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1. MAKE SURE YOU SELECT THE RIGHT ASSIGMNENT FOR YOUR GROUP (SEPTEMBER 19 / APRIL 19)
2. Make sure you use the cover sheet and fill the required information (Full Name, Student ID, Date AND Statement of Authenticity
3. This submission is in the form of a single file individual report.
4. It is divided into two parts covering LOs 1-4.
5. The maximum length of the report is 4000 words
6. (Part One = 2000 words; Part Two = 2000 words).
7. However, you will not be penalised for exceeding the word count limit.
8. Where applicable, you should use pictures and well labelled diagrams to illustrate your points.
9. You must include in-text citations and a bibliography for all referenced work using the Harvard referencing system.
10. Use Calibri or Times New Roman, Font size 12 on all your typed-up work with normal page margins and 1.5-line space.
11. You must submit your work on Moodle and tick the declaration confirming the work is your own before submission.
Analyse the actions of, and physiological response to, different types of medicine. You need to evaluate and assess the efficacy of different medicines for specific therapeutic uses. To support your evaluation and assessment regarding the efficacy of various medicines, you should discuss the physiological actions and therapeutic use of different types of drugs and analyse the reasons for the different methods of administration of drugs (LO1).
P1 Discuss the therapeutic use of different types of drug
1. Define drug and reference properly
2. Define briefly the main types of drugs (NSAIDS, Antibiotics, Sedatives, Antipsychotics, Anticoagulants, Antidepressants, Vaccines) At least 2-3.
3. Explain what are the desired therapeutic effects of each (what are they intended for?).
4. Reference properly
P2 Discuss the physiological actions of different types of drugs
1. Use the groups of drugs discussed in P1 and explain in detail how these drugs achieve their effect inside the body (e.g: Decreasing pain by inhibition of prostaglandins – NSAIDS). How do these drugs achieve their effect inside the human body?. Reference properly.
P3 Analyse the reasons for the different methods of administration of drugs
1. Advantages and Disadvantages of at least 3 different methods of drug administration (E.g: oral, parenteral (IV, IM, SC), rectal, inhalation, etc). Reference properly
M1 Assess the efficacy of different medicines for therapeutic use
1. Using the groups of medication discussed in P1/P2 now you have to weigh the advantages and disadvantages of each of these drugs.
2. What are the advantages of using antibiotics, NSAIDS, Antipsychotics, vaccines etc?. What are the risks and possible side effects? Are they overall effective?
3. Reference properly
D1 Evaluate the efficacy of different medicines for specific therapeutic uses
Take 1 specific medicine from each of the groups you discussed in P1/P2/M1. And assess if they are effective for its specific purpose (e.g: Is Ibuprofen –NSAID- really effective to treat pain?). Justify your arguments with relevant information, studies, etc).
Explain why the interactions of drugs must be taken into account when developing policy, procedure and practice for managing medicines. You are required to critically review how effective implementation of the policies and procedures used to manage different medicines protects both the service user and staff. To support your review, discuss how the interactions of drugs are taken into account when developing policy, procedure and practice for managing medicines. Your discussion should also be able to explain how drug interactions may affect the efficacy and side effects of different medicines for physical and mental health conditions. (LO3).
P6 Explain how drug interactions may affect the efficacy and side effects of different medicines for physical and mental health conditions
1. Define drug interaction and reference properly.
2. Describe the main types of drug interaction.
3. Explain how can drug interactions affect a drug in achieving the desired therapeutic effect in 2-3 medications. (E.g. what happens if a person mixes alcohol and paracetamol? How is the effect of paracetamol affected by alcohol?). E.G: “Grapefruit Juice contains compounds known as furanocoumarins, which change the effects of some drugs. It can affect how the body metabolizes drugs, changing the level of the medication in the blood. Eg: Antihistamines, Blood pressure medications, Thyroid replacement drugs, Birth control”.
4. Reference properly
M3 Discuss how the interactions of drugs are taken into account when developing policy, procedure and practice for managing medicines
1. Explain in detail why is it important to be aware of these interactions when writing policies and procedures for healthcare organisations managing medicines.
2. They are taken into account when describing the steps to follow in common or dangerous situations, the Healthcare staff will have a clear guidance on what to do to ensure patient safety and minimise medication errors, as well as avoiding adverse drug reactions.
3. Reference properly.
D3 Critically review how effective implementation of the policies and procedures used to manage different medicines protects both the service user and staff
Explain in depth how implementing effectively these policies can protect both the SERVICE USER and the STAFF.
Justify your arguments with relevant information/studies (CQC Reports, NHS Reports, Case Studies etc), and reference properly.
Explore the advantages and disadvantages. Reference properly.
