Female Reproductive System

Based on Menopause

Female Reproductive System Based on Menopause

This diagram shows a woman’s normal reproductive system that is controlled under a chronological pattern of biological changes within a woman. It consists of fallopian tubes, whose function is to collect the eggs after ovulation here (Koyama, Shi, & Fujimori, 2019). The ovarian ligament is another major part that has a critical function in this system, where it serves as a circulation between uterus and ovary (Agostinis et al. 2019); besides, the function Cilia and Peristalsis is to carry out the eggs along with the tubes. Following the procedure here, the uterus plays significant function in thickening the cells and blood every month and at the same time, it provides nourishment to the embryo as well (Staff et al. 2020). And the Vaginal muscle act as a protective muscular tube folded by vulva. Further, in the overall process of reproductive functions, the uterus lining that is known as Endometrium here has its basic function is to prevent the walls that are opposing mainly myometrium and maintaining patency of uterine cavity as well.


In the normal cycle of a woman, it goes natural before menopause that starts from the stage of Oogenesis and the cycle of sexual reproduction (O’Connor et al. 2020). And the Oocyte is produced at every twenty eight days cycle as well within a woman. In the next stage; it goes along with degeneration process named atresia. In the third stage it is known mainly meiosis and then turning down into eggs along with the large amount of cytoplasm. And the hormones that are generated during the age of puberty period are mainly estrogens, progesterone, inhibin and some amount of androgen as well (Women's Health Concern, 2020).

Moreover, the normal cycle of female reproduction is also consists of three particular stages of ovarian cycle that involves follicular phase, ovulation as well as luteal phase as well. Further, the changes that take place within the uterus at the time of menstrual cycle are menstruation, the stage of proliferation and phase of secretion (Women's Health Concern, 2020). This stage starts from day 1 till day 5 when the sex hormones lie below lower levels. In the second stage of proliferation from day 6 to day 14, there is a stage of stimulation for progesterone development.

Post this stage, the Uterine’ tune becomes edematous as well as fimbriae gets developed and finally in the stage of secretion, spiral arteries elaborates and the cervical mucus gets viscous layer formation around the cervical plug and stops sperm entrance.

Stopping of cycle: From the above normal explanation, it has been well known fact that reproductive system goes in this process; however, the stopping of the cycle happens during the time of menopause when a female is at 45-55 years old (Women's Health Concern, 2020). The reason behind is reducing level or stopping of complete secretion of estrogen hormones that may starts dysfunction at older age normally.

Contraception: This act in a two different process and medium for a woman’s reproduction, where there is an oral contraception through medicines or else through use of caps or diaphragms as well. According to nhs.uk (2020), contraception can be used mainly to stop pregnancy by stopping the cervix manually which stops sperm to enter into the uterus. On the other hand, it can also be an injection releasing progesterone to control reproduction and remains effective for maximum of 13 weeks in a woman.

Each of the above mentioned systems have significance during

Each of the above mentioned systems have significance during the time of menopausal stage of a woman where; it has been focused on the primary system that is the fallopian tubes that starts shrinking and along with the ovaries. At the same time, the uterus and cervix becomes smaller including the vaginal mucosa that gets pale and dry in nature (Wang, Mishra, & Brinton, 2020). On the other hand, the ovary ligaments are non-effective post menopause, where it is not able to release that hormones are so of useful and beneficial for the ovary and uterus. This result into ovaries starts secreting hormones in replacement of estrogen and produces testosterone as well as androstenedione on the other hand. It stops bleeding as well in the overall process. At the same time, the endometrial stops preventing the uterine cavity as well. Apart from that the external genital tissues also decreases here that makes irritation in a woman that is natural (Publishing, 2020). Thus, the breakage of whole system with this stage of menopause creates constipation as well as uterine fibroids also affecting the system of reproduction, which normally runs well.

Moreover, the vaginal moisturizer gets affected during the time of menopause again, where the tissues get thinner and dry and similarly, progesterone also stops secreting as well that makes irregular periodic cycle and finally stops (Publishing, 2020). Hence, in this entire process of menopause the stated reproductive system affected individually that is connected with each other for different kinds of hormonal secretions and biological reactions.

What happen post menopause: The post menopausal syndrome takes place through hot flushes that starts after immediate effect in a woman (Publishing, 2020). At the same time, in a woman post menopause, it happened to be growing possibility of vasomotor symptoms as well as cognitive and mood swing as well (Women's Health Concern, 2020). On the other hand, urogenital atrophy may also take place and later sexual problems comes front. This makes a woman start facing osteoporosis as well along with the other symptoms of cardiovascular diseases as well as making weaker genital configuration.

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Diagnosis: The diagnosis of this kind of post menopausal problem can be treated and diagnosed through systemic estrogen therapy that can effective in term of providing good sleep to the women (Women's Health Concern, 2020). At the same time, Progestin therapy where the use of megestrol acetate can also be crucial along with selective serotonin inhibitors for controlling hot flushes that happens due to the changes in the estrogen levels (Publishing, 2020). In fact, there is a higher level of follicle-stimulating hormone during menopause stage that is often diagnosed during blood test at the stage.

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  • Agostinis, C., Mangogna, A., Bossi, F., Ricci, G., Kishore, U., & Bulla, R. (2019). Uterine immunity and microbiota: A shifting paradigm. Frontiers in Immunology, 10, 2387. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2019.02387/full
  • Publishing, H. (2020). Menopause And Perimenopause - Harvard Health. Retrieved 23 October 2020, from https://www.health.harvard.edu/a_to_z/menopause-and-perimenopause-a-to-z
  • Koyama, H., Shi, D., & Fujimori, T. (2019). Biophysics in oviduct: Planar cell polarity, cilia, epithelial fold and tube morphogenesis, egg dynamics. Biophysics and physicobiology, 16, 89-107. https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/biophysico/16/0/16_89/_article/-char/ja/
  • nhs.uk. (2020). Retrieved 22 October 2020, from https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/contraception/contraceptive-injection/
  • O’Connor, B. B., Pope, B. D., Peters, M. M., Ris-Stalpers, C., & Parker, K. K. (2020). The role of extracellular matrix in normal and pathological pregnancy: Future applications of microphysiological systems in reproductive medicine. Experimental Biology and Medicine, 245(13), 1163-1174. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1535370220938741
  • Staff, A. C., Fjeldstad, H. E., Fosheim, I. K., Moe, K., Turowski, G., Johnsen, G. M., ... & Sugulle, M. (2020). Failure of physiological transformation and spiral artery atherosis: their roles in preeclampsia. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0002937820311169
  • Wang, Y., Mishra, A., & Brinton, R. D. (2020). Transitions in metabolic and immune systems from pre-menopause to post-menopause: implications for age-associated neurodegenerative diseases. F1000Research, 9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6993821/

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