Holistic Approach to Health and Well Being

Introduction

The key areas of health and well-being include emotional, physical, social, intellectual and spiritual. The health and well-being are essential as it indicates a person is emotionally stable and physically, mentally as well as socially healthy to lead their life (Boore et al. 2016). In this presentation, an overview of pharmacology is to be mentioned along with the role of the nurses in medicine optimisation. The role of the cardiovascular system in managing the health and well-being of the individuals is also to be discussed.

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Basic Pharmacology and nurse’s role in medicine optimisation

The pharmacology is referred to the branch of medicine which is related to determining the use and impact on body functions along with modes of administering drugs to the patients (Boore et al. 2016). In the mental health settings, it is seen that wide number of medications are prescribed to different patients based on their psychological condition to ensure their well-being. The administration of right medication in proper dosages to patients in mental health is required to avoid adverse psychological condition and ensure effective well-being and health of the patients. This is because error in pharmacological intervention in mental health settings leads to disrupt the proper brain functioning of the patients making them face deteriorated health condition at times which can be fatal. Moreover, the lack of effective pharmacological or medicine optimisation creates complication for the health professionals to deliver care as well as face lack of competence from patients (Keers et al. 2018).

The nurses in the mental health settings are allocated the role to manage proper medicine optimisation based on the pharmacological information shared by the health professionals with them through prescriptions and clinical interaction. The Medicine optimisation is referred to the person-centred approach taken by the nurses to provide prescribed medicines in a safe and effective way to ensure the patients obtain care in their best interest to lead a healthy life (Heaton et al. 2017). In mental health settings, the nurses to ensure proper medicine optimisation have the role to encourage patients to take their prescribed medication in proper dosages regularly. They have the responsibility to inform the patients individually about the reason for medicine being prescribed and the way it would help them to improve their health condition (Slight et al. 2019). The nurses to maintain proper medicine optimisation in mental health settings have the role to determine and understand the proper mode of administration of specific medications. This is because the administration of medicine through improper modes leads them to be ineffective to improve the health of the patients (Bougeard et al. 2017).

In medicine optimisation within mental health settings, the nurses have the role to engage patients into the interaction to make them develop trust over them so that the patients properly comply with the nurses while they administer or provide them required medication according to their health condition as prescribed (Lansdall-Welfare et al. 2019). This is because mental health patients due to their hindered psychological condition and being abused as a result of stigma regarding their illness avoid to show compliance in care until they develop trust over the nurses as they fear of being harmed or abused again (Boore et al. 2016). Since few psychotic medications require time to be effective, the nurses to maintain medicine optimisation in mental health settings have the role to encourage and emphasise the patients and individuals to keep taking the medicine while its dosage is titrated. This is because it is the way in which the medicine intake can be continued among the patients to avoid relapse of the illness (Callaghan et al. 2017). The nurses have the role to remain aware of differentiating between similar medication name and dosages to avoid error and ensure proper medication optimisation. Moreover, nurses have the role to ensure proper medicine optimisation in mental health settings by forming partnership with family members of the patients to encourage the individuals to take proper medication or make them inform about the necessity of the medication being provided to them to lead the patients to show compliance in care provided by the nurses (Carolan et al. 2019).

Explaining the role of the cardiovascular system in maintaining health and well-being

The cardiovascular system is referred to the transport system present throughout the body and the three key components of the system are heart, blood vessels and blood. The heart is the main component which pumps blood to different organs in the body through the blood vessels to provide required nutrients and oxygen for their effective functioning. During uptake of nutrients from the blood, the organs and tissues of the body dispose of the waste materials such as carbon dioxide and others to be carried by the blood (Mitchell and Kirkby, 2019).

The heart is made up of four chambers which are the left and right atrium present on the upper part and left and right ventricles present at the bottom of the heart. The chambers of the heart are separated through bicuspid and tricuspid valves to avoid mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood within the heart as well as to avoid backflow of blood (Woodward et al. 2017). The protection of backflow of blood is ensured by the pulmonary valves of the cardiovascular system which is effective to maintain health and well-being as backflow would create strain on the muscles of the ventricle and atrium that results in development of infective endocarditis (IE). The IE leads individuals to face issues such as aching joints and muscles, fatigue, chest pain and others (Palmer, 2018). Thus, IE is avoided through proper functioning of heart helping individuals to have positive health and well-being.

The deoxygenated blood enters the right part of the atrium which is then pumped through the right side of the ventricle by the heart through the pulmonary artery to be sent to the lungs. The oxygenated blood which is made through gaseous transfer in the lungs then enters the left side of the atrium and travelling through left ventricle is pumped throughout the body with the help of aorta. The blood delivers required nutrients to each organ and tissues of the body so that they receive required elements and components for their effective functioning (Grieve, 2019). The lack of proper delivery of nutrients and oxygen by the blood to the organs hinders the health and well-being of the individuals as the organs and tissues are unable to function properly. For instance, the lack of proper delivery of vitamin B-12 and folate through the blood would result to lower the production of red blood cells leading individuals to develop low blood pressure, muscle weakness, memory issues and others (Heng et al. 2019).

