Significance of Electrocardiogram in Person-Centered Care

ECG:

Electrocardiogram or ECG is an important medical test that is carried out while providing person-centred care to patients (Reading et al. 2018). In the case of Edith, ECG is an important health assessment test that enables doctors to determine the sign of heart disease of myocardial infarction. This is one of the first tests, which is crucial for Edith to determine her heart’s function. ECG is the crucial primary step of conducting an effective health assessment that will help physicians to check the current functionality of Edith's heart thereby setting a relevant and holistic care plan to support the health needs of Edith.

Respiratory Ax:

Respiratory Ax ore respiratory assessment is another important health assessment process that needs to be done in the case of Edith to check her breathing condition (Schumacher et al. 2018). In this context, physicians can use the ABCDE Health assessment process which will enable them to check the airways, breathing function, circulation, disability and exposure to drugs. For Edith, different respiratory tests can be conducted such as spirometer, HRCT test and pulse oximeters test to check the breathing rate, oxygen saturation, lungs capacity and any infection in the lungs

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Skin Ax :

As Edith suffers from a lower leg lesion, skin Ax is important for her to conduct the histological ad pathophysiological examination of their skill lesion (Colwell et al. 2018). for providing person-centred care to Edith it is important to assess the size and shape of the injury, the exudate discharge and any infection at the lesion.

Mini cognitive assessment:

Mini cognitive assessment is crucial for Edith which will help health professionals to determine her psychological and emotional state. Through conducting cognitive criteria aptitude test (CCAT), health professionals can determine the cognitive health of Edith (Koo & Vizer, 2019). In this process, doctors can analyse Edith’s dictions making skills remembering ability, problem-solving skills, self-awareness skills and critical thinking skills.

Mini cognitive assessment Mini cognitive assessment

Question 3:

SPECT (single-photon emission computerised tomography) is used to determine the functions of the specific internal organs (Hampel et al. 2018). Here radioactive substance is used to create the 3D image of internal parts of organs which helps physicians to check whether the organ works properly. SPECT is highly useful in analysing the functions of brain cells thereby determining whether there are any brain-related disorders such as dementia, Alzheimer, clogged blood vessels and head injuries.

For Edith, a definite diagnosis is crucial, as it will assist health professionals to understand the health needs of Edith. Additionally, the definite diagnosis by carrying out SPECT test, doctors can proceed further to start the right treatment and develop the appropriate care plan which is required for the fast recovery of Edith.

Question 4:

Donepezil I used by physicians to treat dementia that is caused due to moderate, mild and severe Alzheimer’s disease (Kourti et al. 2019). Although Donepezil cannot cure Alzheimer disease it manages and slows down the effect of Alzheimer disease on the person. This drug belongs to the cholinesterase inhibitor family. The pathophysiology of Alzheimer disease shows that, in this health condition, there is a deficiency of neurotransmitters, the chemical which is used by nerve cells to communicate with each other. The reduction of neurotransmitters is considered to be associated with the increase of acetylcholinesterase which destroys neurotransmitters. As Edith suffer from dementia due to Alzheimer diseases, the use Donepezil is highly appropriate for her which will inhibit acetylcholinesterase thereby increasing the concentration of neurotransmitter thus improving the brain cells functioning.

Question 5:

Memory is associated with the proper function of brain cells. Neuron or brain cells communicate with each other by a chemical which is known as a neurotransmitter (Li et al. 2019). Through secreting neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft a neuron can connect to the next neuron by activating its receptor to receive the signal from the previous neuron.

In the case of patients with Alzheimer disease-like, Edith, memory loss is the common symptom. The potential reason for Edith to face progressive memory loss is due to the reduction of the neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft which destroys the communication between the brain cells. Brain cell controls memory, thoughts and decision of a person by transmitting the signal through secreting synaptic cleft (Cavedo et al. 2017). But due to Alzheimer disease, there is an increase of acetyl-cholinesterase which interrupt the communication between brain cells by reducing the secretion of neurotransmitter.

Question 6:

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Question 7:

Health care professionals must recommend a person who would e present in the car while Edith drives. This is because of Edith’s safety, the person must guide and help Edith if she forgets the route (Atri, 2019). Health professionals can also contact the local police and social care authority to provide the necessary and immediate support if Edith drives and lost her route or she meets with an accident (Tariot et al. 2018). Health professional can also fit a GPS sensor to Edith’s hand to tract her location thereby guiding her throughout her journey.

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Reference list:

Atri, A. (2019). The Alzheimer’s disease clinical spectrum: Diagnosis and management. Medical Clinics, 103(2), 263-293.

