Physical and mental health and emotional wellbeing

Task 1 – Information Booklet

LO1 Examine the factors influencing health status

Comparison of a range of factors that impact on health status

There are several factors affecting the health status of the individual including the social and economic environment, physical environment and the person’s individual characteristics and behaviour. Income and social status is the major factor determining the individual health status where for example, high income and social status are linked with better health as compared to the low income and adviser social condition of the individuals. On the other hand, education is also a crucial factor affecting the health status of the person where low education level is linked with the poor health condition, more stress and lower self confidence that further deteriorate the emotional wellbeing and mental health of the individuals (Didarloo, Nabilou and Khalkhali, 2017). The physical environment is also important factor that has critical impacts on the health condition and the person having better living condition, clean air and safe water to drink, as well as healthy workplaces, safe house and communities contribute to good health. Employment and working condition in this regard is also necessary to be considered to stay safely under secured place. On the other hand, genetics is playing a part in determine the lifespan, healthiness and the likelihood of developing certain illness (Didarloo, Nabilou and Khalkhali, 2017). The personal behaviour and coping skills with balanced diet, healthy eating habits, keeping active, withdrawal of smoking and drinking improve the quality of life of the individual where the person can improve health status and live long.

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Health services in this regard are important in the society to provide the scope of accessing adequate treatment and care for improving the standard of living of the individuals. In this regard, the individuals having goo social status and secured income an access the good health and social care services for overcoming their physical and mental illness, which further provides them a scope to stay healthy and improve their wellbeing in long run (Didarloo, Nabilou and Khalkhali, 2017). Social support network is another factor affecting the health status of the individuals where for example great support from the families, friends and social communities lead to better health. These are the major factors that have crucial impacts on the health status of the individuals. There are some cultural diversity such as presence of BAME community people, who face difficulties to access the effective treatment and care in the country UK. Hence, gender and culture are also essential factors affecting the health status. As a nursing professional ion the NHS, I face the critical situation, where the individuals are suffering through serious problems of accessing good quality care and treatment in the NHS. Due to poor income status, some of the individuals cannot access their services and treatment and additionally, lack of education is also another critical facto for which the individuals cannot access the health care services of the NHS (De Vries, 2017). They fail to understand the treatment process and also due to lack of communication and cooperation, they cannot book appointment for their treatment and care. Social support network is also critical factors, where some of the people face difficulties in managing good network across the social communities, for which they fail to access adequate care and treatment timely as per their health needs.

LO2 Investigate the impact of health beliefs on wellbeing and illness

Explanation of the relationship between health beliefs and illness

Health beliefs is the that the people believe about their health condition and they think about their health by considering the cause of illness and identifying the way of overcoming an illness, traditionally, illness was thought to be the result if an imbalance in the three factors such as physical, mental and spiritual. As per the health belief model, the four components are such as perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits and perceived barriers (Babaei et al., 2020). Perceived susceptibility refers to the individual’s assessment, where the person is able to identify the risk related to the development of the health issue or illness. Perceived severity is an individual assessment of their illness and it is potential consequences, where the people try to understand the risk factors and the other health and mental consequences for the disease (Parandeh et al., 2019). Through the perceived benefits, the person is able to identify the treatment process to gain benefits and improve the health condition and lastly perceived barriers are the things that interfere with engaging in the health related behaviours, as per the health belief model, it is possible to conduct meta-analysis about own health condition and the related consequences for getting the better treatment and care for overcoming illness. Hence, there is strong relationship between the health belief an illness, where the people come to identify the health issues and its consequences. The person can develop clear understanding about the physical and mental illness as well as they is looking for better care and treatment in order to live a better life in future.

Communication strategies to support individuals

There are several communication strategies, through which the health and social care providers try to support the individuals so that the social communities can get better treatment and care for overcoming their physical and mental illness. The telephonic communication is the effective verbal interactive process, where the health care givers can directly interact with the patients across the social communities (Zhang et al., 2017). There are several telephone numbers available in the UK to contact the NHS staff and front desk employees where the patients can call and book their appointment as per their physical and mental illness. There are also emergency telephone numbers where the staff members of NHS are efficient to handle the patients and provide the best care. Additionally, in the recent era of digitalisation, the organisational website is one of the effective ways to interact with each other and it enhances both way communication between the health care service providers and the patient across the social communities. Through the patient management portal, the patient family can provide feedback and also ask queries as per their requirements (Green, Murphy and Gryboski, 2020). This is 24*7 services where the NHS staff members are successful to communicate with the services users. Additionally, there is mobile application as well as email services through which the services providers can contact the services users and provide the best possible care and treatment after patient assessment and diagnosis.

