Relationship Between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Introduction

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is defined as the neurodevelopmental condition in which a person suffers hyperactivity, inattentiveness and impulsiveness. ADHD UK (2018) mentioned that more than 10,345 children in the UK are diagnosed with ADHD in 2017 in which 4% of boys and 0.85% of girls show schizoaffective disorders. Although there is a lack of evidence regarding the actual relationship between ADHD and schizoaffective disorder, clinical intervention suggests that people with schizoaffective disorders have a high risk of suffering from symptoms of ADHD. This study will discuss the background and epidemiology of ADHD and schizoaffective disorders by discussing the development, cause and health implication of this health condition. Then the study will discuss the health promotion goals and SMART objectives in terms of promoting positive health and wellbeing in the selected patients. Finally, the study will make a comprehensive discussion on the roles of different healthcare professionals in the effective management and prevention of the two illnesses.

Background:

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ADHD and schizoaffective disorder are mental illnesses that interfere activities of daily living people thereby reducing their quality of living. Research survey has shown that UK is reported to have an increased rate of ADHD in children age group 5-15 years. Although these two mental health conditions are different, there are some links in their symptoms and the process of affecting people live. In the case of ADHD people suffers from the non-development condition in which they experience suffering symptoms such as hyperactivity, inattentiveness and impulsiveness. On the contrary schizoaffective disorder can be referred to as chronic mental issues in which people experience psychosis which is characterized by delusion, hallucination, depressed mood and unorganized thoughts (Guo et al. 2021). Various clinical research has mentioned the similarities between ADHD and schizoaffective disorders. According to ADHD UK, people suffering from schizoaffective disorders are more likely to develop ADHD in their early adolescence. Research surveys have shown that more than 65% of children who have ADHD and schizoaffective disorder in early childhood are more likely to suffer from some kind of impairment in their later life. Evidence suggests that ADHD generally occurs in the children in the UK belong to the age 5-15 years out of which more than 22% of children have a higher risk of developing psychologist (symptoms of schizoaffective disorder) in their teenage and young life. On the others hand, schizoaffective disorder is more likely to attack adult people in the UK. Alternatively, Comai et al. (2019) mentioned in this context that, children suffering from ADHD have a 4.3 times higher risk of developing schizoaffective disorder in later life that can pose adverse impacts on their cognitive skills, thoughts and decision-making ability.

The rationale behind selecting ADHD and Schizoaffective disorder:

The increasing prevalence of mental health conditions like ADHD and schizoaffective disorder poses a huge burden on the healthcare cost of NHS. These two health conditions interfere with cognitive ability, decision-making skills, problem-solving skill and analyzing skills of children and young people thereby minimizing the quality of their; living standards. In the UK more than 10,300 children live with schizoaffective disorder, ADHD and others mental health condition which not only impacts on their physical and mental well-being but also poses adverse impact on their professional life. In this context selection of schizoaffective disorder and ADHD as the topic is highly relevant to the current heartcare context that will provide awareness and information to the target services users and the clinical staff regarding effective management and prevention of mental health issues. This study will present a comprehensives discussion on the background, epidemiology and the management of ADHD ad schizoaffective disorder which will assists target service uses to develop self-awareness regarding the harmful impacts of this health condition., moreover this study will provide insight on the strategies and care plan that can be taken by the healthcare bodies to deal with the impediments associated with prevention of ADHD and schizoaffective disorder.

Epidemiology

Risk factors of schizoaffective disorder and ADHD are obscure as there is limited research in this context, but recent clinical studies have shown that environmental and genetic factors are associated with developing the mental health condition (de Silva, 2018). Alternatively, Baghdassarian et al. (2018) mentioned in this context that, people who have a genetic history of ADHD and schizoaffective disorder are highly prevalent to develop these illnesses. On the contrary Mayer et al. (2021) argued that, that there is no proper evidence regarding this statement, rather they mentioned that people with poor cognitive skills and psychosis are more likely to develop the schizoaffective disorder and ADHD. In case ADHD children are more vulnerable to the risk of developing this mental health condition as compared to the young and aged people. On the other hand, schizoaffective disorder poses a high risk of developing this health condition in young people in the UK rather than the others age group.

In 2014 more than 23% of children in England and Wales of 16 years are diagnosed positives for ADHD. Evidence suggests that children who reside in the clack ethnic and South Asian community in England have high vulnerability to develop ADHD (24%) than their peers who reside in the white communities (11%) (ADHD, UK). The database from the Mental Health UK shows that 4 in 1000 children in England have hg risk of different mental health conditions including schizoaffective disorder. ADHD UK (2018) mentioned that children residing in the interior and deprived communities in England are more likely to suffer from this health condition. The report also mentioned that the prevalence of ADHD and schizoaffective disorder in theta dust people in England is 4.4%.

