Health Promotion To Reduce Smoking

Introduction:

According to WHO (World Health Organisation) Ottawa Charter, Health promotion is the procedure of enabling the people to enhance their control over their health and wellbeing, which assist them to improve their mental and physical health (WHO, 2015). Moreover, WHO described health as the complete mental, physical and social wellbeing of individuals, which assist them to carry out their regular functions, satisfy their needs and cope up with their surrounding environment.

Tobacco smoking is considered as the major cause of developing different lethal and chronic diseases such as diabetes, cancer, respiratory disease, cardio vascular disease and pulmonary disease (Wagijo et al. 2017). In order to decline the smoking rates in UK, the Public Health England has taken several health promotion initiatives, such as

  • Tobacco taxes
  • Ban on sale and promotion of tobacco
  • Anti-tobacco campaigns (Smoke-free campaign)
  • E-cigarettes

This health promotion report is going to highlight the importance and effectiveness of a health promotion event on smoking, that has been held to enhance the awareness among community regarding the harmful effects of smoking on their health and wellbeing. Moreover, this report will also highlight the target population, SMART planning of the event and identified needs of the JSNA community. Through this report it is possible to highlight the effectiveness of UK based health promotion initiatives in terms of declining the smoking rates in community.

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Selected topic and it justification:

Joint Strategic Needs Assessment (JSNA), has identified database on smoking and its associated health hazards, that proves that smoking is one of the major causes of high mortality rates in England. JSNA report on the Lincolnshire, shows that in Boston BC, the prevalence of 18+ smokers are 24%. On the other hand, the in Boston the smoking related mortality value in each 100,000 population is 281 during 2013-2015 (knowsleyknowledge.org.uk, 2018). In east Lindsey the prevalence smoking rate in 18+ smoker is 21%, with mortality rate 328 per 100,000 population. The JSNA reports shows that, in Lincolnshire the rate of Smoking at Time of Delivery (SATOD) is higher with 15% that the other UK based countries. Based on the JSNA reports of Blackpool, in Blackpool and England the smoking prevalence among the 16+individuals decline due to the health promotion initiatives by the Public Health England. JSNA Blackpool reports shows that, smoking prevalence in adult population in Blackpool, has been declined from 20% in 2010 to 18% in 2014 (healthysuffolk.org.uk, 2018).

Therefore, by selecting the topic ’Smoking’, this health promotion report can highlight the importance of health promotional initiatives in terms of improving the health and wellbeing of people (Cummings, 2016). Moreover, from the above-mentioned statistical database, Smoking has been apparent cause of several chronic diseases in UK, that increase the mortality rates of adult population. According the JSNA reports on smoking prevalence in England, more than 80,000 people are died due to smoking each year (knowsleyknowledge.org.uk, 2018). Moreover, the JSNA reports highlight the impact on tobacco smoking as important cause of health inequalities in England. Therefore, it is high time to enhance awareness against the smoking through conducting proper health promotion initiatives and events. Therefore, selection of this topic is highly justified and relevant tom current health framework in UK, which will assist the public as well as entire community to aware of the health hazards associated with smoking.

Target group:

Target group of this health promotion event is men and women, belonging to the age group 18-65+ in Boston. People from all ethnicity are eligible to be included into this health promotional event.

Target group information:

group information

Based on Boston JSNA report, more than 20% of the adult population are chain smokers. Out of this population more than 4.7% of the adults are heavy smokers who smoke 20+ cigarettes a day. However, through the health promotion initiatives taken by the Public Health England the proportion of smokers in Boston has declined from 30% in 2001 to 20% in 2010 (knowsleyknowledge.org.uk, 2018). According to NHS report, Boston is one of the most deprived districts in England, in which majority of the adult population is addicted to smoking and drugs. Life expectancy in Bolton is 11 years lower in case of men and in case of women it is 10 year slower than the least deprived districts in England. Bolton represent the 468 smoking related deaths in each year, which is highest rates than the other unitary in England (JSNA, 2018). This health promotional event has targeted the above-mentioned group of population in Bolton as the target group. The selection of this target group is justified as it will represent the smoking associated disease and its harmful effects on the mortality and morbidity in the community.

Identified needs:

JSNA reports highlights the health needs of population in different areas of Bolton and England.

