among these 96 people around 15% were truly obese and among them 94% were facing the type 2 diabetes. It was found that these obese persons had really bad food habit and they didn’t do proper workout. They share their experience how slowly increasing body weight hamper their wellbeing in day to day life. As for example they faced shortness of breathing during the use of staircase and frequently avoided staircases during going upstairs. Increase body weight they could not digest regular food. They had grown a lower aptitude of working and spent sleepless nights due to occupational stress. Around 38% people were overweight and were at the verge of obesity. Among this 38% people 30% were truly concerned about their physical condition and also had type 2 diabetes, have already started health planning for future. During this one to one interview they share how they manage their health problem and asked additional questions and also shared that the campaigning added them with self-care knowledge. However among this 38% people 8% were not conscious about their overweight and type 2 diabetes. However, after the campaign they found their condition can be worst if proper care is not taken. The other 47% were enjoyed the campaign and they promised that they will spread the awareness of type 2 diabetes induced due to obesity, among their family and friends.

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References

Cappellano, K.L., 2011. Let's Move-Tools to Fuel a Healthier Population. Nutrition Today, 46(3), pp.149-154.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2020. National diabetes statistics report, 2020. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Department of Health and Human Services.

Diabetes, U.K., 2010. Diabetes in the UK 2010: key statistics on diabetes. London: Diabetes UK.

Drong, A.W., Lindgren, C.M. and McCarthy, M.I., 2012. The genetic and epigenetic basis of type 2 diabetes and obesity. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 92(6), pp.707-715.

Forouhi, N.G. and Wareham, N.J., 2010. Epidemiology of diabetes. Medicine, 38(11), pp.602-606.

Hawkes, C., Jewell, J. and Allen, K., 2013. A food policy package for healthy diets and the prevention of obesity and diet‐related non‐communicable diseases: the NOURISHING framework. Obesity reviews, 14, pp.159-168.

Holman, N., Forouhi, N.G., Goyder, E. and Wild, S.H., 2011. The Association of Public Health Observatories (APHO) diabetes prevalence model: estimates of total diabetes prevalence for England, 2010–2030. Diabetic Medicine, 28(5), pp.575-582.

Kim, H.K., 2010. Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. JAAOS-Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 18(11), pp.676-686.

King, D., 2011. The future challenge of obesity. The Lancet, 378(9793), pp.743-744.

Kirby, M., 2015. Too much of a good thing? Weight management, obesity, and the healthy body in Britain, 1950-1995 (Doctoral dissertation, University of Glasgow).

Levey, A.S. and Coresh, J., 2012. Chronic kidney disease. The lancet, 379(9811), pp.165-180.

McCarthy, M.I., 2010. Genomics, type 2 diabetes, and obesity. New England Journal of Medicine, 363(24), pp.2339-2350.

Ober, C. and Yao, T.C., 2011. The genetics of asthma and allergic disease: a 21st century perspective. Immunological reviews, 242(1), pp.10-30.

Piggin, J. and Lee, J., 2011. ‘Don’t mention obesity’: Contradictions and tensions in the UK Change4Life health promotion campaign. Journal of health psychology, 16(8), pp.1151-1164.

Puhl, R. and Suh, Y., 2015. Health consequences of weight stigma: implications for obesity prevention and treatment. Current obesity reports, 4(2), pp.182-190.

Rachner, T.D., Khosla, S. and Hofbauer, L.C., 2011. Osteoporosis: now and the future. The Lancet, 377(9773), pp.1276-1287.

Singh, S., 2011. The genetics of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a review. J Sci Res, 55, pp.35-48.

Tomasetti, C., Li, L. and Vogelstein, B., 2017. Stem cell divisions, somatic mutations, cancer etiology, and cancer prevention. Science, 355(6331), pp.1330-1334.

Whitmore, C., 2010. Type 2 diabetes and obesity in adults. British Journal of Nursing, 19(14), pp.880-886.

Whitton, C., Nicholson, S.K., Roberts, C., Prynne, C.J., Pot, G.K., Olson, A., Fitt, E., Cole, D., Teucher, B., Bates, B. and Henderson, H., 2011. National Diet and Nutrition Survey: UK food consumption and nutrient intakes from the first year of the rolling programme and comparisons with previous surveys. British journal of nutrition, 106(12), pp.1899-1914.

Wilson, G.B., Kaner, E.F., Crosland, A., Ling, J., McCabe, K. and Haighton, C.A., 2013. A qualitative study of alcohol, health and identities among UK adults in later life. PloS one, 8(8).

Zarcadoolas, C., Sealy, Y., Levy, J., Dresser, M., Ponieman, D., Young, S.M., Littman, L., Larson, K. and Silver, L., 2011. Health literacy at work to address overweight and obesity in adults: The development of the obesity action kit. Journal of Communication in Healthcare, 4(2), pp.88-101.

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