Prostate Cancer Awareness: A Health Promotion Approach for Community Well-Being

Introduction

This health report is on prostate cancer. The process of health promotion is a process that enables the increase in control over the health statuses of people. The process enables people to have information or the ability to improve their health (Kumar & Preetha 2012). An individual should be able to cope with the changing environment, identify, and move towards realizing their aspirations in order to achieve a complete state of wellbeing; physical, social and mental wellbeing. Health is, in that regard, a vital concept in every individual’s day-to-day life. It can be regarded not as an objective of living, but as a vital resource of our everyday life.

As a positive concept, health emphasizes personal and social resources, and highlights the aspect of physical capabilities. Foundationally, therefore, promotion of health does not just refer to a task mandated upon the health sector, but also that, which goes beyond the basic concept of life style. Health promotion should continually be based upon well-being (World Health Organization 2009).

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The process of health promotion includes public policy and addresses towards health factors and determinants, for instance the security of food, shelter, income, employment and working conditions. Health promotion should also include actions that would incorporate the quality and promotion of health into public policies (Walton et al 2010). The concept of health promotion incorporates a number of concepts in health and social settings. First relates to the concept of health equity. Health equity basically refers to the acknowledgement and use of health forums in the management of health, especially in social settings. Health equity could be associated with organizations such as those dedicated to advocating for human rights and promotion of social justice. Health literacy should also be aligned with health promotion. Health literacy is mainly associated with schools and other educational settings. Health promotion in this sense refers to promotion dependent on the rules and regulations on public spaces (Naidoo & Wills 2016). This report defines and explores the concept of prostate cancer within the concept of health promotion and how it affects the local community.

Topic Selection And Justification Of Choice

Prostate cancer is a type of cancer that commonly affects men. It is however highly treatable if diagnosed and found at its early stages. This type of cancer begins at the prostate gland, which is located between the bladder and the penis in the male reproductive system. Prostate cancer ultimately affects a number of functions by the prostate (Mayo Clinic 2019). The prostate produces fluid that is responsible for the nourishing and the transporting of the sperm. The prostate also secretes an antigen that is specific in nature; the antigen helps in the retaining of the semen’s semi- liquid state. As a basic function, also, the prostate helps in controlling urine.

Statistically, this type of cancer most commonly affects the United States. Among the men, it is the most common type of cancer. The most recent predictions point towards around 170,000 new diagnoses and more than 31,000 morbidity rates arising from it (Brazier 2019). From a certain perspective, about one in 10 males receive diagnosis of this type of cancer in their lifetime. On that note, however, around one in 40 die because of prostate cancer. This means that treatment of this type of cancer is effective, especially if it is started at the cancer’s early stages. As a result of routine screenings, doctors are able to detect these cases of prostate cancer before their spread. This concept is therefore ultimately important in this concept of health promotion.

Although several research report that this type of cancer is highly prevalent to African Americans, data is not conclusive when it comes to determining the mortality and incidence rates of it in the native African men and these men who live in other countries, for instance those in Europe. According to Taitt (2018), Incidences of this disease and prostate specific antigen testing have escalated significantly in other countries and as a result, Prostate cancer has been founded as one of the leading male cancers in a significant number of these nations.

According to the Joint Strategic Needs Assessment (Roberts 2010), there is three times the risk of a black man developing prostate cancer, compared to a white man. There is also a higher chance of developing prostate cancer in men than any other type of cancer. Several barriers have been associated with the prevention of early detection and treatment of prostate cancer. Some of these include little or insufficient information and knowledge on prostate cancer, mistrust of the existing health care systems, lack of covers, specifically health insurance covers, being afraid of cancer diagnoses and the conception that cancer eventually leads to death.

Information on the counsel and effective management of prostate cancer is given to the General Practitioners and other primary health care professionals through the NHS Prostate Cancer Risk Management Programme. This programme provides information that counsels on the prostate specific antigen testing and particularly those over 50 years. Full documents on the evidence of prostate cancer are issued to the general practitioners. These documents are provided in accompany with summary information sheets on the cancer. Medical animations are also issued to the health care professionals. These animations depict tumor growth, the prostate anatomy and the prostate specific antigen.