Based on The JSNA report on the Greater Manchester, low income, social isolation, discrimination and poor criminal justice system is strongly associated with the smoking and other addiction in the community. As stated by Golechha (2016), poor socio-economic condition of the community is one of the major causes of smoking. Due to high rates of smoking the number of hospital admission has been increased from 458,000 in 2006 to 474,000 in 2016. This report highlights the needs of improving the socio-economic status of population in Manchester through job creation and skill development. UK government focuses on more job creation which can assist the poorest community in Bolton, Manchester and some interior part of England ion improve their socio-economic status.

Normative needs:

In Stockport, the community needs proper health related advice through Facebook, app, email, newspapers, messengers. JSNA reports in the Stockport has identified the needs of people who suffers from low income, poor administration in the community, poor healthcare service, poor housing and wellbeing, social isolation and poor mental health condition (knowsleyknowledge.org.uk, 2018). Based on the GMHSC survey report, Stockport has smokers 12% more than the other smokers.

In Salford,the community needs to be provided with proper clinical intervention in terms of offering the better care and support to the community, through proper clinical intervention, it is possible to improve the knowledge of community people regarding the harmful effects of the smoking on their health (Lancaster and Stead, 2017). JSNA report highlight the needs of proper education, training and skill development to the poorest community in Salford, in order to improve their knowledge and understanding about the worse effect of smoking on their health.

The JSNA report in Liverpool has identified the cause of increasing rate of smoking, that is over stressed of work and low income (JSNA, 2015). Moreover, it has also been reported that, smoking is considered as one of the common habits at the young age, in which teenager try smoking as their passion. Based on JSNA report, community in the Liverpool needs health promotion campaign to assist people to quit the smoking.

Planning of the events:

This health promotion event has for the SMART Plan that assist the volunteer to implement the health promotional strategies in well organised manner.

SMART plan for health promotional strategy SMART plan for health

Table 1: SMART plan for health promotional strategy on reducing smoking

Health promotional model:

This health promotion report has selected two important health promotion model:

  • Health promotional and Ottawa Charter
  • Behavioural change model

The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion:

As stead by Flood et al. (2015), this health promotion model has been formulated by Who in 1986, which emphasize on the socio-economic development and health promotion of the community. Based on the health promotional model, this health promotional event is going to focus its objective on improving living standard and income of the community people. The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion highlight the nine aspects of health:

  • Peace
  • Shelter
  • Education
  • Food
  • Stable ecosystem
  • Social justice
  • Equity
  • Income
  • Sustainable resource

The health promotion event would focus on the above-mentioned aspects in terms of improving the health ands wellbeing of people and reduce the risk of smoking related disease.

Behavioural change model:

According to MacMonegle et al. (2018). Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of The Real Cost Campaign's Effect on Smoking Prevention. American, New Zealand has implemented this model to improve the lifestyle behaviour of community people which are associated with the smoking related disease. This health promotion selects this model to emphasize on the lifestyle behaviour if the people in UK. Through improving the living standard, perception, behaviour and understanding of the UK people, it is possible to decline the smoking risk as well as the smoking related diseases.

Delivering the event

Delivering the event Delivering the event Delivering the event Delivering the event

Evaluating the event:

Question 1. What is your Gender?

Gender

Question 2. How old are you?

How old are you

Question 3. Do you smoke?

Do you smoke

Question 4. What is your race or ethnic group?

race or ethnic group

Question 5. Do you think smoking should be banned?

smoking should be banned

Question 6. Do you think quitting can help a lifelong smoker?

lifelong smoker

Question 7. Do you have a healthy, balanced diet?

balanced diet

Question 8. Why do you smoke?

 Why do you smoke

Question 9. Did you know, on average, most people who quit save around £250 each month?

 average

Question 10. Are you aware of the fact that passive smoking kills millions of people per year?

 passive smoking kills

Question 11. Do you know what is in a cigarette?

cigarette

Discussion on the result:

During the discussion of the above-mentioned result it needs to state that there is apparent difference between the expected and predicted results. This can be understood from the following table

difference between the expected and predicted results

In case of the above two questions the expected result and predicted result are different from each other. In case of the frost question, the actual number of smokers (60%) in much higher than the expected rate (45%). This result points out the worst health condition and high level of smoking prevalence of the UK based people.

In the second questions, the actual rate of people who thinks that ban of smoking is important is 40%, whereas the expected rate is 45%. Therefore, it can be stated that, UK government need to conduit more health promotion event and campaign against smoking to change the perception of people about smoking.

