NUTRITION, DIGESTION AND EXCRETION

  • 17 Pages
  • Published On: 1-12-2023
Task 1:
Letter to Mrs Smith explaining the importance of good nutrition

Mrs Smith

123 London Road,

Anywhere AA11 2BB

Dear Mrs. Smith,

I like to draw your attention on my recommendations for healthy foods and diet for you. Throughout your check-up I realise that it is high time for you to switch to a good, healthy and systematic nutrition that will not only improve your food habit but also will assist you to improve your health and manage your excess weight. For this you need to have good knowledge on essential nutrients for body and their functions.

There are mainly five nutrients that are important for human being to have a healthy life. These are protein, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and minerals. Proteins are considered as the building blocks of human body (Morell and Fiszman, 2017). Proteins are made up of amino acids that are associated with performing various bodily functions such as maintenance and growth of the body tissues, digestion, blood clotting, energy production, act as the messengers (peptides, steroids and amines) and provides the body a perfect structure. For example, collagen is the protein that is involved in holding the tissues of face together thereby delaying ageing. Protein is highly important for people with heavy weight and obesity like you, as proteins are associated with carrying out proper digestion, metabolism and increasing immunity (Drummen et al. 2018). Additionally, protein-enriched foods will assist your body to transport all the nutrients in effective way to the target cells thereby eliminating chances of fat storage in particular areas of the body; on the other hand, the amino acids of the protein will cause the fat burning as well as energy production inside your body, which will not only reduce your weight but also provide you high-energy that will enhance your energy level and make you active.

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Carbohydrates are the important as well as main source of energy in the human body which enable the body to perform different types of functions. There are mainly three types of carbohydrates that body need such as sugar, fibre and starch (Hamdy et al. 2018). Carbohydrates are generally low in calories and enrich in fibre that will assist you to reduce the weight and have a healthy diet. Carbohydrates provide the instant energy to the body that boosts the overall functions of the body. Carbohydrates are involved in the elimination of toxic and waste products out body thereby causing detoxification of the body. Carbohydrates also act as the transporter of the oxygen which carry the oxygen from the blood to the target organs. As you suffer from the low energy, high weight and hormonal fluctuation, I must recommend you proper amount of carbohydrates on regular wise as it will provide you instant energy and will improve the overall transport system in your body to maintain your weight. Here you can each 300 gram of carbs in your 2000-calories diet on regular wise.

Fat is the other important nutrient of the body. Its main functions inside the body are energy production. Although there is misconception that fat is the main reason of the excessive body weight, the real fact is that consuming right amount of fats on regular wise assists body to perform the function systematically (Drummen et al. 2018). Here I want to recommend you right amount of fat intake which can provide you with proper energy that will enable you to perform all your functions actively. Here you must know about the good fats and bad fats. Your body needs such fats that supply the essential fatty acids (EFAS). You can get these fatty acids trough mackerels, herring, sardines, salmon and albacore tuna. On the other hand, you must avoid the foods enriched with saturated as well aa trans fats as they can pose adverse impacts on your heart, brain and arterial functions.

Vitamins and minerals are the two important sources of energy in the body. Vitamin plays crucial roles in regulating the blood transpiration, cell repairing, delayed ageing, energy production, bone growth, protein synthesis, nucleotide and folic acids production. On the other hand, minerals are associated with formation of teeth and bones, oxygen transportation, boost immune system, produce thyroid hormones, DNA and bone synthesis and regular the body fluids.

As you experience the low energy, muscles tightness, hormonal fluctuation and constipation I recommend you some vitamin and mineral supplement. You can take Oziva plant-based collagen fibre, WOW Omega3 fish oil (1000 mg), natural fruit juice (specially papaya and apple juice) and protein-enriched foods such as egg, fish and milk.

Regards

Name of the nutritionist………………….