The assessment process and procedure:

The assessment of schizoaffective disorder includes a physical examination, mental screening and test, psychiatric evaluation and cognitive screening (Guo et al. 2021). Patient L is a 13 years old boy who suffers from ADHD and symptom schizoaffective disorder. In the case of patients L, doctors can use different health assessment tools such APIE model, ABCDE model and PEPSI COLA tool. In the assessment of ADHD care professionals conduct the psychotic test in which the mental stability, cognitive skill and decision-making ability of the patient is evaluated.

In the case of patient L, care professionals will assess the psychiatric history of the patients in terms of analyzing whether there is any genetic history of the mental issues such as ADHD and schizoaffective disorder in the family of the patient (Comai et al. 2019). In addition to the psychotic examination, a physical examination of patients L will be carried out in which hormonal and enzymatic functions inside the body are checked. In this context, care professionals will check the function of the thyroid hormones, pancreatic hormones and various enzymes insides the body that play crucial roles in maintaining perfect balance among different function inside the body. Evidence suggests sometimes hormonal disbalances are associated with and ADHD. In the case of patients L, care professionals can use the ABDCE assessment tool in which they conduct the physical, psychological and behavioural examination thereby assessing the severity of ADHD and schizoaffective disorder.

Health promotion and SMART objectives:

Health promotion goals

Providing proper health information to children of 5-15 years for developing their knowledge regarding managing the mental health issues like ADHD and schizoaffective disorder.

Rising awareness in parents of the target children regarding improving lifestyle behaviour and cognitive ability in their children to reduce the risk of ADHD and

Reinforcing self-management skills in children to cope up with the adverse impacts of schizoaffective disorder and ADHD.

Objectives 1:

To motivate target children and the parents to attend the health promotion campaign against ADHD and schizoaffective disorder.

health health

Objectives 3:

To develop proper knowledge and awareness in parents and children regarding effective management and prevention of mental health issues such as ADHD and schizoaffective disorder.

health health

Critical discussion of the intervention of the health promotion goals:

The effective intervention of the health promotion goals and supporting roles:

All the above-mentioned goals for this health promotion campaign are highly relevant and realistic in terms of improving the cognitive health and psychological ability of the targeted children. In this context, the patient L and his parents are also included in this health promotion campaign to determine his mental health condition (Baghdassarian et al. 2018). Under goal 1, effective health education is going to be conducted for all the children including patient L who are selected for the campaign. In this context, social media will be used (Facebook, Google+, Youtube and Twitter) to connect selected children with the different well-known doctors, neurologists, psychotherapists and psychiatrists. Through this process, children and their parents will be able to obtain the valuable advice from these care professionals of the different parts of the which will assist them to develop the effective self-management skill in the target children to cope up with ADHD and schizoaffective disorder. In the case of patient L, his parents will be provided with effective health information regarding the cause, development and health implication of ADHD and schizoaffective disorder. Under the first goal of this health promotion campaign parents of the target children will be advised how to make effective changes in the psychology, cognition and lifestyle behaviour of their children that are important to reduce the risk of the ADHD schizoaffective disorder.

Under goal 2, public awareness will be generated regarding how lifestyle changes, positive behavioural changes and psychological development in children can reduce their vulnerability to different mental illnesses such as schizoaffective disorder (Kolding et al. 2021). In this context, the parents of patient L will be provided with leaflets, online videos and softcopy of different mental health promotion blogs which will help them to understand what strategies need to be taken for conducting effective psychological and cognitive development of patient L. On the other hand, all the participants including children, parents and care professionals will be provided with awareness regarding how effective mental and emotional support will be provided to children with ADHD and schizoaffective disorder to improve the ability to cope up with these mental health conditions.

Under goal 3, the organizers of this campaign will develop self-management skill in children by providing them with effective health information as well as advice regarding how they can improve their cognitive skill, decision making skill and psychological strength. The patient L will be advised to follow different strategies to improve his concentration, decision making and cognition such as doing deep breathing exercise which can improves the psychological strength in patients with ADHD ad schizoaffective disorder.

Roles of family members:

Throughout the campaign parents and the other family members of target children will be advised how they behave with and treat children at home environment as well as in external environment. In this campaign the parent of the patient L will be advised about what strategies parents and other family members will take to provides the emotional and psychological support to the patients. As mentioned by Michelini et al. (2018), psychological and emotional support are highly useful in improving the mental health condition of people with ADHD and schizoaffective disorder. Throughout this campaign the psychiatrists and cognitive therapist will conduct effective interaction with parents in terms of providing guidelines to regarding how they can motivate their children to be involved in intellectual activities which can improve the decision making and problem-solving skill thereby improving the mental health in children. In this context, parent of the patient L will be provided with effective advice regarding the strategies that they can use at home to involve patient L into cognitive development therapies such as the mathematical fun games, rearrangement games and fun quiz (Rydkjaer et al. 2017). Here mental health practitioners will also provide the guidance to parents including parent of the patient L about how to make the behavior correction in children thereby enhancing their attentiveness and developing positive impulsiveness in them.