The arteries are the blood vessels that have the role to deliver oxygenated blood from the heart to different parts of the body whereas the veins are the blood vessels with the role to deliver deoxygenated blood from different parts of the body to the heart (Spiers and Eftekhari, 2018). The increased cholesterol intake along with various behaviours are seen to form plaque in the arteries which narrows their size leading to increase the blood flow through the vessels. This hinders the health of the individuals as they experience high blood pressure making them show symptoms of fatigue, shortness of breath, headache and others (Hall, 2018). Therefore, it is seen that proper breath of arteries is to be maintained to ensure health and well-being of the individuals.

The circulatory system also has the role to transport hormones to cells and tissues in the body for their proper functioning (Perreault et al. 2017). The hindered performance of the role leads to the hindered performance of many body functions. The circulatory system has the role to remove metabolic waste such as nitrogenous substances and carbon dioxide from the body. This is because the build-up of wastes in the body leads to septicaemia which hinders the health and well-being of the individuals (O'Donovan, 2018). Therefore, the circulatory system requires to regularly throw out wastes that enter the blood to ensure positive health.

The heart is required to properly pump blood through the body to ensure health of the individuals. However, if the heart in the circulatory system is unable to pump proper amount of blood it would hinder the health of the individuals. The cardiomyopathy is the disease which affects the heart to become harden and face hindrance in proper pumping out of blood. The disease arises as a result of genetic mutation or due to impact of high blood pressure, ageing and others hindering the proper delivering of oxygen and nutrients along with blood in the body (Honigberg and Givertz, 2019). Thus, the heart has the role to effectively pump blood so that the health and well-being of individuals can be ensured.

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Conclusion

The discussion informs that pharmacology is the brand of science that deals with the administration and management of medicine. The role of nurses in mental health settings to ensure medicine optimisation includes encouraging patients to take proper medication, differentiating between similar medications, knowledge of the proper mode of medicine administration and others. The circulatory system includes heart, blood and blood vessels and its main role are delivering of oxygen and nutrients along with hormones to different parts of the body to ensure proper health and well-being of the individuals.

References

Boore, J., Cook, N. and Shepherd, A., 2016. Essentials of anatomy and physiology for nursing practice. Sage.

Bougeard, A.M., Brent, A., Swart, M. and Snowden, C., 2017. A survey of UK peri‐operative medicine: pre‐operative care. Anaesthesia, 72(8), pp.1010-1015.

Callaghan, J.E., Fellin, L.C. and Warner-Gale, F., 2017. A critical analysis of Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services policy in England. Clinical child psychology and psychiatry, 22(1), pp.109-127.

Carolan, A., Keating, D., Strawbridge, J. and Ryan, C., 2019. Optimising prescribing for patients with severe mental illness: the need for criteria. Evidence-based mental health, 22(4), pp.139-141.

Grieve, D.J., 2019. British Society for Cardiovascular Research. Cardiovascular drugs and therapy, 33(2), pp.201-201.

Hall, A., 2018. Heart sounds: auscultation for valvular heart disease. British Journal of Cardiac Nursing, 13(1), pp.12-18.

Heaton, J., Britten, N., Krska, J. and Reeve, J., 2017. Person-centred medicines optimisation policy in England: an agenda for research on polypharmacy. Primary health care research & development, 18(1), pp.24-34.

Honigberg, M.C. and Givertz, M.M., 2019. Peripartum cardiomyopathy. Bmj, 364, p.k5287.

Keers, R.N., Placido, M., Bennett, K., Clayton, K., Brown, P. and Ashcroft, D.M., 2018. What causes medication administration errors in a mental health hospital? A qualitative study with nursing staff. PloS one, 13(10). pp.23-55.

Lansdall-Welfare, T., Lightman, S. and Cristianini, N., 2019. Seasonal variation in antidepressant prescriptions, environmental light and web queries for seasonal affective disorder. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 215(2), pp.481-484.

Mitchell, J.A. and Kirkby, N.S., 2019. Eicosanoids, prostacyclin and cyclooxygenase in the cardiovascular system. British journal of pharmacology, 176(8), pp.1038-1050.

O'Donovan, K., 2018. The role of ACE inhibitors in cardiovascular disease. British Journal of Cardiac Nursing, 13(12), pp.600-608.

Palmer, S.J., 2018. Cardiovascular devices increase risk of infective endocarditis. British Journal of Cardiac Nursing, 13(3), pp.150-151.

Perreault, K., Bauman, A., Johnson, N., Britton, A., Rangul, V. and Stamatakis, E., 2017. Does physical activity moderate the association between alcohol drinking and all-cause, cancer and cardiovascular diseases mortality? A pooled analysis of eight British population cohorts. British journal of sports medicine, 51(8), pp.651-657.

Slight, S.P., Tolley, C.L., Bates, D.W., Fraser, R., Bigirumurame, T., Kasim, A., Balaskonis, K., Narrie, S., Heed, A., Orav, E.J. and Watson, N.W., 2019. Medication errors and adverse drug events in a UK hospital during the optimisation of electronic prescriptions: a prospective observational study. The Lancet Digital Health, 1(8), pp.e403-e412.

Spiers, C. and Eftekhari, H., 2018. What is advanced clinical practice in cardiovascular care?. British Journal of Cardiac Nursing, 13(9), pp.458-459.

Woodward, L., Akoumianakis, I. and Antoniades, C., 2017. Unravelling the adiponectin paradox: novel roles of adiponectin in the regulation of cardiovascular disease. British journal of pharmacology, 174(22), pp.4007-4020.

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