Conclusion:

From the above-mentioned discussion, it can be concluded that, Smoking is one of the major causes of developing different lethal and chronic disease in the such as cardio-vascular disease, pulmonary disease, lung infections and pancreas inflammation. Through analysing the statistical database that are collected during the health promotion event, it can be concluded that, people need to be aware more about the harmful effect of the smoking. Local healthcare authorities need to be highly concerned about the health of the people. They need to improve their healthcare processes of the locality, in terms of maintaining the good health and wellbeing of the community people.

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Reference list:

  • Awan, K.H., Siddiqi, K., Patil, S. and Hussain, Q.A., 2017. Assessing the effect of waterpipe smoking on cancer outcome-a systematic review of current evidence. Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP, 18(2), p.495.
  • Brinker, T.J., Holzapfel, J., Baudson, T.G., Sies, K., Jakob, L., Baumert, H.M., Heckl, M., Cirac, A., Suhre, J.L., Mathes, V. and Fries, F.N., 2016. Photoaging smartphone app promoting poster campaign to reduce smoking prevalence in secondary schools: the Smokerface Randomized Trial: design and baseline characteristics. BMJ open, 6(11), p.e014288.
  • Cummings, K.M., 2016. Smoking isn’t cool anymore: The success and continuing challenge of public health efforts to reduce smoking. Journal of public health management and practice: JPHMP, 22(1), p.5.
  • Dobbie, F., Angus, K., Littlecott, H., Allum, K., Wells, V., Amos, A., Haw, S. and Bauld, L., 2018. Facilitators and barriers to the delivery of school-based smoking prevention interventions for children and young people: a protocol for a systematic review of qualitative studies. Systematic reviews, 7(1), p.56.
  • Fletcher, A., Willmott, M., Langford, R., White, J., Poole, R., Brown, R., Young, H., Moore, G., Murphy, S., Townson, J. and Hollingworth, W., 2017. Pilot trial and process evaluation of a multilevel smoking prevention intervention in further education settings.
  • Golechha, M., 2016. Health promotion methods for smoking prevention and cessation: A comprehensive review of effectiveness and the way forward. International journal of preventive medicine, 7.
  • healthysuffolk.org.uk , (2018), Available at: [Assessed 13 July, 2018]
  • Hyland, A., Ambrose, B.K., Conway, K.P., Borek, N., Lambert, E., Carusi, C., Taylor, K., Crosse, S., Fong, G.T., Cummings, K.M. and Abrams, D., 2017. Design and methods of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study. Tobacco control, 26(4), pp.371-378.
  • knowsleyknowledge.org.uk, (2018), Avaliable at : [Assessed 23 March, 2018]
  • Lancaster, T. and Stead, L.F., 2017. Individual behavioural counselling for smoking cessation. Cochrane database of systematic reviews, (3).
  • Li, Y., Hou, C.L., Ma, X.R., Zang, Y., Jia, F.J., Zhong, B.L., Lin, Y.Q., Chiu, H.F., Ungvari, G.S., Himelhoch, S. and Cao, X.L., 2016. Smoking and its associations with sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and quality of life in patients with schizophrenia treated in primary care in China. General hospital psychiatry, 38, pp.79-83.
  • MacMonegle, A.J., Nonnemaker, J., Duke, J.C., Farrelly, M.C., Zhao, X., Delahanty, J.C., Smith, A.A., Rao, P. and Allen, J.A., 2018. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of The Real Cost Campaign's Effect on Smoking Prevention. American journal of preventive medicine, 55(3), pp.319-325.
  • Mohammadnezhad, M., Tsourtos, G., Wilson, C., Ratcliffe, J. and Ward, P., 2015. “I have never experienced any problem with my health. So far, it hasn’t been harmful”: older Greek-Australian smokers’ views on smoking: a qualitative study. BMC public health, 15(1), p.304.
  • Ohkuma, T., Nakamura, U., Iwase, M., Ide, H., Fujii, H., Jodai, T., Kaizu, S., Kikuchi, Y., Idewaki, Y., Sumi, A. and Hirakawa, Y., 2016. Effects of smoking and its cessation on creatinine-and cystatin C-based estimated glomerular filtration rates and albuminuria in male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Fukuoka Diabetes Registry. Hypertension Research, 39(10), p.744.
  • Wagijo, M.A., Sheikh, A., Duijts, L. and Been, J.V., 2017. Reducing tobacco smoking and smoke exposure to prevent preterm birth and its complications. Paediatric respiratory reviews, 22, pp.3-10.
  • Winter, S.J., Sheats, J.L. and King, A.C., 2016. The use of behavior change techniques and theory in technologies for cardiovascular disease prevention and treatment in adults: a comprehensive review. Progress in cardiovascular diseases, 58(6), pp.605-612.
  • Woodgate, R.L. and Busolo, D.S., 2015. A qualitative study on Canadian youth’s perspectives of peers who smoke: an opportunity for health promotion. BMC public health, 15(1), p.1301.
  • Zatoński, W.A., Aaro, L.E., Samdal, O. and Mazur, J., 2016. Smoking-or nicotine-free generation, or both? What should be the public health priority?. Journal of Health Inequalities, 2(2), pp.105-108.