Bature, F., Guinn, B. A., Pang, D., & Pappas, Y. (2017). Signs and symptoms preceding the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease: a systematic scoping review of literature from 1937 to 2016. BMJ open, 7(8), e015746.

Cavedo, E., Grothe, M. J., Colliot, O., Lista, S., Chupin, M., Dormont, D., ... & Hampel, H. (2017). Reduced basal forebrain atrophy progression in a randomized Donepezil trial in prodromal Alzheimer’s disease. Scientific reports, 7(1), 1-10.

Colwell, J.C., Pittman, J., Raizman, R. & Salvadalena, G., (2018). A randomized controlled trial determining variances in ostomy skin conditions and the economic impact (ADVOCATE Trial). Journal of Wound, Ostomy, and Continence Nursing, 45(1), 37.

Frozza, R. L., Lourenco, M. V., & De Felice, F. G. (2018). Challenges for Alzheimer's disease therapy: insights from novel mechanisms beyond memory defects. Frontiers in neuroscience, 12, 37.

Grimaldi, A., Brighi, C., Peruzzi, G., Ragozzino, D., Bonanni, V., Limatola, C., ... & Di Angelantonio, S. (2018). Inflammation, neurodegeneration and protein aggregation in the retina as ocular biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease in the 3xTg-AD mouse model. Cell Death & Disease, 9(6), 1-10.

Hampel, H., Mesulam, M. M., Cuello, A. C., Farlow, M. R., Giacobini, E., Grossberg, G. T., ... & Khachaturian, Z. S. (2018). The cholinergic system in the pathophysiology and treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Brain, 141(7), 1917-1933.

Jack Jr, C. R., Bennett, D. A., Blennow, K., Carrillo, M. C., Dunn, B., Haeberlein, S. B., ... & Silverberg, N. (2018). NIA‐AA research framework: toward a biological definition of Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer's & Dementia, 14(4), 535-562.

Koo, B.M. & Vizer, L.M., (2019). Mobile technology for cognitive assessment of older adults: a scoping review. Innovation in aging, 3(1), p.igy038.

Kourtis, L. C., Regele, O. B., Wright, J. M., & Jones, G. B. (2019). Digital biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease: the mobile/wearable devices opportunity. NPJ digital medicine, 2(1), 1-9.

Lanctôt, K. L., Amatniek, J., Ancoli-Israel, S., Arnold, S. E., Ballard, C., Cohen-Mansfield, J., ... & Boot, B. (2017). Neuropsychiatric signs and symptoms of Alzheimer's disease: New treatment paradigms. Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions, 3(3), 440-449.

Li, D.D., Zhang, Y.H., Zhang, W. & Zhao, P., (2019) Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials on the efficacy and safety of donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine, and memantine for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Frontiers in neuroscience, 13, .472.

Rasmussen, J., & Langerman, H. (2019). Alzheimer’s disease–why we need early diagnosis. Degenerative neurological and neuromuscular disease, 9, 123.

Reading, M., Baik, D., Beauchemin, M., Hickey, K.T. & Merrill, J.A., (2018). Factors influencing sustained engagement with ECG self-monitoring: perspectives from patients and health care providers. Applied clinical informatics, 9(04), .772-781.

Schumacher, C., Lackey, C., Mitchell, L., Sinha, S.K. & Costa, A.P., (2018). A chronic Disease Management intervention for Home care Patients with cardio-respiratory symptoms: the DiVert-cAre intervention. Canadian Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 28(3).

Tariot, P. N., Lopera, F., Langbaum, J. B., Thomas, R. G., Hendrix, S., Schneider, L. S., ... & Alzheimer's Prevention Initiative. (2018). The Alzheimer's Prevention Initiative Autosomal-Dominant Alzheimer's Disease Trial: A study of crenezumab versus placebo in preclinical PSEN1 E280A mutation carriers to evaluate efficacy and safety in the treatment of autosomal-dominant Alzheimer's disease, including a placebo-treated noncarrier cohort. Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions, 4, 150-160.

Wallace, L. M., Theou, O., Godin, J., Andrew, M. K., Bennett, D. A., & Rockwood, K. (2019). Investigation of frailty as a moderator of the relationship between neuropathology and dementia in Alzheimer's disease: a cross-sectional analysis of data from the Rush Memory and Aging Project. The Lancet Neurology, 18(2), 177-184.

Weintraub, S., Carrillo, M. C., Farias, S. T., Goldberg, T. E., Hendrix, J. A., Jaeger, J., ... & Randolph, C. (2018). Measuring cognition and function in the preclinical stage of Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions, 4, 64-75.

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