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Research Methods for Health and Social Care Managers

  • 27 Pages
  • Published On: 11-12-2023
Introduction

This research paper basically focuses on the various types of methodologies of conducting a research for a social and health care for managers. The research paper is divided simply into two tasks; one part is distributed into two sections again in which the first section is primarily about the appropriate designing of a proper research proposal. Following the section one the send section is about the elements that are included in a research proposal. The second task is a brief discussion about how the research paper will be conducted so that every aspect must be covered. This research paper includes the background, aim, sample, main findings, application, strengths & limitations too of the research paper. Also the second task involves in itself the different methodological approaches, data collection methods, analysis of dada and its presentation with the ethical considerations maintained by the health & social care managers with few recommendations and conclusion also. Some evidences are presented which are based on the practice of the methodological approaches in real world. The explanation of various research philosophies and evaluation of research data and information sources are presented in this writing. Also the justification that contributes to the research of this health and social care provisions is given.

Task 1 Research proposal
a. Design of an appropriate research proposal

The designing of a research proposal involves certain parameters depending upon which the research paper can be prepared. The parameters of a research proposal can be enlisted as:

1. Research title – Research title is the first title people see when they start reading a research article. The title is chosen depending on the detailed topic about which the research paper is being conducted.

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2. Dependent variables – The dependent variable is one of the two determinants of the variable facets involved in a research article. The dependent variable is different from the other factors caused it cannot be manipulated by the researcher (Tarcan et. al. 2017).

3. Independent variable – This determinant is another part of the variable factors of a research paper. One thing which is unchangeable in this variable is that it can be manipulated by the researcher or by the other determinants of the research study.

4. Mediator – Mediators are also a determinant of the list of variables in a research paper which is an observational factor in the relationship connector between the dependent and the independent variables (Dieste et. al. 2019).

5. Organisation/company – The organisation is that determinant of a research upon which the research study depends. An organisation or a company is that area which is included to collect the data for the study.

6. Location – The geographical area is that part of research whose importance is that the location which is selected to conduct the research.

7. Research Aim – Research aim is the target depending on which the research in initiated for obtaining the goal.

8. Research objectives – Research objectives are those goals that are subjected to achieve by conducting any research paper whether static or specific (Connolly et. al. 2018).

9. Research question – The questions that are surrounded and centred by the topic of the research are called the research questions.

b. Justification of the elements of a research proposal

Introduction

Dementia is basically cognitive disorder that causes a person to lack their self-ability to recall information and face trouble in connecting with others. In other words, dementia can be termed as a person's mental status to be in deterioration to that extent which can influence the patient's daily life routine.

Variable

The research variables are of three types – dependent, independent and mediator. In case of this research the dependent variable is the medication dosage of the dementia patients’ treatment, independent variable is the patients whose experiences can be manipulated as per the requirements (Vom Brocke et. al. 2020). Adding to these two the mediators are the care givers who initiates the connection between the medication variable and the patient variables.

Organisation

The organisation chosen for completing this research article is the health care setting of Norway named Norwegian care home (Friesen et. al. 2017). This organisation has a separate ward for the dementia patients from which the data has been collected.

Location

The organisation chosen for this research article is the care home of Norway named Norwegian care home where a group of 13 nurses were selected for sharing their personal experiences as collected in the form of research data.

Research Aim

This research was initiated aiming at gaining knowledge about the dementia patients and their whereabouts and care provisions in the care settings.

Research objectives

The objective of this research is to understand that what is the present status of the dementia patients in care home settings and what developments, improvements and changes are required for their betterment (Stevens et. al. 2019).

Research questions

The questions that were asked to understand the scenario and get a knowledge about what are the experiences are called research questions.

Task 2 Research Critique
1. Research Focus

Dementia is a state of where the patient is impaired with the ability to think, remember and make any decision in their daily life courses or activities. In other words, dementia can be termed as Alzheimer’s disease which mostly occurs in older people. This paper is mainly focuses on collecting the data from the health care homes about people who have dementia. This research article focuses on the way that how all the social ordinariness can be produced by the professional practices and also with the co-operation with the residents regarding the patients who are diagnosed with dementia in them. All the pragmatist approaches which can make the dementia status as ordinary for social residents in a care home so that they can too act like normal people simultaneously maintain their commonness despite having a mental disorder (Marques et. al. 2019). This research analysis targets at presenting the social and moral norms of the commonness which is the central focus to adopt in the actions and behaviour of the servers at the care giving homes.