Evaluation of a range of factors and health beliefs affecting communication between service users and healthcare practitioners

The above mention factors affecting the health status as well as health beliefs among the individuals in the recent years are beneficial to enhance communication. The educated people with higher income class can utilise the health care mobile application to book their appointment online, order medicines and book appointment for further detailed check-up. On the other hand, the strong social networking is also effective to enhance communication through telephonic conversation, sending Email and accessing the organisational website of NHS (Noh et al., 2020). In this context, health belief among the individuals further influence them to contact with the doctors and general physicians through telephonic conversation and email in order to book appointments and get successful treatment and care. The services users try to contact with the health care professionals in the institution in order to consult with them for understanding the health issues and get prescribed treatment and care for overcoming their physical and mental illness (Naslund et al., 2017). Hence, the organisational website and communication through telephone, email and mobile application are possible where the NHS is also concerned about sharing updated information with the social communities for raising awareness and improve health beliefs among the individuals.

Task 2 – Reflective Essay and Presentation

Part 1 - Reflective essay

LO3 Explore the relationship between theoretical models of health education and health behaviour

The theoretical models of health education is effective to improve personal opinion and gather vast knowledge and understanding about health promotion and improvement of health and well-being of the individuals across the social communities. Health education through theoretical models are hereby beneficial to improve health behaviour and belief among the individuals, where the people are concerned about the health issues and identify the better treatment and care to maximise their standard of living (Pinto et al., 2021). The major theoretical models of health education are such as health belief model, stages of change model, social cognitive theory and planned behaviour. These are effective to develop good understanding about health and improve health behaviour of the individuals.

The health belief model is considered as the health promotion and disease prevention programs in the society where it explains that the individuals change their behaviour by understanding health condition and identifying vast information to get better treatment and care. The key factors influencing health behaviour are such as perceived susceptibility, where the individuals face perceived threat to the sickness and disease (Prestwich, Kenworthy and Conner, 2017). Belief of consequences or perceived severity is another factor where the people try to analyse further consequences. The third factor is perceived benefits where the individuals try to get better treatment and care to live a normal life by overcoming their disease and health issues. the perceived barriers is the last factor in which the individuals exposure to the factors that prompt action is suitable and it further raise confidence in the ability to succeed. In the own practice, we try to develop the stages as per the health belief model to enhance communication with the target population in the country. Conveying the consequences of the physical and mental health issues associated with the risk behaviours is effective to raise concern among the social communities and later that, the health and social care professionals try to provide in depth information and data about the latest treatment and success rate, so that it can influence the person behaviour towards the treatment and care in order to maximise their living condition. I as a team member of the NHS nursing team, try to contribute in the health promotional campaign where the theoretical framework of health education is suitable to share the adequate information and health care resources for treating the individuals.

In addition to this, the Social Cognitive Theory is also effective health education model to promote healthy environment and supports the people suffering from several physical and mental illness. Self-efficacy, individual experience, behavioural capability as well as self-control among the individuals can be improved through this model, where the health care givers try to arrange campaign and provide adequate information about the individual experience, actions of others and environmental factors on the individual health behaviours (Prestwich, Kenworthy and Conner, 2017). As per the model, Self-efficacy, or a person’s confidence in own ability to take further action and to persist in that action despite of other obstacles or challenges, is especially important for influencing health behaviour change efforts. Individual knowledge and skill and attitude towards treatment and care are developed through sharing information and apart from that the organisation NHS is also playing an important role in creating social network and providing good ethos and environment to maximise wellbeing of the individuals the cultural values and social norms are maintained well through this health promotional activities, where socio ecological framework is developed to support the individuals with illness.

Moreover, Trans theoretical Model/Stages of Change are also effective to implement new changes and promote healthy environment in the society. As per this model, the health and social care professionals try to identify the needs and preferences of the individuals as well as analyse the organisational efficiency to provide treatment and care so that it would be possible to create better environment to treat the patients with latest health care equipment and technology. It is considered as behavioural change model where the health care campaigns are fruitful to raise awareness and change the health care services activities with latest innovation and technological advancement. In the NHS, we try to work collaboratively to identify the requirements of change and develop good infrastructure to lead the changes for improving health behaviour. It is important for the health care providers in NHS to work as a partnership working practice by including the stakeholders, doctors, nurses, staff members, social workers, general physicians, surgeon, therapist and psychiatrics, so that all the professionals can work as a team to protect the livelihood of the individuals (Ghaffari et al., 2019). In this context, the change management model and social cognitive behavioural development are useful to arrange social campaign to influence the behaviour of the individuals and improve knowledge and understanding about illness and latest treatment. In the recent years, NHS arranged the Public Health Campaign 2020 to support the individuals across the UK. The health campaign is effective to support the individuals with several physical and mental illness. Additionally, Change4Life is another campaign arranged by NHS in order to support the parents and diverse family members by sharing the issue of obesity, which is increasing among young adults and also the old aged people (Ghaffari et al., 2019).

