• 15 Pages
  • Published On: 9-12-2023

Global health and sustainability are concerned with promoting positive health and wellbeing in people across the world rather than focusing on any particular nation. In recent years, the concept of global health, suitability and resilience are widely used in health and social care context to help this world to get rid of the overburden of non-communicable diseases. In this context, the World Health Organisation (WHO) has taken global sustainable goals that will assist people to combat global health issues thereby having good control on their health and wellbeing [Who, 2018]. This study will discuss a particular global health issue, cardiovascular disease (CVD), which is one of the potential causes of high mortality across the world. Here the study will discuss the background of the topic in relation to discuss how CVD develops and impacts the people in the UK as well as in the world. Then the study will discuss the relevant theories and ideologies based on global health in relation to CVD. The study will also discuss the local and national healthcare policies in the UK that can be implemented effectively into practices in terms of managing impacts of selected global health issues (CVD). Additionally, the study will also discuss the barriers that are also associated with the implementation of these healthcare policies into practices. This study will also discuss the social, political, environmental and economic context of CVD in the UK. Finally, it will present the healthcare intervention that is needed to promote global health and resilience through managing the impacts of CVD in the UK as well as the world.


Cardiovascular disease has become a major global health issue in recent years that enhances mortality and morbidity across the world. People with CVD are more likely to be affected by different additional health conditions such as pulmonary illness, coronary artery disease, heart stroke and cardiac cancer (Alghatrif et al. 2020). UK is reported to have ever-increasing cases of CVD among children and young people. In the UK, the majority of the people residing in the urban and suburban areas are lacking proper health literacy due to which they have limited knowledge on CVD, how it develops and how it can be managed (Andersson and Vasan, 2018). On the other hand, there is poor implementation of the health and social care policies by NHS care professionals that reduces the quality of the care delivery to people with CVD. Lack of resources in the hospitals such as lack of skilled health staffs, poor and old clinical equipment and lack of modern technologies, make it difficult for the care professionals to assess the critical health needs of CVD patients globally (Andonova, 2018). Therefore, the reduced quality of care provided to people globally to manage CVD across the world has become a major health issue. This study will provide new insight into how the global health and suitability of the people with CVD can be promoted through using effective strategies (Awan et al. 2019). Additionally, this study will also discuss how the policy and practices associated with global health and resilience can be implemented into the care practices to manage the impact of CVD across the world.


CVD is considered the leading cause of mortality worldwide. WHO (2019) reports that, more than 17.9 million death each year in the UK which accounts for 31% of the global deaths (Fonarow et al. 2017). People with CVD are more likely to be affected by different chronic health conditions such as heart stroke, chronic kidney disease, cardiac arrest, heart failure, coronary artery blockage, the onset of vascular dementia and peripheral arterial disease. PHE (2019) mentioned that, in England, there is 1 in 4 deaths due to CVD [PHE, 2019]. In the recent decade, CVD has become a major global health issue that poses many challenges on health and social care. CVD is a major health concern that impacts adversely on individual lives, community and society thereby affecting global health, sustainability and resilience. In the UK, more than 6.8 million people, are currently living with CVD that poses a huge burden of healthcare cost on NHS England of £7.4 billion per year and £15.8 billion on the NHS UK [NHS, 2019]. WHO (2019) reports that the ever-increasing burden of health cost that CVD poses on the government worldwide, has advised impacts on the global economy. As mentioned by Joseph et al. (2017), while considering global health it is important to consider the factors that are associated with the background of a selected global health issue. CVD is a global health condition that is strongly associated with ethnicity, socio-economic factor and health inequalities worldwide. PHE (2019) mentions that people residing in the most deprived communities in England are more vulnerable to the risk of CVD as compared to people residing in the least deprived communities (PHE, 2019). On the other hand, people who are male and have the poor economic condition and reside in the ethnic community (South Asian community) are more likely to suffer from CVD. As mentioned by Kaptoge et al. (2019), the ever-increasing cases of CVD in the world are associated with the global income disparities that make one group of people having all the health and social care facilities and the other group of people are devoid of any health and social care facilities. In this context, it is highly important to take into consideration these issues of health inequalities and income disparities that impact global health and suitability.

Appraising the theoretical concepts and the ideologies that inform the healthcare and their relation into practices and policies

Different theories and ideology can be presented in terms of discussing the impacts of CVD on global health and sustainability in relation to its impacts on the lives of people globally.