CQC Report (2019): Example from a notification report: harm to a patient In one notification, staff had dispensed incorrect emergency medicines for a young patient to take home with them. They felt under pressure to dispense, and that they could not wait for the usual medication to come from pharmacy. When the members of staff found that the patient’s usual liquid medicine was missing, they found medicine in sachet form in the medicine cupboard and dispensed this as an alternative. However, the next day, the patient came back to the hospital complaining of abdominal pain and loose stools, and had an episode of fainting and low blood pressure. After staff identified the error, the stock of medicine was removed from the cupboard and all staff, the patient and their family received information about the incident. (PARAPRHRASED).
Investigate the legislation, policies and standards that govern the management of medicines in a healthcare setting. You should evaluate how effective local policy is at reflecting legislative requirements on the use of medicines in protecting the service user. To support your evaluation, you should also assess how effectively the legislation and standards that govern the use of medicines protects the service user. Your report should also include an explanation how local policies reflect the legislation governing the use of medicines by discussing about how legislation and standards that govern the use of medicines protect the service user (LO2)
P4 Discuss how legislation and standards that govern the use of medicines protect the service user
1. Discuss at least three Different Legislations that govern the use of medicines (Medicines Act 1968, MHRA, Humans Medicines Regulations 2012, Medicines for Human Use, Mental Health Act, Mental Capacity Act, Data Protection, NMC, RPS, NICE). How each of these legislations help protect the service user? What would happen without these regulations?.
2. Reference properly.
P5 Explain how local policies reflect the legislation governing the use of medicines
1. Explain the need for local policies (different areas = different patients = different circumstances). To provide guidance to staff and protect the service user. Ensure procedures are done correctly, following national Guidelines.
2. They must use the most updated information available from advisory and regulating bodies (CCG, CQC, NICE, NMC, RCP, National Legislations), as administering medication is a regulated activity. The policy must be based and include these in its contends (all that are applicable like DPA, MCA, MHA).
M2 Assess how effectively the legislation and standards that govern the use of medicines protects the service user.
1. Advantages and disadvantages of the policies. Back up your arguments with relevant information (NHS, CQC reports and studies).
2. What happens if the policies are not updated or followed accordingly?
3. What happens if they are implemented safely?
4. Are there any recommendations to improve its effectiveness?
D2 Evaluate how effective local policy is at reflecting legislative requirements on the use of medicines in protecting the service user
Advantages (e.g. safe administration of medicines, clear procedures in place, following national legislation) and disadvantages (e.g: staff not aware of policies, or not following them, outdated policies/using old guidelines) of local policies
Are they effective reflecting the legislative requirements in the use of medicines?
Conclude and reference properly.
Safely implement own setting’s policies and procedures when administering and managing medicines. You are required to justify the rationale for taking the interactions of drugs, adverse events and reactions into account when developing policy, procedure and practice for managing medicines in own practice setting. To support the justification, you should also evaluate the effectiveness of own safe implementation of the policies and procedures on administering, prescribing and managing different medicines. You should demonstrate this by safely implementing own healthcare setting’s policies on administering and managing medicines under the supervision of an appropriate professional. You should also rationalise own work setting’s policies and procedures used for managing and prescribing medicines including consideration of adverse drug events and reactions. (LO4)
P7 Rationalise own work setting’s policies and procedures used for managing and prescribing medicines including consideration of adverse drug events and reactions
1. How well does your healthcare setting implement medicine management and prescribing policies and procedures? Do they have appropriate policies and procedures following national guidelines and advisory bodies? Is the staff aware and implementing these policies? Are there procedures for ordering, storing, handling, administering and disposing medication?
2. Do they include particular considerations of ADE and ADR? Do you have a reporting system for this events? Are you aware of the Yellow Card Scheme?
P8 Safely implement own healthcare setting’s policies on administering and managing medicines under the supervision of an appropriate professional
1. Briefly mention how your workplace policies and procedures take into account side effects, risks, versus the benefit of prescribing drugs, and respects the service user’s choice in addition to calculating dosages, etc. Safe handling and administering medication etc.
2. Mention who (position) has supervised you and guided you when administering medication (e.g: line manager, GP).
M4 Evaluate the effectiveness of own safe implementation of the policies and procedures on administering, prescribing and managing different medicines
How effective is the own implementation of policies and procedures in your workplace? Do you follow the P&P appropriately in terms of prescribing, administering and managing medicines?
Positive and negative aspects
Recommendations for improvement
Back up your arguments with relevant information
D4 Justify the rationale for taking the interactions of drugs, adverse events and reactions into account when developing policy, procedure and practice for managing medicines in own practice setting
1. In your own setting, why do you think it is necessary to taken in consideration the interactions of drugs, adverse events and reactions into account when developing policy, procedure and practice for managing medicines? Why is each of them important in ensuring patient safety and cover the staff?
2. Justify using relevant information, reference properly.
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