Technological Advances in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Why might a researcher want to use a spin echo planar image, over a standard echo planar image in a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)?

The obtaining of individual Magnetic Resonance slices within a time frame of 50-100 msec has been made possible through the technology advances in gradient and digital data. Patient motion is eventually minimized in the process (Katti et al, 2011).

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Echo- planar images are obtained as a result of either single or multiple RF-excitation shots. This has been expanded to constitute either the spin- echo sequence or the gradient echo sequence in which the space measured is traversed in either one or an even smaller number of excitations. Pairs of RF pulses produce the spin echo image. A single RF pulse, together with a gradient reversal result into a gradient echo.

The Spin echo imaging in functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging has a number of advantages compared to the standard echo planar image:

Greater multisection capability and decreased motion sensitivity is a general advantage associated with echo planar imaging.

Because spin echo imaging is as a resultant of pairs of radiofrequency pulses, the spin echo image has a generally longer echo time (TE). This results into a much more comprehensive reading of the findings.

Spin echo imaging does not only limit itself to focusing on spins that have been dephased by the gradient action. The shifts in phase from the magnetic field, the static tissue susceptibility gradients or the shifts in chemical composition are ultimately cancelled in Spin echo sequences. As a result, spin echo images are not troubled by the chemical shifts and susceptibility (Wagner et al, 2017).

This method of fMRI offers major advantages in its clinical applications. The capabilities of the process significantly open up fields in medical and laboratory research fields. The same notably causes reduced imaging time as the results are obtained in microseconds. The use of a spin echo planar image also increases the patient throughput while reducing the motion artifact. This availability significantly benefits the general radiologist, hence its preference compared to the standard echo planar image (Poustchi- Amin et al, 2001).

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References

Katti G., Arshiya S., Shireen A (2011) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)- A Review. Vol 3, No 1

Poustchi- Amin M., Morowitz S., Brown J., McKinstry R (2001) Principles and Applications of Echo- Planar Imaging: A Review for the General Radiologist. Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology

Wagner M., Besa C., Ayache J., Yasar T., Bane O., Fung M., Ehman R., Taouli B (2017) MR Elastography of the liver: Qualitative and quantitative comparison of gradient echo and spin echo echoplanar imaging sequences. Invest Radiol. PMC

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