Based on the concept presented in the Health Belief Model (HBM), while it comes to deal with any global health issue, it is important to identify the health behaviour of service users that are associated with particular health issues (Keates et al. 2017). the HBM presented five health behaviour such as perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers and the cues to action. Through implementing this concept of these health behaviours systematically, it is possible for care professionals to address the risk of CVD and plan an effective care framework to manage the symptoms of CVD in patients (Leong et al. 2017). Perceived susceptibility is the condition in which people get affected by the health condition and perceived severity in the deteriorating health condition of patients due to the illness that poses adverse impacts on patient’s physical and mental health. in terms of promoting global health and maintaining sustainability to the positive wellbeing of people, care professional must carry out the need assessment of the patients suffering from CVD. this will assist the care professionals to implement the third stages of HBM, the perceived benefits, in which they can provide proper advice, support and care through implanting an effective care plan for CVD (Naimoli et al. 2017). perceived cost and barriers are the negatives factors that are associated with any global health such as high heartcare cost, social perception and patient’s economic ability, culture and tradition. For dealing with CVD patients in the UK as well as in the world, the local and national health and social care authority must ensure that the barriers that are associated with planning and implementation of the care plan are identified and eliminated accordingly.

Reason Action & Planed Behaviour theory is widely used in health and social care. Through applying this theory in the global healthcare context, it is possible to address the risk factors associated with CVD and also develop effective strategies to deal with these risk factors thereby managing this global health issue (Leong et al. 2017). Based on the theoretical concept, while dealing with promoting global health and sustainability in relation to managing a global health issue, care professionals must ensure that they consider the attitude, behaviour of people, their familiar belief, traditional values, cultural values, spiritual beliefs and their social, economic and demographic model. While managing the symptoms of the patients living with CVD in the UK, NHS professionals need to determine the socio-economical condition, culture, family background, socioeconomic status and ethnicity of patients that contribute to developing CVD in them. as mentioned by Ossebaard and Lachman (2021), people who reside in the deprived communities and below standard society are unable to have proper health literacy, education and positive cultural values that impact adversely their ability to address and deal with a health condition.

Social Cognitive theory is another model that presents the ideology of the relationship between health and society. As mentioned by Peçanha et al. (2020) for promoting a sustainable, healthy and resilient population worldwide, it is crucial to improve the culture thoughts and entertain that is going on the external societies that impact severely of people’s mind and body. Based on the theoretical concept, the development of the positives and negatives health behaviour on people are the result of their interaction with society. For example, people residing in the deprived community who are lack positives culture, education and positive thoughts are more likely to suffer from chronic Illness such as CVD. as mentioned, by Piché et al. (2018), poor people generally live in such communities in which they are widely exposed to the negative beliefs, superstition, backdated thoughts and negative spiritual beliefs. Due to these negative beliefs and lack of health education there, people are unable to understand that chronic diseases can also be managed by performing a healthy lifestyle and a good diet.

The transtheoretical model presents five stages through which an individual goes when he or she is affected by any health condition (Prabhakaran et al. 2018). These stages are pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action and maintenance. By applying the concept of all these stages, car professionals can improve the knowledge of patients regarding their health condition by providing them with all the health information that they need to manage the illness. UK government has taken National Ambition for promoting global health and sustainability through reducing the prevalence of CVD and other chronic illness (Rawshani et al. 2017). In this context, care professionals can use their theoretical concept that will help them to improve the self-management skill in the patients with CVD and develop an action plan that can improve not only the physical health of patients but also make positive changes in their health behaviour and lifestyle.

Identifying key element in the healthcare policy, evaluating their application into the practices and the constraints associated with their implementation:

For promoting health and wellbeing in a global context it is important to implement such health and social care policies that will enable the global society to make effective utilization of healthcare resources thereby reducing the health inequalities and cultivating sustainable individual and community wellbeing.

Under the NICE (2018) guidelines for caring for people with chronic illness, care professionals must perform an effective need assessment in terms of assessing the personalised needs of patients. As mentioned By Springmann et al. (2020), the majority of the people suffering from CVD who reside in the deprived and ethnic communities in the UK as well as in the other developed and developing countries are devoid of the facilities of need assessment. This is because most of them are unaware of their CVD condition which makes them unable to undergo any GP consultation or health check-up.

UK movement needs to emphasize more on effective implementation of the Health and Social Care act (2012) in healthcare that will assist all people will be provided with proper health and social care support irrespective of their socio-economic condition, ethnicity, religion, age and race Under this act, all the citizen of UK have the right to get free and high-quality health services by the NHS (Stewart et al. 2017). Under this act, the social care department under the local council needs to check whether people residing in deprived communities in rural and semi-urban areas of the UK are provided with proper health education, care and social as well as emotional support. They must be provided with health information regarding how CVD develops, what are its potential impacts on a patient's health and how it can be managed.

