Implications For Diabetes Management


Diabetes is a health condition that occurs when human body is not able to effectively process the glucose, which is popularly known as blood sugar. It affects people with extreme high blood sugar. There are three main types of diabetes and they include type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes. Diabetes is currently one of the leading health problems that affect millions of people across the globe. It was estimated that diabetes affected about 2.8% of the global population as of 2000 (Wild et al., 2004). The percentage is expected to increase to 4.4%, leading to about 366 million people suffering from the disease (Wild et al., 2004). The statistics shows that the number of people who are suffering from the disease is increasing, especially in middle and low-income nations across the globe. Thus, diabetes is a public health problem that should be addressed. The aim of the paper is to investigate serum levels of insulin and leptin in diabetic subjects before and after exercise routines.

Complications of Diabetes and People Affected

Diabetes has major health complications on human body. The complications can broadly be categorized into two groups. The first category is known as microvascular complications, which is the damage to the small blood vessels (Papatheodorou et al., 2016). Some of the types of microvascular complications include damage to the eye, renal failure, and foot disorders. The second category is macrovascular that mainly involve cardiovascular complications such as heart attacks and stroke (Papatheodorou et al., 2018). Diabetes, therefore, has many complications. In addition, diabetes affects people across human populations. However, some populations have higher risks of the disease compared to others. Diabetes is more common in older population than younger population. The risk of suffering from diabetes increases with age. Even though the prevalence of diabetes is higher in men when compared to women, more women suffer from the disease than their male counterparts. Low-income people have the risks of developing diabetes because of the high chances of being overweight and suffering from high blood pressure.


Explanation of Diabetes from Molecular Point of View

Diabetes can be explained from a molecular point of view, even though this type of explanation is yet to be conclusive. One of the main functions of insulin in human body is to control or reduce the blood glucose level. Insulin reduces the blood sugar level through a molecular enzyme known as glycogen synthase, which is found in the liver. The molecule is making glycogen when helps in reducing blood glucose (Biosa et al., 2018). Thus, diabetes is caused when the concentration of glucose is high in the blood, especially when the molecular enzyme is not functioning properly. As a result, molecular therapy is one of the strategies that are used to manage diabetes (Biosa et al., 2018). Molecular therapy has been utilized to manage diabetes successfully.

History of Diabetes and Previous Studies

A number of studies have been done to understand various aspects of diabetes. A significant number of studies focus on the prevalence of diabetes. For instance, a study that was conducted by Wild et al. (2004) focused on the global prevalence of diabetes, which was found to be rapidly increasing. A significant percentage of global population is suffering from diabetes. Lakhtakia (2013) also conducted a study to explore the history of diabetes. At the same professors at De Montfort University (DMU) lead by Joan Taylor have conducted a number of studies to understand diabetes, especially its relationship with physical exercise. History of diabetes dates back to 1500 BC when it was first discovered in Egypt. However, a young scientist known as Paul Langerhans first diagnosed the disease in 1869. Diabetes, thus, has a long history. The table below shows that the rate of diabetes is increase.

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Role of Exercise in Controlling Diabetes

Exercise plays a critical role in controlling diabetes. It is through exercise that diabetic people are able to control or regulate their blood sugars. At the same time, exercise helps in enhancing metabolism process and it reduces diabetic risk factors such as hardening of arteries (Karacabey, 2009). In addition, exercise control diabetes by increasing the effectiveness of insulin, reduces blood pressure, eliminate bad cholesterol, and improves blood circulation. Hence, one of the ways to effectively control diabetes is the engagement in appropriate physical exercise.

Exercise has a substantial impact on leptin, which regulates body balance. Leptin always increase energy expenditure during exercise, particularly when a person is engaged in physical exercise, leading to a reduction in body fats. The level of serum in leptin changes with intensity in physical exercise, including the amount of energy used (Karacabey, 2009). At the same time, exercise increases leptin sensitivity, which is essential in controlling diabetes. Therefore, with enhanced leptin activity and reduced serum level during physical exercise, people with diabetes are likely to experience reduced body mass index and the level of glucose in the body. Besides, exercise increases insulin sensitivity. Exercise makes insulin to work better while at the same time it assists in reversing insulin resistance (Karacabey, 2009). Proper functioning of insulin ensures that human blood contains the right amount of glucose at any given time, leading to a reduced risk of diabetes.

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Exercise is essential in controlling and managing diabetes because it improves blood sugar tolerance significantly. However, it is important for people to engage in appropriate exercise as two little or extreme exercise can ineffective in controlling diabetes or blood sugar levels in the blood. People with diabetes should engage in regular physical exercise, particularly based on the recommendations from experts.


  • Biosa, A., Outeiro, T. F., Bubacco, L., & Bisaglia, M. (2018). Diabetes Mellitus as a Risk Factor for Parkinson’s Disease: a Molecular Point of View. Molecular neurobiology, 1-10.
  • Karacabey, K. (2009). The effect of exercise on leptin, insulin, cortisol and lipid profiles in obese children. Journal of International Medical Research, 37(5), 1472-1478.
  • Lakhtakia, R. (2013). The history of diabetes mellitus. Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal, 13(3), 368.
  • Wild, S., Roglic, G., Green, A., Sicree, R., & King, H. (2004). Global prevalence of diabetes: estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030. Diabetes Care, 27(5), 1047-1053.
  • Papatheodorou, K., Papanas, N., Banach, M., Papazoglou, D., & Edmonds, M. (2016). Complications of diabetes 2016. Journal of Diabetes Research, 16(1), 1-4.
  • Papatheodorou, K., Banach, M., Bekiari, E., Rizzo, M., & Edmonds, M. (2018). Complications of Diabetes 2017. Journal of diabetes research, 2018(1).

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