Role of health professional:

Mental health professionals pay crucial roles in providing the psychological, spiritual, physical and emotional support to the patients suffering from the mental health issues such as ADHD and schizoaffective disorder (Michelini et al. 2018). Mental health nurses who are involved in the health promotion campaign will carry out the effective physical and psychological assessment of the children. In case of the patient L, mental health nurses will use the PEPSI COLA assessment tool in terms of assessing the physical and psychological condition which will enables the mental health practitioners to understand what impact ADHD and schizoaffective disorder have on cognition, behavior, thought and physical health of patient L.

As mentioned Grigoroiu-Serbanescu et al. (2020), in mental health field, nurses must be enough competent in using the right assessment tool that will assists professionals to determine what care plan needed to be implemented in case of the patients with ADHD ad schizoaffective disorder to improve his or her mental health. Throughout the campaign, healthcare professionals will arrange the cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for patient L through which cognitive skill, decision making skill, analyzing ability and decision-making skill in patient L will be developed. In addition to this, mental health nurses will provide the effective health education to patients L in terms of developing self-management skill and stress management ability. Parents of patient L will also be provided with the health information throughout this health promotion campaign regarding how to improve attentiveness, cognitive skill and positive behavior in patient L.

Evaluation of health promotion care plan:

Reinforcing positive thoughts, effective lifestyles changes and cognitive development in children with ADHD and schizoaffective disorder:

As mentioned by Al-Mubarak et al. (2020), although metal health issues are associated with psychological aspects of a person, through bringing about effective changes in the; lifestyle behavior of person it is possible to improve his or her cognitive ability and psychological strength. This health promotion campaign aims to promote positive cognitive behavioral development and effective lifestyle changes in patient L that will enables the patient to cope up with adverse impacts of ADHD and schizoaffective disorder (Grigoroiu-Serbanescu et al. 2020). This health promotion campaign aims to make effective changes in the food habits, sleeping pattern, regular habits and the regular activities in case of children which will improves the connection between their body and mind thereby improving their concentration attentiveness and impulsiveness. Thet services providers who are involved in this campaign such as mental health nurses and health and social care workers play important roles in promoting the public awareness regarding how children with ADHD and schizoaffective disorder will be treated with love, care and empathy in every setting to promote positives thoughts, healthy mind and creatives ideas in them.

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Promoting evidence-based approach for effectives management and prevention of ADHD and schizoaffective disorder:

As mentioned by Grigoroiu-Serbanescu et al. (2020), in modern mental health field, evidence-based care approach is high important that enables the care professionals and health and social care staff to implement innovative and high relevant care plan to meet patient health needs. This health promotion campaign will promote the importance of evidence-based approach in effective intervention of neurological or mental disrobers such as ADHD and schizoaffective disorder. Throughout the health promotion nurses, doctors and health and social care staffs will be to communicate with the well-known specialist mental health professionals through docile media, which will assist them to share their ideas, thoughts, and opinion regarding the effective management of mental health illness such as ADHD and schizoaffective disorder.

Recommendation:

Recommendation 1:

All the mental health practitioners should adhere to the mental healthcare policies to ensure that all the patients with ADHD and schizoaffective disorder are treated with respect, dignity add fairness irrespective of the ethnicity, caste, religion and race. /

Recommendation 2:

Effective clinical intervention and evidence-based approach needed to be taken by the local statutory and voluntary health and social care organization to provide the necessary psychological, physical and emotional support to patients with ADHD and schizoaffective disorder.

Conclusion:

From the above-mentioned discussion it can be concluded that, ADHD ad schizoaffective disorder are mental health issues the impacts adversely on the physical, psychological and social wellbeing of people. ADHD is the neurological disorder in which patients suffer from inattentiveness, hyperactivity and lack of impulsiveness. On the other hand, in case of schizoaffective disorder, people suffer from hallucination, delusion, poor thoughts, lack of decision-making skill and inattentiveness. Majority of children and young people arre3 affected by the health condition in the UK. Through effective health promotion, it is possible to improves the cognitive skill, psychological ability, decision making and judgmental skill in people with ADHD and schizoaffective disorder

Reference list:

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Baghdassarian, E.J., Markhed, M.N., Lindström, E., Nilsson, B.M. and Lewander, T., 2018. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) profiling tests as diagnostic support for schizophrenia and adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Acta neuropsychiatrica, 30(3), pp.137-147.

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