A patient having dementia or Alzheimer have a mental state that makes them unable to take their own small & big decisions such as eating food, going to toilets and other daily activities (ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, 2018). The workers at care giving homes help the patients to just do those things correctly and at right time. There is nothing abnormal n them so getting treatment different from other patients makes them feel differentiated from the others. So it is very much necessary that they too must be treated as like the other disease carrying patients and make them normalise their dementiatic status. This research paper is just about the same that how and by what measures that normalising nature can be brought in the care giving homes for dementia patients. It is important that these patients must hold their commonness in their identities and maintain their dignities (sciencedirect.com, 2017). There are some rules that stops or avoids the care givers to follow some situational rules to just prevent them from stigmatising their behaviour with the dementia patients.

2. Research Background

This research is conducted to prepare a conceptual framework that how the patients with dement can be treated like other normal patients. The rules and regulations set by the World Health Organisation (WHO) have always promoted the normalisations of the patients with dementia and have held it as an important part to look after and focus on (Glas et. al. 2018). The research have topics such as normalisation of dementia patients and commonness among the professional care giving workers which are very common topics to research on dementia caring. This dementia topic have always been discussed about how to give proper care and what measures can be taken to give comfort to the dementia patients and in this course the care givers unintentionally just differentiates the dementia patients from the other patients which impacts the dementia patients’ mental status (Jia et. al. 2019). They when asked always said that they were separated by the other patients and this makes them feel lone sometimes or not a normal person in the society.

This research is highlighting that norms and rules which will bring back that loneliness of the dementia patients to mix them again with the other ordinary people. This reconnecting can be done if certain behavioural attitudes and nature can be followed by the health centre care givers (Kim et. al. 2020). The dementia patients need to normalise themselves with the other people along with accepting their mental state and showing that it does not make them different from others. This will also somehow help them to get better in their treatment since the feeling of being treated as a normal other person will bring more confidence to them and slowly with good care it might be possible that they get cured fully. This research was important to conduct to bring out the necessity of the topic so that people can get to know the effect and importance of ordinariness in dementia patients. Ordinariness can be brought through the social, fundamental, cultural and practical significances of the ordinariness in the everyday life of the dementia patients (Leung et. al. 2020). This approach has less connection with the individual cognition and more with the social practices and behavioural consciences.

3. Research Aim

The aim of this research work is to promote the ordinariness and maintain the commonness as an essential element of the dementia mental status caring. Also this aims at focusing on the care giving professional practices which helps in supporting by enabling the dementia diagnosed people for successfully constituting the normal and ordinary daily life activities (De Giorgio Lourenço et. al. 2020). In case of people diagnosed with dementia, it has been a central topic in the sociological research environment about the normalisation and ordinariness in the care giving behaviour to the patients as per the best knowledge of this research conduction. The research paper here, aims at creating and suggesting a theoretical framework which can be helpful in describing and discussing that how and when the care giving workers can follow the framework to deal with the dementia patients in order to maintain the social and behavioural commonness among the people (Dieste et. al. 2019).

This research writing aims at targeting to make ordinariness and commonness as a normal part of dementia acre as informed by the researchers. As suggested by Faulkner and Faulkner (2018), it puts the emphasis on creating the valuable importance of all the organised functional care giving activities as an integral part of dementia care routine. Basically this ordinariness about which this research has been conducted is a practice such as the social ordinariness which is not metaphysical but rather than it is empirically and observably accessible. The term ordinariness or commonness is that setting where the identities and activities are experienced as common within everyone without biasness. It is a well-known and an unexceptional practice and also the person’s ability to behave normally in situations where appropriate manners are needed (Friesen et. al. 2017). So this paper aims at targeting firstly to conduct an examination about how to adopt the professional practices and establish them in a frame of behavioural ordinariness and along with that secondly it will reveal the need or importance to maintain the ordinariness or commonness in specially the case of a dementia care giving setting by the professional care givers.

4. Research Methodological approach

This research about ordinariness among dementia care giving article is based on the data collected from the fieldwork that is being carried out in a specific caregiving centre ward at the Norwegian care home for the patients who are diagnosed with dementia. The methodological approaches in social and health care research have been of two categories – qualitative and quantitative for analysing and understanding the phenomena which undergoes in the whole process during the research study (biomedcentral.com, 2017). The most considered methodological approach is the quantitative approach where on the other hand the qualitative approach is the one which is east considered while doing research study. The primary elements of the qualitative methodological approach are those objects of study which are mainly constituted by the emotions, beliefs, perceptions, circular process of the constructed knowledge, non-random purpose sampling and rigorous methodological process throughout the whole research procedure (Brockway et. al. 2017). The qualitative approach is gained from the quality based data collection and designing of the research process to get a qualitative consistency of the results. The qualitative methodological approach gathers the information and data that are they key to facilitate the understanding of the entire critical points, perspectives, barriers, and also facilitates the transitional procedure of the health care system.