NICE (2018) guidelines suggest that care professionals in the UK must treat each patient as an individual while dealing with chronic illness. Care professionals must check the personalised needs of each patient suffering from CVD are met. As mentioned by Younossi (2019), while dealing with a global health issue, care professionals must take a holistic approach rather than following a mere medical regimen.

Under the UK Healthcare Policy, Care Quality Commission (CQC) set the standard care professionals for meeting the quality standard of care while dealing with patients with complex needs [CQC, 2018]. Under these guidelines, care professionals must take the person centre approach while dealing with patients with CVD. By applying a person-centred approach, care professionals can involve patients in their treatment process that will enable the care professionals to obtain a proper understanding of patient’s personalized needs, pain and issues associated with CVD (Zhao et al. 2019).

Under Anti-Discrimination Policy, Care professionals in the UK must reduce health inequality and discrimination in society by maintaining an equal and fair distribution of healthcare resources (Alghatrif et al. 2020). While dealing with vulnerable people such as mentally disabled people, who suffer from CVD, care professionals must follow the Disability Discrimination Act 2010. Under this act, the vulnerable people with CVD will be protected from discrimination, abuse, bully and harm in relation to aces the health care facilities.

Under NICE (2018), for promoting sustainable health in the global context, care professionals must use an effective risk assessment and crisis management framework in healthcare (Andersson and Vasan, 2018). While managing CVD in patients for promoting sustainable health in society the health and social care staffs must ensure that they have all the resources and technologies that are necessary to eliminate all the risk associated with CVD treatment. For example, care professionals must use aspects techniques in terms of eliminating chances of any infection in patients while performing heart surgery.

Under NICE (2018), while it comes to promote global health and sustainable development in relation to managing patients with CVD it is important to provide them such care in which they feel respected and valued. Care professional must respect patient autonomy, their rights to confidentiality and their dignity during promoting their health and wellbeing (Andersson and Vasan, 2018).

Under Health and Safety Policies, UK, health and social care professionals must deal must ensure that the safety and safety of people in which community which a vulnerable to the risk of CVD are promoted (Awan et al. 2019). Under NMC (2015) nurses must ensure that they work under their level of competencies to provide safe and high-quality care to people. By promoting proper health literacy, it is possible to make the entire community aware of the risk factors and impact of CVD [NMC, 2018]. By providing proper health information the national and local social care agencies can empower people suffering from CVD to manage their health condition effectively by making positives cages in their lifestyle, behaviour and diet.

Deconstruct the political, social, economic and environmental context of disease:

While it comes to promote health and wellbeing in the global context it is important to analyse the social, political, economic and environmental; the context of a global health issue.

There are many social factors such as ethnicity, race, culture, trend, education, social class and employment that influence the vulnerability of people to the risk of CVD, evidence suggests that people residing in the South Asian and African community are more likely to be diagnosed with CVD as compared to white UK born community. As mentioned by Joseph et al. (2017), CVD is strongly associated with racial gaps. People who reside in the lower social classes are vulnerable to the risk of CVD as compared to people residing in the high social classes. For example, people who belong to the poorest communities and lower social classes in England and Wales are more likely to be affected by CVD and other chronic illness (Kaptoge et al. 2019). This is because people from the minority ethnic community and lower social class are devoid of proper jobs, education, positive culture and health literacy that impacts their health and wellbeing. In the UK there are many rural and interiors areas in which people, residing in the block ethnic communities still believed in the spiritual concept of health and avoid receiving medical treatment for CVD which makes them highly vulnerable to mortality (Kaptoge et al. 2019). Additionally, due to a lack of jobs, education and economic stability people are more addicted to unhealthy habits such as alcohol consumption, smoking and drug addiction which impacts adversely the function of the heart and coronary arteries. This is why the severity of CVD is more apparent in lower social class and black ethnic and South Asian communities in the UK as compared to white people.

The economic condition of a country is highly responsible for enhancing the prevalence of CVD among the citizen. As argued that, Leong et al. (2017), not only the economic condition of the entire country but also the power distribution, incomes inequalities and per capita income of people in a country also contribute to the occurrence of CVD in the global community (Keates et al. 2017). Evidence suggests that the UK is reported to have a higher prevalence of CVD among people who reside in the most deprived communities than people residing in the least deprived community. In England, people residing in the poorest community are lack jobs that make them unable to but healthy foods, maintain a systematic lifestyle and get the proper education. Majority of the poorest people consume low-quality food that is enriched with saturated fats but lack in protein and carbs, that leads to fat accumulation on the artery thereby enhancing the risk of CVD in them. As mentioned by Naimoli et al. (2017), people from the poorest societies in the UK are more likely to suffer from psychological distress such as anxiety, depression and lack of decision making leads them to developed unhealthy habits (smoking and alcoholism) irregular lifestyles and skipping of meals. Therefore, an unhealthy lifestyle impact directly to supply of nutrients and oxygen to the heart muscles which can cause CVD (Ossebaard and Lachman, 2021).