Signature>………………………..

b. Diet plan for Mrs Smith:
Diet plan for Mrs Smith Diet plan for Mrs Smith Diet plan for Mrs Smith
Explanation:

For having a heathy life, it is important to have all the essential nutrients in the diet chart. The above-mentioned diet chart is specially made for Mrs. Smith, which is mainly based on her current energy and nutritional requirements. In the diet chart all the nutrients are recommended to be taken at the right amount that will not cause any weight gain or any health complication in case of Mrs Smith. Here the proteins that are recommended in the diet chart will improve the immune system of Mrs Smith. Proteins are also associated with digestion, energy production, body tissues formation and nutrients and oxygen transportation. On the other hand, the carbohydrates that are recommended in the diet chart will promote the detoxification of the body in Mrs Smith that can assist her to manage her body weight. the fibre and starch foods in the diet are highly effective for Mrs Smith in terms of reducing her weight and providing her with maximum energy. the fat-enriched foods in the above-mentioned diet chart are the good fats that will provide Mrs Smith with the essential fatty acids that are needed for maintaining perfect balance of her body function. The vitamins and minerals are associated with energy production, bone growth, thyroid hormone production and DNA synthesis.

c. Comparisons of the three disorders
Comparisons of the three disorders Comparisons of the three disorders Comparisons of the three disorders
Task 2: How digestive system works: [Refers to poster]
Task 3: Glycolysis:
Glycolysis

Glycolysis is the extramitochondrial process that is carried by the group of eleven enzymes. Through this process the glucose is transformed into pyruvate through 10 steps.

Glycolysis has two steps such as preparatory phase and the payoff phase.

In the preparatory phase the glucose activation is taken place, in which the two molecules of ATP are used to break the hexose chain and form the two-triose phosphate. Through this process, the glucose is converted into the glucose 6 phosphate by using ATP (Feng et al. 2017). Here the one phosphate from the ATP molecule gets attached to the 6th carbon of the glucose molecule thereby producing the glucose 6 phosphate. Then fructose 1, 6 phosphate is formed by adding another phosphate in the 1st carbon of the glucose 6 bisphosphate molecule. Then the cleavage of the 6-carbon glucose 6 phosphate occur which produce the glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate (Yang et al. 2018). In this process the three enzymes work such as hexokinase that cause conversion of glucose to the glucose 6 phosphate, phosphohexose isomerase that causes the conversion of glucose 6 phosphate to fructose 6 phosphate and phosphofructokinase that causes conversion of fructose 6 phosphate to fructose 1, 6 bisphosphates. The enzyme aldolase cause cleavage of fructose 1, 6 bisphosphates into 2 sugar molecules such as glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (GAP) and dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP)

The second phase is the payoff phase in which through oxidative phosphorylation glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate is transformed to 1, 3 Bisphosphoglycerate. Here addition of one inorganic phosphate is done.

Then the phosphoglycerate kinase converts the 1,3 diphosphoglycerate to 3, phosphoglycerate by detaching one phosphate molecule from the product thus forming ETP

Then relocation of P from the 3rd carbon to 2nd carbon take place by phosphoglycerate mutase thereby producing 2, phosphoglycerate. Then phosphoenolpyruvate is formed through dehydration of the 2-phosphoglycerate.

Then finally, the pyruvate kinase causes the transformation phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvic acid

Tricarboxylic cycle (TCA):
Tricarboxylic cycle

This process is also called as the Krebs Cycle or the citric acid cycle. TCA consists of eight different steps in which eight different enzymes performs. Here the acetyl coa interacts with oxaloacetate thereby forming citrate. From citrate isocitrate is formed through oxidation, which is then converted to the alpha-ketoglutarate by losing the CO2 molecules (Tao et al. 2017). Then succinyl coa is transformed into succinate. Then succinate is converted to fumarase which is then transformed into malate. From malate the oxaloacetate and two CO2 molecules are formed.

Oxidative phosphorylation:

It is the process through which flow of electrons is taken place across the membrane-bound proteins (Shi et al. 2019.). This process produces ATP (adenosine tri phosphate) as the final products.

Site of occurring: mitochondria

Oxidative phosphorylation Order Now

This process starts with the oxidation of FADH2 and NADH. The entire process of oxidative phosphorylation generates the high-energy elections. Here the electrons are carried by the number of electron carriers such as NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) and FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide). NAD+ and FAD receive electrons thereby transforming to NADH and FADH2 respectively (Shi et al. 2019). Then these electrons are then transferred from these molecules to the proteins that have high efficacity for the elections. While the electrons are transferred through electron carriers there is formed a proton gradient across the mitochondrial membrane. Through gradient the ATP is formed from the ADP under the impacts of ATP synthase.