Bibliography:

  • Awan, K.H., Siddiqi, K., Patil, S. and Hussain, Q.A., 2017. Assessing the effect of waterpipe smoking on cancer outcome-a systematic review of current evidence. Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP, 18(2), p.495.
  • Baker, C.L., Bruno, M., Emir, B., Li, V.W. and Goren, A., 2018. Smoking Cessation Is Associated With Lower Indirect Costs. Journal of occupational and environmental medicine, 60(6), p.490.
  • Brinker, T.J., Holzapfel, J., Baudson, T.G., Sies, K., Jakob, L., Baumert, H.M., Heckl, M., Cirac, A., Suhre, J.L., Mathes, V. and Fries, F.N., 2016. Photoaging smartphone app promoting poster campaign to reduce smoking prevalence in secondary schools: the Smokerface Randomized Trial: design and baseline characteristics. BMJ open, 6(11), p.e014288.
  • Chu, N.F., Lin, F.H. and Wu, Y.C., 2017. Prevalence and Trends of Cigarette Smoking Among Military Personnel in Taiwan: Results of 10-Year Anti-Smoking Health Promotion Programs in Military. Military medicine, 182(7), pp.e1933-e1937.
  • Cummings, K.M., 2016. Smoking isn’t cool anymore: The success and continuing challenge of public health efforts to reduce smoking. Journal of public health management and practice: JPHMP, 22(1), p.5.
  • de Graaf, A., van den Putte, B., Nguyen, M.H., Zebregs, S., Lammers, J. and Neijens, P., 2017. The effectiveness of narrative versus informational smoking education on smoking beliefs, attitudes and intentions of low-educated adolescents. Psychology & health, 32(7), pp.810-825.
  • Dobbie, F., Angus, K., Littlecott, H., Allum, K., Wells, V., Amos, A., Haw, S. and Bauld, L., 2018. Facilitators and barriers to the delivery of school-based smoking prevention interventions for children and young people: a protocol for a systematic review of qualitative studies. Systematic reviews, 7(1), p.56.
  • Fletcher, A., Willmott, M., Langford, R., White, J., Poole, R., Brown, R., Young, H., Moore, G., Murphy, S., Townson, J. and Hollingworth, W., 2017. Pilot trial and process evaluation of a multilevel smoking prevention intervention in further education settings.
  • Flood, J., Minkler, M., Hennessey Lavery, S., Estrada, J. and Falbe, J., 2015. The collective impact model and its potential for health promotion: overview and case study of a healthy retail initiative in San Francisco. Health Education & Behavior, 42(5), pp.654-668.
  • Golechha, M., 2016. Health promotion methods for smoking prevention and cessation: A comprehensive review of effectiveness and the way forward. International journal of preventive medicine, 7.
  • healthysuffolk.org.uk , (2018), Available at: [Assessed 13 July, 2018]
  • Hors-Fraile, S., Schneider, F., Fernandez-Luque, L., Luna-Perejon, F., Civit, A., Spachos, D., Bamidis, P. and de Vries, H., 2018. Tailoring motivational health messages for smoking cessation using an mHealth recommender system integrated with an electronic health record: a study protocol. BMC public health, 18(1), p.698.
  • Hyland, A., Ambrose, B.K., Conway, K.P., Borek, N., Lambert, E., Carusi, C., Taylor, K., Crosse, S., Fong, G.T., Cummings, K.M. and Abrams, D., 2017. Design and methods of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study. Tobacco control, 26(4), pp.371-378.
  • knowsleyknowledge.org.uk, (2018), Avaliable at : [Assessed 23 March, 2018]
  • Lancaster, T. and Stead, L.F., 2017. Individual behavioural counselling for smoking cessation. Cochrane database of systematic reviews, (3).
  • Li, Y., Hou, C.L., Ma, X.R., Zang, Y., Jia, F.J., Zhong, B.L., Lin, Y.Q., Chiu, H.F., Ungvari, G.S., Himelhoch, S. and Cao, X.L., 2016. Smoking and its associations with sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and quality of life in patients with schizophrenia treated in primary care in China. General hospital psychiatry, 38, pp.79-83.
  • MacMonegle, A.J., Nonnemaker, J., Duke, J.C., Farrelly, M.C., Zhao, X., Delahanty, J.C., Smith, A.A., Rao, P. and Allen, J.A., 2018. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of The Real Cost Campaign's Effect on Smoking Prevention. American journal of preventive medicine, 55(3), pp.319-325.
  • Midford, R., Cahill, H., Lester, L., Foxcroft, D.R., Ramsden, R. and Venning, L., 2016. Smoking prevention for students: findings from a three-year program of integrated harm minimization school drug education. Substance use & misuse, 51(3), pp.395-407
  • Mohammadnezhad, M., Tsourtos, G., Wilson, C., Ratcliffe, J. and Ward, P., 2015. “I have never experienced any problem with my health. So far, it hasn’t been harmful”: older Greek-Australian smokers’ views on smoking: a qualitative study. BMC public health, 15(1), p.304.
  • Ohkuma, T., Nakamura, U., Iwase, M., Ide, H., Fujii, H., Jodai, T., Kaizu, S., Kikuchi, Y., Idewaki, Y., Sumi, A. and Hirakawa, Y., 2016. Effects of smoking and its cessation on creatinine-and cystatin C-based estimated glomerular filtration rates and albuminuria in male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Fukuoka Diabetes Registry. Hypertension Research, 39(10), p.744.
  • Wagijo, M.A., Sheikh, A., Duijts, L. and Been, J.V., 2017. Reducing tobacco smoking and smoke exposure to prevent preterm birth and its complications. Paediatric respiratory reviews, 22, pp.3-10.
  • Wang, L.Y. and Michael, S.L., 2015. Long-term health and medical cost impact of smoking prevention in adolescence. Journal of Adolescent Health, 56(2), pp.160-166.
  • Winter, S.J., Sheats, J.L. and King, A.C., 2016. The use of behavior change techniques and theory in technologies for cardiovascular disease prevention and treatment in adults: a comprehensive review. Progress in cardiovascular diseases, 58(6), pp.605-612.
  • Woodgate, R.L. and Busolo, D.S., 2015. A qualitative study on Canadian youth’s perspectives of peers who smoke: an opportunity for health promotion. BMC public health, 15(1), p.1301.
  • Zatoński, W.A., Aaro, L.E., Samdal, O. and Mazur, J., 2016. Smoking-or nicotine-free generation, or both? What should be the public health priority?. Journal of Health Inequalities, 2(2), pp.105-108.

