Foundation Of Health A

Question 1:

The SPECCS framework consisted of social, physical, emotional, cognitive, cultural and spiritual elements which are implemented to understand the way individual’s health is influenced under certain situation. According to the given case study, the SPECCS framework is to be applied for the Thai Soccer team where their physical and emotional condition and challenges faced by them are to be evaluated while being trapped for ten days in the cave. According to Wiwanitkit (2018), while trapped in confined places without any supply of proper oxygen it results individuals to experience suffocation and infection in lungs. This is because without oxygen the lungs cannot allow the person to breathe properly. Moreover, living in confined places leads to growth of bacteria in the lungs to causes infections resulting in health issues such as pneumonia and others. In the given scenario, it is been informed that the two footballers of the Thai Soccer team were found to be suffering from mild pneumonia during diagnosis after their rescue (Johnson, 2018). The case scenario informs that the Thai soccer team along with their coach while trapped in the cave had no supplies of food or water (Sun & Wat, 2018). This informs that they were not having basic requirements needed for proper living condition. However, the boys and their coach showed mild weight loss and physical weakness while found in the cave. This is because the coach informed that they kept themselves hydrated by drinking clear water from the stalactites (Gajanan, 2018). Thus, this informs that while trapped in the cave the footballers experienced fewer issues with their physical health due to their efficiency to keep themselves properly hydrated with water.

The video informs that the footballers and their coach reacted in a calm and resilient way to them when found in the cave for the first time during the rescue (Sun & Wat, 2018). This may have happened because they had hope that would be rescued somehow by the individuals outside. As mentioned by Johnson (2018), being trapped in confined places makes individuals react with fear, insecurity and other nature of negative emotions. This is because they feel they are cut from the outer environment and would be unable to return to it to lead a healthy life. However, the hope of being rescued made the Thai football team and their coach remain calm even while remaining trapped in the cave (Carlson, 2018). This is evident because the footballers after being rescued informed that they always thought if they cannot get out of the cave there are others who would come for their rescue (Sun & Wat, 2018). Moreover, the being in trapped places for days makes individuals to show emotional breakdown due to loss of hope and negative feelings of not being rescued (Johnson, 2018). However, the video informs that the Thai soccer team and their coach showed no instances of emotional breakdown and communicated with the rescue team calmly and cooperatively. This is because the coach informed that they mediated while being trapped in the cave to avoid energy loss and be emotionally strong. Further, it can be seen from the video that an emotional incidence is able to bring all individuals to work in a united way. This is evident as the international rescue team from Australia, China, US and many other countries were involved in the rescue mission to help the footballers and their coach to come out of the cave (Sun & Wat, 2018).



  • Carlson. A. (2018), Thai Soccer Team Rescued After Weeks in Cave Don't Seem to Be 'Traumatized in Any Way', Retrieved on 19 December 2018 from:
  • Gajanan. M. (2018), Thai Soccer Team Describes How They Survived by Drinking Water From Stalactites While Trapped in Cave, Retrieved on 19 December 2018 from:
  • Johnson, C. (2018). Aussie doctor plays pivotal role in rescue of trapped boys. Australian Medicine, 30(11), 6. Retrieved on 17 December 2018 from:
  • Sun. J & Wat. K (2018), Timeline: How rescuers found the missing soccer team alive in a Thai cave, Retrieved on 17 December 2018 from:
  • Wiwanitkit, V. (2018). Cave Associated Infection: An Issue in Tropical Medicine. Journal of Health Science and Medical Research, 36(3), 167-170. Retrieved on 19 December 2018 from:

Question 2:

The poor diet of the individuals in Scotland has resulted to raise increased incidence of obesity among the individuals. This is evident as in 2017 it is been reported by the Scotland government that 65% of adults who are above the age of 16 are overweight and 29% of them were obese (Govt.Scot, 2018). The biological factors responsible behind the incidence of rising cases of obesity due to poor diet include intake of engineered junk food and increased food addiction, family history, medical conditions and others. As mentioned by Rauber et al. (2015), heavily processed food is seen to have little amount of nutrients required by the body to ensure proper health. This is because they are mainly made up of various additive ingredients which have the key to improve the taste of the food for increasing sales. Thus, the improved taste of food leads the individuals to overeat leading them to put on extra weight as a result of poor dieting condition. As argued by da Costa Louzada et al. (2015), fatty food is regarded as poor dietary intake as it results the body to store fat and increase the weight. This leads the individuals to face obesity as their Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) get increased due to increased storage of fat in the body. The hindered genetic framework of the family is passed on to individuals through heredity is responsible for causing obesity (Grandjean et al. 2015). This is because in such condition even after having proper diet the individuals experience obesity due to their hindered genetic disposition. Some medications along with certain medical conditions such as polycystic ovarian syndrome are responsible for causing obesity (Yanovski & Yanovski, 2014). This is because they make the body incapable to process extra fat leading individuals to gain weight.

The socio-economic factors responsible for causing obesity include food prices, poor social class, prevalence of restaurants, lack of physical activity and others. As mentioned by (), the prices of junk food items are often cheaper in nature and are easily available. This results individuals to have junk foods which are poor dietary intake as they contain increased amount of unsaturated fats which stores in the body resulting to increase weight of the individuals to make them obese. In the UK, it is been reported that 53% of the household lack effective income to ensure maintaining effective diet (Theguardian, 2018). This has result individuals with lower income to face economic issues due to which they avail fast food as it is available in cheaper prices leading to poor dietary condition, in turn, causing obesity. The NHS informs that the people of lower class in the UK face increased incidences of obesity as they do not have efficient economic ability to avail proper dietary supplements for maintaining their health (, 2018). The lack of physical activity along with poor diet causes obesity among individuals. This is because improved physical activity helps the body to properly use fat to maintain body weight helping to avoid obese conditions. However, lack of physical activity causes the body to store unsaturated fats from the food resulting in obese conditions (Rauber et al. 2015).

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  • da Costa Louzada, M. L., Baraldi, L. G., Steele, E. M., Martins, A. P. B., Canella, D. S., Moubarac, J. C., ... & Mozaffarian, D. (2015). Consumption of ultra-processed foods and obesity in Brazilian adolescents and adults. Preventive medicine, 81, 9-15. Retrieved on 17 December 2018 from:
  • Grandjean, V., Fourré, S., De Abreu, D. A. F., Derieppe, M. A., Remy, J. J., & Rassoulzadegan, M. (2015). RNA-mediated paternal heredity of diet-induced obesity and metabolic disorders. Scientific reports, 5, 18193. Retrieved on 18 December 2018 from:
  • (2018), A healthier future: Scotland's diet and healthy weight delivery plan, Retrieved on 17 December 2018 from:
  • (2018), Four million UK children too poor to have a healthy diet, study finds, Retrieved on 17 December 2018 from:
  • (2018), Health of Scotland's population – Obesity, Retrieved on 17 December 2018 from:
  • Yanovski, S. Z., & Yanovski, J. A. (2014). Long-term drug treatment for obesity: a systematic and clinical review. Jama, 311(1), 74-86. Retrieved on 19 December 2018 from:

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