These campaigns are effective to raise concern among the individuals in the UK where the NHS staff members focus on implementing the theoretical models of health education to arrange the campaign and promote healthy lifestyle of the populations (Miller et al., 2018). We try to participate in the campaign and encourage the people to take active part in the campaign for predicting their health issues and gathering vast range of information about the treatment facilities. It also helps to enhance communication and collaboration between the services providers and the individuals across the social communities. I try to encourage huge numbers of people in the UK to participate in the health campaign through health promotion which is beneficial to improve health behaviour of the individuals. Through the health promotion, it is possible to develop social cognitive skill and also utilise the change model for implementing the latest technology to get the best treatment and care from the NHS.

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Part 2 – Detailed Plan and Presentation

LO4 Implement a local health education initiative using a theoretical model of health education

Reference List

Babaei, S., Shakibazadeh, E., Shojaeizadeh, D., Yaseri, M. and Mohamadzadeh, A., 2020. Effectiveness the Theory-Based Intervention Based on Health Belief Model on Health Promotion Lifestyle in Individuals Susceptible to Cardiovascular Diseases. Iranian Journal of Health Education and Health Promotion, 8(3), pp.224-239.

De Vries, H., 2017. An integrated approach for understanding health behavior; the I-change model as an example. Psychol Behav Sci Int J, 2(2), pp.555-585.

Didarloo, A., Nabilou, B. and Khalkhali, H.R., 2017. Psychosocial predictors of breast self-examination behavior among female students: an application of the health belief model using logistic regression. BMC public health, 17(1), pp.1-8.

Ghaffari, M., Esfahani, S.N., Rakhshanderou, S. and Koukamari, P.H., 2019. Evaluation of health belief model-based intervention on breast cancer screening behaviors among health volunteers. Journal of Cancer Education, 34(5), pp.904-912.

Green, E.C., Murphy, E.M. and Gryboski, K., 2020. The Health Belief Model. The Wiley Encyclopedia of Health Psychology, pp.211-214.

Miller, P.D., Forster, A.S., de Silva, T.I., Leonard, H., Anthias, C., Mayhew, M., Klammer, M., Paskar, S., Hurst, E., Peggs, K. and Madrigal, A., 2018. Sociodemographic and psychological determinants of influenza vaccine intention among recipients of autologous and allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant: a cross-sectional survey of UK transplant recipients using a modified health belief model. BMJ open, 8(8), p.e021222.

Naslund, J.A., Aschbrenner, K.A., Kim, S.J., McHugo, G.J., Unützer, J., Bartels, S.J. and Marsch, L.A., 2017. Health behavior models for informing digital technology interventions for individuals with mental illness. Psychiatric rehabilitation journal, 40(3), p.325.

Noh, E.Y., Cho, Y., Lee, Y. and Yun, S., 2020. A systematic review focused on health behavior and physiological indicators of diabetic patients in interventional studies based on health belief model. Journal of Korean Biological Nursing Science, 22(1), pp.1-10.

Parandeh, L., Shafaie, F.S., Malakouti, J., Mirghafourvand, M. and Asghari-Jafarabadi, M., 2019. The effect of educational text message based on health belief model on osteoporosis preventive behaviors in women: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Women & health, 59(10), pp.1128-1140.

Pinto, J.W., Bradbury, K., Newell, D. and Bishop, F.L., 2021. Lifestyle and Health Behavior Change in Traditional Acupuncture Practice: A Systematic Critical Interpretive Synthesis. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 27(3), pp.238-254.

Prestwich, A., Kenworthy, J. and Conner, M., 2017. Health behavior change: Theories, methods and interventions. London: Routledge.

Zhang, X., Baker, K., Pember, S. and Bissell, K., 2017. Persuading me to eat healthy: a content analysis of YouTube public service announcements grounded in the health belief model. Southern Communication Journal, 82(1), pp.38-51.


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