Neurological Observation in Assessing Central Nervous System Function

Please answer the following three questions.

  • Word count – 150 words for each section
  • Please ensure your work is supported with credible and relevant references.

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Part 1: Discuss the importance and rationale for using neurological observations

Please use the space provided below to present your answer

Neurological observation is associated with obtaining data of neurological status of people. The neurological data consists of information on patient’s central nervous system [CNS] (Taweesomboonyat et al. 2020). The rationale of performing neurological observation are as follows:

  • To check whether CNS works properly
  • To observe there is any issue in the function of nerves
  • To analyse the signal that brain provides to different body parts
  • Care professionals perform a neurological observation by performing the following processes:

  • Checking the level of consciousness
  • Checking the pupillary actions
  • Checking vital signs
  • Checking motor function
  • Checking the cranial nerve function
  • Checking the sensory function

Level of consciousness is monitored through checking whether the patient is awake or alert of the surrounding. Care professionals also monitor the drowsiness and unconsciousness of patients (Sreeja and Sahoo, 2020). Vital signs that are checked during the neurological observation are respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, BP and heart rate. Pupillary reaction is observed to check the changes in the pupil size that can point out to change in the CNS. The motor function is observed through observing the flexion and extension of the upper and lower limb.

Part 2: Outline the updated guidance on in-hospital resuscitation with regards to the current COVID pandemic

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In-hospital Resuscitation is the medical process of reviving a patient from the unconsciousness (Edwards et al. 2020). Care professionals must follow the guidelines of Resuscitation Council (UK) in performing this process appropriately. During this COVID pandemic, Resuscitation Council (UK) has added more guidelines which need to be followed by care professionals.

Based on these guidelines, care professionals must be trained in providing:

  • Basic life support (BLS) (Hawkes et al. 2019)
  • Paediatric life support (PLS)
  • Advance life support (ALS)
  • New-born life support (NLS)
  • Use of an automated external defibrillator (AED)

Under the guidelines care professionals must be well-trained in providing the high-quality life support to deteriorating patients who are affected by COVID 19 (Edwards et al. 2020). Care professionals must determine the health needs of COVID positive patients in terms of providing them with proper life support.

Part 3: Discuss the rationale and procedure for performing Venepuncture

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Venepuncture is the medical process which involves puncturing of a vein by a needle in terms of obtaining the venous access for purpose of the venous blood sampling (Aydın and Özyazıcıoğlu, 2019). The venous blood sampling is also known as phlebotomy. There are five main possible objectives of performing a Venepuncture:

    Obtaining blood for the diagnostic process (Koç Özkan and Balcı, 2020)

    Monitoring the level of all blood components

    Administering different therapeutic treatment such as nutrition, chemotherapy and medication (Aydın and Özyazıcıoğlu, 2019)

    Removing blood to eliminate the excess level of erythrocytes or iron

    Collecting blood for future use such as blood transfusion or stem cells formation.


    The medical staff first clear the site of puncture by chloraprep wipe and then allows the site to dry (Koç Özkan and Balcı, 2020)

    Then the tourniquet is applied on the puncture site

    A traction is placed of the skin below the puncture site

    Then a sterilized needle is inserted at an angle of 300 in the puncture site

    Then advance the stylized needle and release the traction on the skim

    Then attach a sample bottle, fill up the necessary level and then invert the bottle after removing

    When the last bottle gets removed it is time to release the tourniquet

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    A cotton wool placed in the puncture site and then the needle is slowly withdrawn from the site.

    Direct pressure is applied on the puncture site for 1 minute

Reference list:

Aydın, A.İ. and Özyazıcıoğlu, N., 2019. Using a virtual reality headset to decrease pain felt during a venipuncture procedure in children. Journal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing, 34(6), pp.1215-1221.

Edwards, G., Belkhatir, K., Brunton, A., Abernethy, C., Conetta, H. and O'Shea, J.E., 2020. Neonatal intubation success rates: four UK units. Archives of Disease in Childhood-Fetal and Neonatal Edition, 105(6), pp.684-684.

Hawkes, C.A., Brown, T.P., Booth, S., Fothergill, R.T., Siriwardena, N., Zakaria, S., Askew, S., Williams, J., Rees, N., Ji, C. and Perkins, G.D., 2019. Attitudes to cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillator use: a survey of UK adults in 2017. Journal of the American Heart Association, 8(7), p.e008267.

Koç Özkan, T. and Balcı, S., 2020. The Effect of Acupressure on Acute Pain During Venipuncture in Children: Implications for Evidence‐Based Practice. Worldviews on Evidence‐Based Nursing, 17(3), pp.221-228.

Sreeja, K.S. and Sahoo, P.K., 2020. Observation on Posterior Column Sensations as Predictor of Neurological Recovery in Spinal Cord Injury Patients. Journal of Spine Research and Surgery, 2(4), pp.97-108.

Taweesomboonyat, C., Kaewborisutsakul, A., Tunthanathip, T., Saeheng, S. and Oearsakul, T., 2020. Necessity of In-hospital Neurological Observation for Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Patients with Negative Computed Tomography Brain Scans. Journal of Health Science and Medical Research, 38(4), pp.267-274.

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