This research study will be valuing the qualitative methodology more than the quantitative approach since health care is a topic which is very critical and delicate to handle. This research study has been designed in such a way that the transition of the health care servicing methods and care giving behaviours from children to the middle age to the older dementia patients are covered (Connolly et. al. 2018). The target of this research methodology is to bring out he work and contribution that is poured into the study of the methodological information gathered and knowledge accessed about the qualitative research in case of the health care services and behaviour of the health care giving professionals with patients having dementia. The data and information collected for this research work are based on the feelings of the patients and professionals, perspectives of care of both the sides, what care with dignity means to both the dementia patients and care givers, meaning of commonness and ordinariness to both the participants and other behavioural traits (biomedcentral.com, 2020).

5. Research Data collection method/ tools

Since, the methodological approach used for this research is qualitative based so the data collected or gathered are also qualitative in their nature. This research article is prepared on the basis of the information piled up from the real field work activities which are accomplished in a ward of a care home, specifically at the Norwegian care home which was a specialised ward for the people having dementia (Adler et al. 2017). The data collected from there was on the basis on the experiences and the study was lasted for approximately about six weeks. The data collected methods used in this research article are such as evidences built up on the video recording proofs, notes that the participants made by taking and surveying both the patients and care givers there, observations of the participants, formal and informal conversations with the care home managers and other authorities, notes of the experience conversations of the care professionals, in-depth interviews with the patients and professionals and inspection notes from the daily care giving activities & functions (Ardi et al. 2020). The total duration of all these studies and examining on the ground level lasted for about six weeks. Mainly daytime was the duration when the scrutiny was conducted since that is the correct time to get everybody on hand but sometimes evening shifts were utilised for the data collection.

The notes and reflections were fully unstructured and real time which took place around the open public areas of that specific ward. The functional activities and duties about the dementia care giving to the patients were collected as verbal conversations in recorded audio tapes and also few photographs during the care giving on-duty hours and off-duty responsibilities were gathered (biomedcentral.com, 2017). To start the noting procedure first of all a questionnaire have been prepared according to which all the questions were asked and the noted down. In order to reduce mistakes and negative effects, the notes were written down then and there immediately just after monitoring the activities.

6. Research Data analysis and presentation

The analysis process of this research article is done on the basis of the physical interviews taken of the care giving professionals and the patients themselves. The interviews were performed keeping an idea in mind that the interview chat session is purely a discourse in between the interviewee and the interviewer (Ardi et. al. 2020). The analysis must follow certain rules to gather the data and present them in the research article –

During the interviews the meaning of the questions asked to the interviewee are purely contextual to the contributions that are made grounded and jointly constructed as per the respondent and the interviewer’s comfort during the chat session.

The questions prepared for the analysis session must be clear and fixed in in their nature and meaning. So that when answering the respondent must not feel uncomfortable with the wordings used in the questions (biomedcentral.com, 2017).

Some of the features of the questionnaire like the change in the pitch of the questions, tone of the interviewer’s voice and the sound volume must appear presentable and adequate (Brockway et. at. 2017).

The initial step if the data analysis is to first hear the recorded tapes and read the whole noted texts, so that a naïve understanding can be acquired about what the texts are.

This short, clear and naïve reading of all the texts of all the areas covered helps in getting motivated for the further evaluation and exploration of the overall concept matter (biomedcentral.com, 2017).

The first step mainly presents the speaking expressions of the care giving professionals, the dementia patients and the nurses of those patients. The interview was later transcribed verbally into a transcription in itself including the features of speech and expression (Connolly et. al. 2018).

The second step is to compose a structural analytical base to achieve the reading, sorting and comparing the meaningful unit schemes of each area.

At the final stage, the analysis of all the involved thematic sections were integrated and interpreted into a credible analytical result.

7. Research Sample

The research sample is that interference which utilises the statistical methods or tools that are specifically based on the probability of the theories. Basically sampling is that tool which gives the permission to the researcher in infers all the required information about a certain population or community or category depending upon the results without having investigation of every individual (Tarcan et al. 2017). The sampling of this research paper includes in itself all those participants i.e. the nurses for sharing their experiences about the care giving, the patients and their testimonies about their feeling and the care giving setting’s authorities who maintains the care stings and look after activities. The sampling process determinants are –

Nurses’ testimonials who works in the day shifts and evening shifts but the night shift personnel are excluded of that Norwegian care giving home from where the data collection have been done (Adler et. al. 2017).