The initial test conducted in the diagnosis of prostate cancer is the prostate specific antigen test. This test is however not completely accurate as it may miss cancer. It does not therefore meet the standards of a national screening programme. Based on the latest evidence, the UK National Screening Committee makes recommendations on revising the Prostate Cancer Risk Management Programme (Government of the UK, 2016).

Target Group & Identified Needs

There are around 12,000 students at the university and around 600 staff; both academic and supporting staff. This topic however focused on the male population. Composition is of mixed cohort groups. The questionnaire was completed by 200 people (n=200)

There is the normative or the foundational need for knowledge and more information on prostate cancer. Information on the background, diagnosis, symptoms and treatment of prostate cancer is important in health promotion. The comparative need that arises is the need for better and more effective programmes. On the public policy in place, it can be seen that the prostate cancer risk management programme does require more work in order to effectively help manage this condition among the public. From the exercise, the felt need that clearly arises refers to the need for training and research; robust evidence is needed in the development of consensus statements that would improve the aspects of prostate specific antigen tests.

Planning & Evaluating The Event

The aims and objectives have been explained in detail as:

S- Specific – The event was purposed to provide information to the public on prostate cancer

M- Measurement- Data used was meant to improve the quality of the information to be provided to the public

A- Achievable- Through communication and the discussion forums, the information could be passed to the public.

R- Relevant- Data disseminated was relevant to the male gender and the different racial groups

T- Time- Oriented- The time used in the collection is 2 months. Within these 2 times, the information was grouped together and contained.

The health promotion planning model used was the health promotion planning cycle model by Hubley and Copeman (2013). This model adopts an educational approach supports the critical evaluation of information that ultimately improves the quality of the information.

Health promotion planning cycle by Hubley and Copeman

The event also considered an ecological model of practice of health promotion. This model provides a useful framework, which enables one to understand the range of factors involved that may influence the health and wellbeing of a person (Pearson 2011). The model effectively assisted in the provision of specific health behaviors, and how other factors act as determinants in the health status of a person. This hugely affects prostate cancer because of the psychological and social barriers that arise in its diagnosis and management overall.

The ecological model in health promotion

The event was well informed and the intended information passed. Through effective planning and organization, the group realized a successful provision of information on prostate cancer. The guidance and policies in place on prostate cancer should be improved as to the quality of information. This is because of the lack of robust evidence that would be needed to update and revise the prostate cancer risk management programme. Upon further research and evidence, the event could achieve a better standard

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Conclusion

The adoption of a holistic approach, which empowers individuals, and members of a community to take action and actively participate in taking action for their health is an important tool in the management of prostate cancer. The fact that health and wellbeing of a person is determined by various factors, even those outside the heath system, makes health promotion an important aspect in society today. Through such events, health issues are effectively and significantly addressed.

Reference List

Brazier, B 2019, What’s to know about prostate cancer, Medical News Today (Accessed on 2 January, 2020)

Government of the UK 2016, Prostate Cancer risk management programme: overview, Public Health England

Hubley, J., Woodall, J. and Copeman, J 2013, Practical health promotion, Cambridge, Polity.

Kumar, S., Preetha, G 2012, Health Promotion: An Effective Tool for Global Health, Indian Journal of Community Medicine.

Mayo Clinic 2019, Prostate cancer (Accessed on 2 January 2020)

Naidoo, J & Wills, J 2016, Foundations for health promotion, Edinburgh

Pearson, T 2011, Public policy approaches to the prevention of Heart Disease and Stroke, American Heart Association

Roberts, A 2010, Joint Strategic Needs Assessment: Barriers preventing early detection of prostate cancer in Black African/ Caribbean men living in Westminster, Westminster.

Taitt, H 2018, Global Trends and Prostrate Cancer: A Review of Incidence, Detection, and mortality as Influenced by Race, Ethnicity, and Geographic Location, American Journal of Men’s Health

Walton, M., Waiti, J., Signal, L., Thomson, G 2010, Identifying barriers to promoting healthy nutrition in New Zealand primary schools, Health Education Journal.

World Health Organization 2009, Milestones in Health Promotion; Statements in Global conferences (Accessed on 2 January 2020)

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