Reference list:

Carpenter, T.O., Shaw, N.J., Portale, A.A., Ward, L.M., Abrams, S.A. and Pettifor, J.M., 2017. Rickets. Nature Reviews Disease Primers, 3(1), pp.1-20.

Drummen, M., Tischmann, L., Gatta-Cherifi, B., Adam, T. and Westerterp-Plantenga, M., 2018. Dietary protein and energy balance in relation to obesity and co-morbidities. Frontiers in endocrinology, 9, p.443.

Feng, S., Jiao, K., Guo, H., Jiang, M., Hao, J., Wang, H. and Shen, C., 2017. Succinyl-proteome profiling of Dendrobium officinale, an important traditional Chinese orchid herb, revealed involvement of succinylation in the glycolysis pathway. BMC genomics, 18(1), pp.1-12.

Gavilán, B., Sprecher, S.G., Hartenstein, V. and Martinez, P., 2019. The digestive system of xenacoelomorphs. Cell and tissue research, 377(3), pp.369-382.

Hamdy, O., Tasabehji, M.W., Elseaidy, T., Tomah, S., Ashrafzadeh, S. and Mottalib, A., 2018. Fat versus carbohydrate-based energy-restricted diets for weight loss in patients with type 2 diabetes. Current diabetes reports, 18(12), pp.1-5.

Hryn, V.H., Kostylenko, Y.P., Yushchenko, Y.P., Lavrenko, A.V. and Ryabushko, O.B., 2018. General comparative anatomy of human and white rat digestive systems: a bibliographic analysis.

Lozoya, O.A., Martinez-Reyes, I., Wang, T., Grenet, D., Bushel, P., Li, J., Chandel, N., Woychik, R.P. and Santos, J.H., 2018. Mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reduced (NADH) oxidation links the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle with methionine metabolism and nuclear DNA methylation. PLoS biology, 16(4), p.e2005707.

Molina, J.R., Sun, Y., Protopopova, M., Gera, S., Bandi, M., Bristow, C., McAfoos, T., Morlacchi, P., Ackroyd, J., Agip, A.N.A. and Al-Atrash, G., 2018. An inhibitor of oxidative phosphorylation exploits cancer vulnerability. Nature medicine, 24(7), pp.1036-1046.

Morell, P. and Fiszman, S., 2017. Revisiting the role of protein-induced satiation and satiety. Food Hydrocolloids, 68, pp.199-210.

Nigam, Y. and Knight, J., 2017. Anatomy and physiology of ageing 3: the digestive system. Nursing Times, 113(4), pp.54-57.

Rubio, C.A., 2018. Recent Studies on Digestive System Anatomy.

Shi, Y., Lim, S.K., Liang, Q., Iyer, S.V., Wang, H.Y., Wang, Z., Xie, X., Sun, D., Chen, Y.J., Tabar, V. and Gutin, P., 2019. Gboxin is an oxidative phosphorylation inhibitor that targets glioblastoma. Nature, 567(7748), pp.341-346.

Sözen, T., Özışık, L. and Başaran, N.Ç., 2017. An overview and management of osteoporosis. European journal of rheumatology, 4(1), p.46.

Tanabe, J., Fukunaga, S., Endo, A., Ito, T. and Tanabe, K., 2021. Tetany Exacerbating Heart Failure: A Case Report. Cureus, 13(1).

Tao, L., Zhang, Y., Fan, S., Nobile, C.J., Guan, G. and Huang, G., 2017. Integration of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle with cAMP signaling and Sfl2 pathways in the regulation of CO2 sensing and hyphal development in Candida albicans. PLoS genetics, 13(8), p.e1006949.

Yang, S., Li, X., Liu, X., Ding, X., Xin, X., Jin, C., Zhang, S., Li, G. and Guo, H., 2018. Parallel comparative proteomics and phosphoproteomics reveal that cattle myostatin regulates phosphorylation of key enzymes in glycogen metabolism and glycolysis pathway. Oncotarget, 9(13), p.11352.


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