The recorded tapes, the open-ended interviews which are unstructured and unplanned are conducted during the time intervention process.

The interviews were believed to be intervening and repeated but then they facilitated the increasing ability of them to verbalise all their experiences of their caring for people history of the dementia patients.

The sampling of this research paper also includes thee testimonies and interviews of the patients’ family members who are suffering from dementia (Vom Brocke et. at. 202). Their interviews presented that perception of the patient’s family about the care giving homes, the care takers and their rules and regulations.

The experiences of the care homes’ authorities runs the overall functions were also included since they are the responsible person for preparing and formulating the rules of that health care centre and how the patients with dementia specifically will be treated (Whittlestone et. al. 2019).

Another sampling element is the nursing practices that were applied and adopted with the context of the dementia patients since they are separated from the other patients so specific normalising and ordinariness is must in the practices.

8. Research Ethical considerations

Ethical considerations in dementia health care setting, always faces difficulties in making decisions each and every single day. The care givers of the care home settings have to imply balance in between the needs of all those multiple dementia and other patients residing in the care homes according to their living, medical confidentialities, potential, risks and benefits. All these decisions are taken considering some of the approaches in context with caring people. These approaches are like –

Beneficence and kindness – The term beneficence is a natural act of kindness which means that in health care settings, the providing of extensive care to the best interest of the dementia patients. According to Sloan and Quan-Haase (2017), this decisive beneficence or kindness is the same decision which is made regardless of who the patients are their caste, race and gender. This ethic is closely relevant with the concept of “no harm” to the patients while taking care of them in the care homes.

Equity and fairness – While treating the patients whether having dementia or any other disease they all need equal care and support for their care giving. The people with dementia are vulnerable at their position where they need extra care with equal behaviour among all of them (springer.com, 2017).

Well-being and anatomy – Anatomy is basically the right of a person to take decisions of his/her own healthcare decisions and about other things in life too (Stevens et. at. 2019). It is necessary that a patient must be made aware of the truths and medication and treatment details of them so that they can at least take their own decisions.

Veracity – Veracity is that truthfulness that comes when someone is talking with any patient having dementia and that interaction must be ethical concerning about the well-being of that person with dementia. In case of dementia care givers, there needed to be added the consideration of telling the truth to the dementia patients (springer.com, 2018).

9. Research Main Findings

After the research data collection and then analysing them, there some of the findings were obtained from the whole research process till now and that findings are the main understandings that one can get from the overall phenomena that took place regarding the dementia patients are like –

Normalising and creating an ordinariness filled environment is the most valuable and effective thing to do in the case of dementia patients. They themselves always feel that they are different because the society always behaves differently with them. So the first thing needed is to normalise and make the situations and behaviour of the care givers in the care homes normal. Here normal can be sad as that normal behaviour which the care givers give to every other patients in that care home whatever disease he/she is suffering from (biomedcentral.com, 2017). So the dementia patients also just need that much care first so that they don’t feel different from other or neglected in their case.

Active participation in daily courses of the dementia ward and making a social and personal identity is required for the dementia patients to be more confident. In case of dementia, the patients since is dependent on the care givers totally for every small things to do or to want (sciencedirect.com, 2017). This makes them lack of confidence, so this active membership in socialising and making their own new identity will work for them as magic because it will also help in their treatment. A dementia suffering patient if regains the old confidence then it will definitely affect their treatment positively and boost energy in them for at least trying to do all their works on their own.

A care giver in a care home must acquire this quality first that how and by what techniques they are emphasising on involving all the residents of the care givers guide towards self-improvement and self-motivation (biomedcentral.com, 2020). Dementia patients are already don’t have that courage in them that they can think of doing something on their own because of their mental health status. For doing every small thing they need someone to help or make them do that thing. That is why it has been necessary that those patients must be guided towards doing something on their own.

10. Research Conclusions and recommendations

This research paper was done on the basis of the survey that was conducted on the dementia ward of the Norwegian care home with the aim of getting a detailed knowledge about what process is performed while taking care of the dementia patients, what care is taken for them, how they are treated and what improvements can be done to make the care giving service better. The betterment is needed in the old care giving process such as encouraging the patients to participate in various social activities, giving them moral boost which heals mental disorders very soon, make things ordinary for them and ordinary seems to be that behavioural change which the care givers must bring in tem to normalise the socially created differentiation among various patients (De Giorgio Lourenço et. al. 2020). All these if acquired by the authorities in their rule and regulations can bring huge change in a positive manner and also will increase the rapid health improvements in the patients. In case of mental disorders, a patient loses their will power, confidence and social presence in them. So the recommendation can be like:

The main signs of dementia are the behaviour and expressive changes and dis-functioning which can also be termed in the medical term as biomedical condition. So the cure can also be done using the expressive and behavioural traits, from which the two most usual and effective are creating ordinariness in the living surrounding of the patient in care homes and along with that normalising in the behaviour of the care givers and nurses towards the patients (Brockway et. al. 2017). So that they can’t feel that they are different and unable to mix up with the others in the society.