Political factors are strongly associated with the occurrence of CVD (Piché et al. 2018). The global policies and regulations regarding public health, safety and social care influence the prevalence of CVD in the local community. The WHO (2018) recommended that for promoting global health and sustainability, the government of different countries needs to emphasize on effective implementation of relevant health and social care regulation and policies. As mentioned by Peçanha et al. (2020), the risk of CVD is higher in the country in which there is no well-constructed health and social care legislation, In the UK the prevalence of CVD is associated with the inability of the local and national government to implement the health and social care policies into practice effectively. As stated by Rawshani et al. (2017), for reducing the ever-increasing numbers of death globally due to CVD, it is important to develop and implement effective health and social care policies that will not only provide physical and social support to people but also empower them by promoting roper health information regarding improving their self-management skill (Springmann et al. 2020). UK government has taken several initiatives regarding maintaining the effective implementation of policies and practices that will assist the service providers to follow all the policies to provide high-quality care to patients. UK government emphasizes on reformation of the health and social care policies, mental health policies and Disability Discrimination Policy thereby making the policies more effective to emphasize on developing such care regimen that will prioritise the personalized needs of patients with CVD.

As mentioned by the environment has potential impacts on the health and wellbeing of people. Evidence suggests that CVD is more prevalent in people residing in a low-quality environment that lacks hygiene, proper housing facilities, proper drainage of waste, proper water facilities and walking roads. People who reside in the suburban and rural regions of England face a lack of spaces in their houses and a lack of footpath or waking roads that make them unable to do physical exercise such as walking and running. As mentioned by Stewart et al. (2017), lack of physical exercise is considered as the potential cause of developing CVD in people above 65 years. Evidence suggests that people, who are exposed to an unhygienic environment that contains waste, hazardous chemicals, fumes and different harmful gases, are more likely to have poor lung capacity which indirectly impacts their blood supply through the heart thereby enhancing the risk of CVD. As mentioned by Younossi (2019), there are many evidences regarding the high chances of CVD in people who are regularly exposed to chemicals and hazardous substant. This may be a potential reason higher prevalence of CVD in deprived people, who are exposed to a low-quality environment that is lack hygiene and a well-constructed drainages system.

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Presenting informed consent for healthcare intervention:

For carrying out an effective health care intervention for managing the symptoms of CVD, care professionals must take informed consent from patients. Under NMC (2015), if the patient is mentally disabled then the legal guardian of the patient has the authority to give informed consent for treatment for CVD. As mentioned by Zhao et al. (2019), informed consent is crucial in health care intervention which allows care professionals to have the voluntary permission of the patients as well as their family members regarding applying the necessary treatment process. While taking the infirmed consent, care professionals must inform all the necessary information regarding the treatment for CVD such as the process of treatment, duration of the treatment, the risk and all the health benefits associated with the treatment process (Leong et al. 2017). Under (NMC (2018), through taking informed consent the care professionals must ensure that no force or psychological stress has been applied on the patients to take the informed consent from them. Additionally, the care professionals need to ensure that they respect patient’s; autonomy and preferences in terms of taking their informed consent.


From the above-mentioned discussion, it can be concluded that global health and sustainability are associated with providing holistic and personalised care to patients with a critical illness. The poor healthcare framework, lack of resources and lack of skilled care staffs contribute to increasing numbers of deaths and morbidity across the world. In addition to this, the political, social, environmental and economic factors are also associated with the increasing global burden of diseases.

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UK government can be recommended to take necessary actions in terms of promoting global health and sustainability by managing the impact of global CVD at the community level.

Emphasize the healthcare management and leadership strategy that is critical to promote positive health and wellbeing at the community level

Take joint action by involving all the statutory and voluntary health and social care organizations on a national and international level to develop an integrated healthcare framework to reduce the prevalence of global health issues like CVD

Set effective care norms and standard and carry out continuous monitoring on whether these norms or standard are met by the care professionals during care delivery

Articulate the evidence-based and ethical policy options by working in collaboration with the international government to establish a fair and high-quality treatment for a patient with a critical health condition like CVD.

Provides technical support and ensure the continues supply of the needed resources to the health and social care organization to make them enables to meet all the professionals need for CVD patients.

Build sustainable global health by empowering in many ways such as improving their self-management ability and stress management skill.

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