Appendices:

Appendix 1: Group plan:

Group plan Group plan Group plan Group plan

Appendix 2: (leaflet)

Group plan Group plan

Appendix 3:

Question 1. What is your Gender?

  • Male
  • Female

Question 2. How old are you?

  • 18-25
  • 25-30
  • 30-45
  • 45-55
  • 55-65+

Question 3.Do you smoke?

  • No If No, Skip to question 4
  • Yes
  • Occasionally

If yes how often do you smoke?

Question 4. What is your race or ethnic group?

  • Asian
  • Asian or British Pakistan
  • Black or British/ African
  • Black or British/Caribbean
  • Chinese
  • White British
  • White Other
  • Mixed White and Black African
  • Mixed White and Black Caribbean
  • Prefer not to say

Question 5. Do you think smoking should be banned?

  • Yes
  • No

If your answer is yes please explain why?

Question 6. Do you think quitting can help a lifelong smoker?

  • Yes
  • No
  • Not Sure

Question 7. Do you have a healthy, balanced diet?

  • Not at all
  • Some of the time
  • Most or all of the time
  • Don't know/not sure?

Question 8. Why do you smoke?

  • Family
  • Habit
  • Relieve stress
  • Social
  • None

Question 9. Did you know, on average, most people who quit save around £250 each month?

  • Yes
  • No

Question 10. Are you aware of the fact that passive smoking kills millions of people per year?

  • Yes
  • No
  • Not Sure

Question 11. Do you know what is in a cigarette?

  • No
  • Not Sure
  • If yes give some examples below

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