Implication of the concept of social science theory where the experience of the cognitive disabled either mentally or physically are on focus to make them contribute more expansively despite their dementia status. This concept can be applied within the care homes since its main motive is to integrate the other social world environment with the dementia patient’s inside the care home environment and combining both to develop physical and mental capacities and cure the impairments by nurturing the commonness among them (Whittlestone et. al. 2019).

11. Research Strengths and limitations

Every research paper is done to gain the set motive which was determined during the overall process but along with that research article reveals certain strengths or benefits and some negative points i.e. the limitations also during the research process completion. The strengths are those points which say what is good in the research and the limitations shows what obstacle the reach execution. Here also in this dementia patient related, research also some strengths and limitations were obtained during the reach procedure –

Strengths

It described how the patients feel through the interviews with them which the research was needed. It showed the true feelings of the dementia patients when they were treated whether by the care givers and the society differently.

Dementia caring is a delicate approach which needs balance on both sides whether that is the nurses or the patients (Marques et. al. 2019). So there needs to be applied the interpretative approach so that the patients can get a high quality dynamic nursing care and simultaneously the nurses or care givers also must experience an improved and well-being everyday work of their routine.

Limitations

Taking interviews with the care givers and nurses was quite a little time taking so many of them were not able to spare their time for the research questionnaires due to their working hours and shift timings so many of them left out to participate in this work.

Asking the patients about their experiences was quite tough because each of the patient reacted differently and each have their own story and since it is an extensive delicate disorder so the interview pattern, voice one question type and word meanings needs to be restricted protecting the sentiments.

12. Research Application to practice

This research included some approaches regarding the patients having dementia and the nurses and care givers of the care homes, specially the Norwegian care home where this research have been conducted. All these approaches are helpful in any way. So after analysis, it can be said that the approaches which were suggested in this research, if applied, can be proved to great help in this whole care giving procedure in healthcare settings.

Ordinariness and normalisation of behaviour and surroundings in the care homes, especially around the dementia wards is a must to implicate since this will help them in regaining that confidence in them and will also affect positively on the treatment process (sciencedirect.com, 2017). Application of this approach will be contributing in making a better and sound environment in health care settings.

The interdependency approach between the nurse and care givers and the patient is that approach where there exits a course of action which are intertwined shared with in each other. This helps in improving the intra-personal and the inter-personal relationship system in the care home activities. This approach if applied can be helpful to improve the relationship between the dementia patients and their personal care givers.

During the interpretation of this research article revealed the findings that the phenomenological-hermeneutic approach of interpretation in the care settings should be applied to get a definite knowledge and information while the research course is going on (springer.com, 2018). The findings that were revealed during the research process adds new aspects to the previously done findings that allows to increase the awareness among the nurses and supporting them to protect and preserve their high quality care services in the health care settings.

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The methodological consideration approaches used in this research finding can be applied in the care settings. These considerations presents the risks which exists in the lack of in-depth interviews conducted with the nurses. Their reflections are based on the practices which they follow, arises the problems. So this approach is helpful in pointing out the deficiencies in the care settings.

Conclusion

The assignment is a research article which is prepared on the basis of the care settings in the healthcare centres. For conducting this research the population selected for collecting data was selected the Norwegian care home where the research is done focusing on the patients having dementia. The sampling of this research paper includes in itself all those participants i.e. the nurses for sharing their experiences about the care giving, the patients and their testimonies about their feeling and the care giving setting’s authorities who maintains the care stings and look after activities. The findings of this research revealed that normalising and creating an ordinariness filled environment is the most valuable and effective thing to do in the case of dementia patients. Asking the patients about their experiences was quite tough because each of the patient reacted differently and each have their own story and since it is an extensive delicate disorder so the interview pattern, voice one question type and word meanings needs to be restricted protecting the sentiments. The decisive beneficence or kindness is the same decision which is made regardless of who the patients are their caste, race and gender. This research paper focus on every detailed aspect of the dementia patients’ care in the healthcare settings.

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Appendices
Qualitative data collection methods/ tools Determinants of a health care Qualitative research proposal
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